A computing platform or digital platform is the environment in which a piece of software is executed. It may be the hardware or the operating system a web browser and associated application programming interfaces, or other underlying software, as long as the program code is executed with it. Computing platforms have different abstraction levels, including a computer architecture, an OS, or runtime libraries. A computing platform is the stage. A platform can be seen both as a constraint on the software development process, in that different platforms provide different functionality and restrictions. For example, an OS may be a platform that abstracts the underlying differences in hardware and provides a generic command for saving files or accessing the network. Platforms may include: Hardware alone, in the case of small embedded systems. Embedded systems can access hardware directly, without an OS. A browser in the case of web-based software; the browser itself runs on a hardware+OS platform, but this is not relevant to software running within the browser.
An application, such as a spreadsheet or word processor, which hosts software written in an application-specific scripting language, such as an Excel macro. This can be extended to writing fully-fledged applications with the Microsoft Office suite as a platform. Software frameworks. Cloud computing and Platform as a Service. Extending the idea of a software framework, these allow application developers to build software out of components that are hosted not by the developer, but by the provider, with internet communication linking them together; the social networking sites Twitter and Facebook are considered development platforms. A virtual machine such as the Java virtual machine or. NET CLR. Applications are compiled into a format similar to machine code, known as bytecode, executed by the VM. A virtualized version of a complete system, including virtualized hardware, OS, storage; these allow, for instance, a typical Windows program to run on. Some architectures have multiple layers, with each layer acting as a platform to the one above it.
In general, a component only has to be adapted to the layer beneath it. For instance, a Java program has to be written to use the Java virtual machine and associated libraries as a platform but does not have to be adapted to run for the Windows, Linux or Macintosh OS platforms. However, the JVM, the layer beneath the application, does have to be built separately for each OS. AmigaOS, AmigaOS 4 FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD IBM i Linux Microsoft Windows OpenVMS Classic Mac OS macOS OS/2 Solaris Tru64 UNIX VM QNX z/OS Android Bada BlackBerry OS Firefox OS iOS Embedded Linux Palm OS Symbian Tizen WebOS LuneOS Windows Mobile Windows Phone Binary Runtime Environment for Wireless Cocoa Cocoa Touch Common Language Infrastructure Mono. NET Framework Silverlight Flash AIR GNU Java platform Java ME Java SE Java EE JavaFX JavaFX Mobile LiveCode Microsoft XNA Mozilla Prism, XUL and XULRunner Open Web Platform Oracle Database Qt SAP NetWeaver Shockwave Smartface Universal Windows Platform Windows Runtime Vexi Ordered from more common types to less common types: Commodity computing platforms Wintel, that is, Intel x86 or compatible personal computer hardware with Windows operating system Macintosh, custom Apple Inc. hardware and Classic Mac OS and macOS operating systems 68k-based PowerPC-based, now migrated to x86 ARM architecture based mobile devices iPhone smartphones and iPad tablet computers devices running iOS from Apple Gumstix or Raspberry Pi full function miniature computers with Linux Newton devices running the Newton OS from Apple x86 with Unix-like systems such as Linux or BSD variants CP/M computers based on the S-100 bus, maybe the earliest microcomputer platform Video game consoles, any variety 3DO Interactive Multiplayer, licensed to manufacturers Apple Pippin, a multimedia player platform for video game console development RISC processor based machines running Unix variants SPARC architecture computers running Solaris or illumos operating systems DEC Alpha cluster running OpenVMS or Tru64 UNIX Midrange computers with their custom operating systems, such as IBM OS/400 Mainframe computers with their custom operating systems, such as IBM z/OS Supercomputer architectures Cross-platform Platform virtualization Third platform Ryan Sarver: What is a platform
Isabella Valentine called Ivy, is a fictional character in the Soulcalibur series of video games. Created by Namco's Project Soul division, she first appeared in the original Soulcalibur and its subsequent sequels appearing in various merchandise related to the series, she was voiced in Japanese by Yumi Tōma between Soulcalibur and Soulcalibur III, Kanako Tōjō between Soulcalibur Legends and Soulcalibur: Broken Destiny, Miyuki Sawashiro in Soulcalibur V, Soulcalibur VI. The illegitimate daughter of undead pirate Cervantes de Leon, Ivy was raised by a noble family until her father became obsessed with the cursed sword, Soul Edge, leading to his death and her mother's. Desiring to destroy the sword, she creates a segmented, animated viscous blade-whip, only to become Soul Edge's pawn and learn that it intends to use her as its next host. After an attack by Cervantes results in the loss of her soul, Ivy uses a temporary artificial one to keep herself alive, continues after the blade. Since her introduction, Ivy has been well received, considered both an attractive and strong female character by various sources.
She has been included on various countdown lists regarding sexy video game characters. Some have examined the character in the context of the series and video games in general, as well as when compared to other video game related sex symbols such as Lara Croft, her role as a sex symbol has been discussed by said sources and the media, as some argued that her appearance goes "too far" while others felt it helps to define her character. As a character introduced in Soulcalibur, Ivy's signature weapon, a "snake sword" designed to be unique amongst the other weapons in the game, was selected before other elements of the character, her design and concept were built to revolve around it, starting with gender physical measurements, lastly background details. After her appearance and movement were fleshed out by a concept artist, her character was rendered as a 3D model by a design team that worked on her, animated by Naotake Hirata using motion capture to create her in-game movements, with Yasushi Shibue designing the animations for her throws, several animations created without the use of motion capture for positions difficult for the actors.
During this phase the team additionally worked with the Soulcalibur story creators, refining the character's own role in the plot as needed throughout development. During development many alternatives for Ivy's design were considered, including a male ninja, a mummy, a little girl, while the weapon remained constant, varying only in size. With Soulcalibur II, the development team chose her as their favorite character from the previous title. Producer Hiroaki Yotoriyama felt that her fighting style was not expressed in Soulcalibur, focused on Ivy from the start of the project to make her more "uniquely lethal". Namco has called Ivy one of the three most popular characters in the series in North American markets, alongside Taki and Nightmare. Soulcalibur V producer Hisaharu Tago emphasized this as a reason for the character's inclusion for the game, additionally citing her fighting style and role in the game's storyline. Ivy appears as a large busted woman with short, white hair. A bluish-purple leotard covers her torso and arms, with patches of the fabric removed to expose her cleavage and various parts of her abdomen.
Similar leggings cover her legs midway below her thighs, connected to the leotard by garters at golden metal bands at their peak. A sleeve of the same material covers her right arm and hand, while armor covers her left arm and shoulder. A smaller pauldron covers her right shoulder, while high heels cover her feet, a white glove covers her right hand; the left shoulder pauldron incorporates the Tudor Rose, a traditional heraldic symbol of England, while the plates of the armor were designed to resemble the links of her sword. A mask covering the right side of her face and eye were considered but abandoned after the initial character concept. While her design has been altered as the series has progressed, the concept has remained consistent throughout the series, with the exception of the removal of the glove in designs. Ivy stands 1.79 m tall, making her the series' tallest female character, with a bust measurement of 100 cm the bustiest, though this was an aspect that the developers felt they had overdone by her appearance in Soulcalibur IV.
Ivy's alternate character designs in the games are a contrast to her primary designs, with the secondary from Soulcalibur to Soulcalibur III consisting of countess attire of either blue or red pants and jacket, with white boots covering her feet and her hair combed back. In Soulcalibur II, a tertiary alternate design was added consisting of a red leotard and gloves with gold trimming, with red stockings on her legs. In Soulcalibur III, a long, rose-themed dress with hat and veil was used as a tertiary alternate, one of several considered designs. For Soulcalibur IV, a themed black dress was used as her sole alternate design for the game; some versions of the original Soulcalibur arcade game censored Ivy's default costume by covering her bare skin with a lavender catsuit. With Soulcalibur IV, Ivy's look on the promotional artwork was modified on the English website to hide her undercleavage, leading to suspicion of censorship in the American release
Dead or Alive (franchise)
Dead or Alive is a fighting video game series produced by Tecmo and developed by Team Ninja. It is composed of fast-paced 3D fighting games that begun with the original Dead or Alive in 1996. DOA is the creation of Tomonobu Itagaki, who has since left the company and is no longer working on the series which continues without him. In addition to its countering-based play system, the franchise is arguably most known for its female characters; this aspect of the series' popularity led to the creation of the spin-off game Dead or Alive Xtreme Beach Volleyball and its sequels, where the females and their sex appeal play a more focal role than it does in the core Dead or Alive series. A live action film adaptation DOA: Dead or Alive was released in 2006; the Dead or Alive series focuses on fast-paced gameplay in a three-dimensional playing field. Like other modern fighting games that attempt to emulate real life martial arts, DOA's input system is designed so controls correspond to the game character's actions.
In comparison to others in the fighting game genre, such as Virtua Fighter, the series places emphasis on striking characters and efficiently. There is an emphasis on quick combos and air-juggles since the game's countering system and fast recovery times prevent slow, technical sets of moves in most instances. One of the series' most innovative additions to the genre is its countering system. Beginning with the original Dead or Alive, players could tap the guard button and a direction corresponding with the anticipated attack, which would do a powerful counterattack. Counter holds must be timed and match the direction of the attack being countered; the series controls make the instances of speed and simplicity more congruent with the focus of timing and combos in mind, as the commands for basic attacks are considered more straightforward than most video games. There is only one button for punch, kick and guard, with the player having to combine more than two different input schemes together at a time.
The series uses interactive features that appear in certain fighting arenas, called Danger Zones. Fighters caught in a Danger Zone will take extra damage; these environmental areas can be anything from falls to explosives to breakable structures. If a fighter has low health, being trapped in a Danger Zone is more to knock them out than a normal attack, although in certain titles elements such as falls cannot do this, instead just leave the fighter with low health. Since Dead or Alive 2, the series has implemented its tag team fighting system, allowing characters to switch back and forth for combo attacks and attack when timed correctly; the tag mode included special throws unique to certain pairs of characters and allows for the participation of four players, something not common in the genre. Dead or Alive 3 introduced Attack Change, a new tag system feature where the fighting character can switch places with a partner that can attack while jumping in. Dead or Alive 5 uses a revamped control system and features a more cinematic experience with regards to Danger Zone effects.
Power Blow is a triggered powerful attack that can enable the player, low on health to knock the opponent character away in a selected direction initiating a cinematic quick time event called Cliffhanger. The game's new Critical System features Critical Stuns, Critical Combos, Critical Bursts. There is a strong online component, including a spectator mode. Dead or Alive 5 Ultimate further added an extensive Tutorial mode. In addition to the normal control system, Dead or Alive 5 Plus for the PlayStation Vita features optional touchscreen-based controls from first-person perspective; the spin-off Xtreme series is based around 2-on-2 matches of beach volleyball and casino gambling. After the original Dead or Alive Xtreme Beach Volleyball, the available activities have expanded to include the likes of watercraft racing and beach photography; the Dead or Alive series depicts a collection of skilled martial artists in a worldwide competition named the Dead or Alive tournament. DOATEC, a massive corporation with unknown motives, holds the fighting competition in arenas ranging from the North Pole to the Amazon rain forest.
Dead or Alive, the first game in the series, introduced the initial characters and their reasons for entering the tournament. For example, Zack enters for profit, while Kasumi, a runaway female ninja and the series' main protagonist, enters the tournament to seek revenge against Raidou who crippled her brother Hayate. Kasumi wins the first DOA tournament, however the strict laws of ninja society prevent Kasumi from returning to her village, she becomes a hunted fugitive. Dead or Alive 2 is set less than a year as Tengu threatens the world. Kasumi's brother Hayate injured by Raidou, returns from being a subject in DOATEC's bio-weapon experiment Epsilon. New fighters include Helena Douglas and Leon. Ryu Hayabusa defeats Tengu and wins the tournament; the third game, Dead or Alive 3, takes place shortly after the defeat of Tengu. This game's plot concerns a secret goal of DOATEC's Donovan to produce the ultimate fighter, called the Omega project. Through Epsilon and Alpha stages, DOATEC wipes the ninja Genra's memory, turning him into the vicious Omega.
In the end, Kasumi's half-sister Ayane wins the tournament. The game introduces
Europe is a continent located in the Northern Hemisphere and in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the Mediterranean Sea to the south, it comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Since around 1850, Europe is most considered to be separated from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term "continent" implies physical geography, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several times since its first conception in classical antiquity; the division of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural and ethnic differences which vary on a spectrum rather than with a sharp dividing line. The geographic border does not follow political boundaries, with Turkey and Kazakhstan being transcontinental countries. A strict application of the Caucasus Mountains boundary places two comparatively small countries and Georgia, in both continents.
Europe covers 2 % of the Earth's surface. Politically, Europe is divided into about fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a total population of about 741 million as of 2016; the European climate is affected by warm Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers on much of the continent at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. Further from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast. Europe, in particular ancient Greece, was the birthplace of Western civilization; the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration Period marked the end of ancient history and the beginning of the Middle Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration and science led to the modern era. Since the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. Between the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various times the Americas all of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally and economically from the end of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in Great Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to radical economic and social change in Western Europe and the wider world. Both world wars took place for the most part in Europe, contributing to a decline in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet Union and the United States took prominence. During the Cold War, Europe was divided along the Iron Curtain between NATO in the West and the Warsaw Pact in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall. In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, following a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, with the idea of unifying Europe to achieve common goals, it includes all European states except for Belarus and Vatican City. Further European integration by some states led to the formation of the European Union, a separate political entity that lies between a confederation and a federation.
The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most used among Europeans. In classical Greek mythology, Europa was a Phoenician princess; the word Europe is derived from her name. The name contains the elements εὐρύς, "wide, broad" and ὤψ "eye, countenance", hence their composite Eurṓpē would mean "wide-gazing" or "broad of aspect". Broad has been an epithet of Earth herself in the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European religion and the poetry devoted to it. There have been attempts to connect Eurṓpē to a Semitic term for "west", this being either Akkadian erebu meaning "to go down, set" or Phoenician'ereb "evening, west", at the origin of Arabic Maghreb and Hebrew ma'arav. Michael A. Barry, professor in Princeton University's Near Eastern Studies Department, finds the mention of the word Ereb on an Assyrian stele with the meaning of "night, sunset", in opposition to Asu " sunrise", i.e. Asia.
The same naming motive according to "cartographic convention" appears in Greek Ἀνατολή. Martin Litchfield West stated that "phonologically, the match between Europa's name and any form of the Semitic word is poor." Next to these hypotheses there is a Proto-Indo-European root *h1regʷos, meaning "darkness", which produced Greek Erebus. Most major world languages use words derived from Europa to refer to the continent. Chinese, for example, uses the word Ōuzhōu. In some Turkic languages the Persian name Frangistan is used casually in referring to much of Europe, besides official names such as Avrupa or Evropa; the prevalent definition of Europe as a geographical term has been in use since the mid-19th century. Europe is taken to be bounded by large bodies of water
An arcade game or coin-op game is a coin-operated entertainment machine installed in public businesses such as restaurants and amusement arcades. Most arcade games are video games, pinball machines, electro-mechanical games, redemption games or merchandisers. While exact dates are debated, the golden age of arcade video games is defined as a period beginning sometime in the late 1970s and ending sometime in the mid-1980s. Excluding a brief resurgence in the early 1990s, the arcade industry subsequently declined in the Western hemisphere as competing home video game consoles such as the Sony PlayStation and Microsoft Xbox increased in their graphics and game-play capability and decreased in cost; the first popular "arcade games" included early amusement-park midway games such as shooting galleries, ball-toss games, the earliest coin-operated machines, such as those that claimed to tell a person's fortune or that played mechanical music. The old Midways of 1920s-era amusement parks provided the inspiration and atmosphere for arcade games.
In the 1930s the first coin-operated pinball machines emerged. These early amusement machines differed from their electronic cousins in that they were made of wood, they lacked plungers or lit-up bonus surfaces on the playing field, used mechanical instead of electronic scoring-readouts. By around 1977 most pinball machines in production switched to using solid-state electronics both for operation and for scoring. In 1966 Sega introduced an electro-mechanical game called Periscope - an early submarine simulator and light gun shooter which used lights and plastic waves to simulate sinking ships from a submarine, it became an instant success in Japan and North America, where it was the first arcade game to cost a quarter per play, which would remain the standard price for arcade games for many years to come. In 1967 Taito released an electro-mechanical arcade game of their own, Crown Soccer Special, a two-player sports game that simulated association football, using various electronic components, including electronic versions of pinball flippers.
Sega produced gun games which resemble first-person shooter video games, but which were in fact electro-mechanical games that used rear image projection in a manner similar to the ancient zoetrope to produce moving animations on a screen. The first of these, the light-gun game Duck Hunt, appeared in 1969; that same year, Sega released an electro-mechanical arcade racing game, Grand Prix, which had a first-person view, electronic sound, a dashboard with a racing wheel and accelerator, a forward-scrolling road projected on a screen. Another Sega 1969 release, Missile, a shooter and vehicle-combat simulation, featured electronic sound and a moving film strip to represent the targets on a projection screen, it was the earliest known arcade game to feature a joystick with a fire button, which formed part of an early dual-control scheme, where two directional buttons are used to move the player's tank and a two-way joystick is used to shoot and steer the missile onto oncoming planes displayed on the screen.
In 1970 Midway released the game in North America as S. A. M. I.. In the same year, Sega released Jet Rocket, a combat flight-simulator featuring cockpit controls that could move the player aircraft around a landscape displayed on a screen and shoot missiles onto targets that explode when hit. In the course of the 1970s, following the release of Pong in 1972, electronic video-games replaced electro-mechanical arcade games. In 1972, Sega released an electro-mechanical game called Killer Shark, a first-person light-gun shooter known for appearing in the 1975 film Jaws. In 1974, Nintendo released Wild Gunman, a light-gun shooter that used full-motion video-projection from 16 mm film to display live-action cowboy opponents on the screen. One of the last successful electro-mechanical arcade games was F-1, a racing game developed by Namco and distributed by Atari in 1976; the 1978 video game Space Invaders, dealt a yet more powerful blow to the popularity of electro-mechanical games. In 1971 students at Stanford University set up the Galaxy Game, a coin-operated version of the video game Spacewar.
This ranks as the earliest known instance of a coin-operated video game. In the same year, Nolan Bushnell created the first mass-manufactured game, Computer Space, for Nutting Associates. In 1972, Atari was formed by Ted Dabney. Atari created the coin-operated video game industry with the game Pong, the first successful electronic ping pong video game. Pong proved to be popular, but imitators helped keep Atari from dominating the fledgling coin-operated video game market. Taito's Space Invaders, in 1978, proved to be the first blockbuster arcade video game, its success marked the beginning of the golden age of arcade video games. Video game arcades sprang up in shopping malls, small "corner arcades" appeared in restaurants, grocery stores and movie theaters all over the United States and other countries during the late 1970s and early 1980s. Space Invaders, Pac-Man, Battlezone and Bosconian were popular. By 1981, the arcade video game industry was worth US$8 billion. During the late 1970s and 1980s, chains such as Chuck E.
Cheese's, Ground Round and Busters, ShowBiz Pizza Place and Gatti's Pizza combined
Spawn is a fictional superhero appears in a monthly comic book of the same name published by American company Image Comics. Created by Todd McFarlane, with Tom DeFalco contributing; the character first appeared in Spawn #1. Spawn was ranked 60th on Wizard magazine's list of the Top 200 Comic Book Characters of All Time, 50th on Empire magazine's list of The 50 Greatest Comic Book Characters, 36th on IGN's 2011 Top 100 Comic Book Heroes; the series has spun off several other comics, including Angela, Curse of the Spawn, Sam & Twitch, the Japanese manga Shadows of Spawn. Spawn was adapted into a 1997 feature film and portrayed by Michael Jai White, an HBO animated series lasting from 1997 until 1999, a series of action figures whose high level of detail made McFarlane Toys known in the toy industry; the character appears in annual compilations, miniseries specials written by guest authors and artists, numerous crossover storylines in other comic books. Spawn enjoyed considerable popularity upon its initial release in the 1990s.
Comic book collecting was enjoying a marked upswing at the time, fueled by the speculator boom looking for the next hot book that would jump in value after its release. McFarlane had enjoyed superstar status among comic fans with his work on Spider-Man, which had featured McFarlane's name prominently as both writer and artist. McFarlane's subsequent break with Marvel and the formation of Image Comics was seen by many as a sea-change event, changing the way in which comics were produced. Wizard, in May 2008, rated "The Launch of Image Comics" as #1 in the list of events that rocked the Comic Industry from 1991 to 2008; the first issue of Spawn was popular with sales of 1.7 million copies. During Spawn's second year of publication, Wizard noted that "The top dog at Image is undoubtedly Todd McFarlane's Spawn, without the added marketing push of fancy covers, polybagged issues, or card inserts has become the best-selling comic on a consistent basis, being published." Sales slumped around the time of Spawn #25, but by Spawn #45 it was again a strong seller.
The popularity of the franchise peaked with the 1997 Spawn feature film, the pre-release publicity for which helped make Spawn the top selling comic book for May 1997. However, the film was only a mild commercial success and failed to start a film franchise based on the character. A 2008 issue, Spawn #174, ranked 99th best-selling comic of the month with retail orders of 22,667. In October 2008, issue #185, which marked both a new creative direction and Todd McFarlane's return to the book, sold out at the distribution level and received a second printing. By issue #191 in May 2009, with estimated sales of 19,803 copies, Spawn had dropped below Top 100 titles sold monthly to comic shops as reported by Diamond Comic Distributors; as of August 2010 Spawn no longer was ranked in the top 300 sales figures chart reported by Diamond Comic Distributors. On the day of its release in 2011, issue #200 sold out; this issue featured work by Greg Capullo, David Finch, Michael Golden, Jim Lee, Rob Liefeld, Marc Silvestri, Danny Miki, Ashley Wood.
A second printing was released the next month. It received a negative review from IGN. Albert Francis "Al" Simmons was a trained U. S. Marine Force Recon Lieutenant Colonel and government assassin who at his most successful point saves the U. S. President from an assassination attempt, he is promoted to a high security level and recruited to a classified unit within the CIA devoted to black ops. Once there, he began to question the morality of. Unit director Jason Wynn hires Simmons' friend and partner, to kill him. In a blazing inferno, Simmons is killed and his soul sent to Hell, because he has knowingly killed innocents while working for the CIA. Simmons makes a deal with an evil being known as Malebolgia: in exchange for his soul, he will get to see once again his wife, Wanda. However, when Simmons returns to the human world, five years have passed and he has been transformed into a demonic creature with little memory of his former life. After regaining his memories, he seeks out his wife, only to find she has moved on and is married to his best friend, Terry Fitzgerald, that they now have a daughter named Cyan.
After this event, the Violator appears, reveals to Simmons the purpose of his resurrection. They fight. In his early battles, Spawn faces street thugs and gangs, becoming a dark and brutal antihero, culminating in the brutal murder of a pedophile and child murderer named Billy Kincaid; as a result, he gains the attention of the detective duo of Twitch Williams. It is around this time that Spawn becomes "King of Rat City", a gathering of alleys where bums and the homeless live. There he meets the bum Cogliostro, who seems to know much more about Spawn than he first lets on, becomes his mentor. Spawn is hunted by the warrior angel, who hunts Hellspawns for sport, battles the cyborg mob enforcer Overt-Kill; this confrontation kills Spawn, but he is able to emerge victorious. He is again hunted by Angela and fights the angelic warrior, Anti-Spawn a.k.a. the Redeemer, who was, in fact, Jason Wynn. After a confrontation with the Redeemer, Spawn's suit became more advanced, its new cape and chains were able to shape shift into different things to confuse his opponents.
The cape now looked torn, the costume had lost its red glow, having evolved to what is now black and white. Spawn's boots and gloves had changed, having been replaced with spikes. Spawn used his new equipment to slash off the Redeemer's hand and defeat h
A fighting game is a video game genre in which the player controls an on-screen character and engages in close combat with an opponent, which can be either an AI or controlled by another player. The fight matches consist of several rounds and take place in an arena, while each character has differing abilities but each is viable to choose. Players must master techniques such as blocking, counter-attacking, chaining attacks together into "combos". Starting in the early 1990s, most fighting games allowed the player to execute special attacks by performing specific input combinations; the fighting game genre is related to but distinct from beat'em ups, which involve large numbers of enemies against the human player. The first game to feature fist fighting was Heavyweight Champ in 1976, but it was Karate Champ which popularized one-on-one martial arts games in arcades in 1984; the following year, Yie Ar Kung-Fu featured antagonists with differing fighting styles, while The Way of the Exploding Fist further popularized the genre on home systems.
In 1987, Street Fighter introduced hidden special attacks. In 1991, Capcom's successful Street Fighter II refined and popularized many of the conventions of the genre; the fighting game subsequently became the preeminent genre for competitive video gaming in the early to mid-1990s in arcades. This period spawned dozens of other popular fighting games, including successful and long running franchises like Street Fighter, Mortal Kombat, Guilty Gear, The King of Fighters, Virtua Fighter, Marvel vs. Capcom, Killer Instinct, Dead or Alive and SoulCalibur. Fighting games are a type of action game; these games feature special moves that are triggered using rapid sequences of timed button presses and joystick movements. Games traditionally show fighters from a side-view as the genre has progressed from two-dimensional to three-dimensional graphics. Street Fighter II, though not the first fighting game and standardized the conventions of the genre, similar games released prior to Street Fighter II have since been more explicitly classified as fighting games.
Fighting games involve hand-to-hand combat, but may feature melee weapons. This genre is distinct from beat'em ups, another action genre involving combat, where the player character must fight many weaker enemies at the same time. During the 1980s publications used the terms "fighting game" and "beat'em up" interchangeably, along with other terms such as "martial arts simulation". With hindsight, critics have argued that the two types of game became dichotomous as they evolved, though the two terms may still be conflated. Fighting games are sometimes grouped with games that feature boxing, wrestling. Serious boxing games belong more to the sports game genre than the action game genre, as they aim for a more realistic model of boxing techniques, whereas moves in fighting games tend to be either exaggerated or outright fantastical models of Asian martial arts techniques; as such, boxing games, mixed martial arts games, wrestling games are described as distinct genres, without comparison to fighting games, belong more into the Sports game genre.
Fighting games involve combat between pairs of fighters using exaggerated martial arts moves. They revolve around brawling or combat sport, though some variations feature weaponry. Games display on-screen fighters from a side view, 3D fighting games play within a 2D plane of motion. Games confine characters to moving left and right and jumping, although some games such as Fatal Fury: King of Fighters allow players to move between parallel planes of movement. Recent games tend to be rendered in three dimensions and allow side-stepping, but otherwise play like those rendered in two dimensions. Aside from moving around a restricted space, fighting games limit the player's actions to different offensive and defensive maneuvers. Players must learn which attacks and defenses are effective against each other by trial and error. Blocking is a basic technique; some games feature more advanced blocking techniques: for example, Capcom's Street Fighter III features a move termed "parrying" which causes the parried attacker to become momentarily incapacitated.
In addition to blows such as punches and kicks, players can utilize throwing or "grappling" to circumvent "blocks". Predicting opponents' moves and counter-attacking, known as "countering", is a common element of gameplay. Fighting games emphasize the difference between the height of blows, ranging from low to jumping attacks. Thus, strategy becomes important as players attempt to predict each other's moves, similar to rock–paper–scissors. An integral feature of fighting games includes the use of "special attacks" called "secret moves", that employ complex combinations of button presses to perform a particular move beyond basic punching and kicking. Combos, in which several attacks are chained together using basic punches and kicks, are another common feature in fighting games and have been fundamental to the genre since the release of Street Fighter II; some fighting games display a "combo meter". The effectiveness of such moves relate to the difficulty of execution and the degree of risk; these moves are beyond the ability of a casual gamer and require a player to have both a strong memory and excellent timing.
Taunting is another feature of some fighting games and was intro