Paramythia is a town and a former municipality in Thesprotia, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Souli, of which it is the seat and a municipal unit; the municipal unit has an area of 342.197 km2. The town's population is 2,730 as of the 2011 census. Paramythia acts as a regional hub for several small villages in the Valley of Paramythia, features shops, schools, a gym, a stadium and a medical center. Primary aspects of the economy are trade; the town overlooks the valley, below. The Castle of Paramythia was built on a hill in one of the highest points of the town during the Byzantine period and today is open to the tourists; the modern Egnatia Highway which links Igoumenitsa with Ioannina, goes through the valley, north of the town of Paramythia. The name "Paramythia" derives from one of the Virgin Mary's names in Greek. During the Byzantine era the town was known as Agios Donatos, after Saint Donatus of Evorea, the town's patron saint; this is the basis of the Albanian and the Turkish name of Paramythia, Ajdonat and Aydonat.
The Paramythia municipal unit consists of 23 communities. The total population of the municipal unit is 7,459; the town of Paramythia itself has a population of 2,730 and lies in an amphitheatre at an altitude of 750 m, at the foot of Mount Gorilla, between the Acheron and the Kalamas rivers. The Gorilla range lies on the eastern side of the Chionistra to the Northeast. At the city limits is the Kokytos River, one of the rivers of the underworld in Greek mythology. Paramythia's valley is one of the largest in Thesprotia and is one of the major agricultural areas in Epirus; the earliest known inhabitants of the area were the Greek tribe of the Chaonians. Late bronze antiquities have been found in the "Tsardakia" area were a Mycenean settlement existed. Paramythia originated with the ancient Chaonian city of Photike, named after Photios, a leader of the Chaonians. A famous hoard of bronzes dating from the mid 2nd Century AD, nineteen bronze sculptures were discovered during the 1790s, near the village of Paramythia.
Soon after their discovery, the hoard was dispatched to St Petersburg, to become part of Catherine the Great's collection. After her death, the original hoard was dispersed to various European collections. Fourteen of the statuettes reached the British Museum. Photike, as with the rest of Epirus, became part of the Roman and subsequently Byzantine Empires. In the late Roman era it was renamed after Saint Donatus of Evorea. Following the fall of Constantinople to the Fourth Crusade in 1204, Photike became part of the Despotate of Epirus; the Despotate remained independent for the next two centuries, maintaining the Greek Byzantine traditions. In 1359 the Greek notables of the region together with those of nearby Ioannina sent a delegation to the Serb ruler Symeon to support their independence against possible attacks by Albanian tribesmen; the town remained part of the Despotate of Epirus but during the reign of despot Thomas II Preljubović the Greek commanders of Photike/Agios Donatos refused to accept them as their ruler.
The town fell to the Ottomans in 1449. Paramythia was part of the Ottoman Sanjak of Ioannina. A Greek language school, had been attested since 1682, it declined and close in the mid-18th century, another Greek school was continuously operating from the late 17th century and at 1842 was expanded with additional classes. In 1854 a major revolt took place in Epirus and the town came under the control of guerilla Souliote forces that demanded the union of Epirus with Greece. Population movements to the town that occurred from the middle of the 19th century weakened the Muslim elite and led to the gradual Hellenization of former Albanian-majority towns in the area such as Paramythia in the 1920s. After the end of the Balkan Wars the town became part of the Greek state, as with the rest of Epirus region. During the interwar period, Paramythia was a centre of the Albanian speaking area of Chameria and an Albanian speaking market town that after 1939 became Greek speaking. During the Greek-Italian War the town was burned by Cham Albanian bands In the following Axis occupation of Greece the town had a population of 6,000 inhabitants.
All buildings inhabited by Muslim Albanians in the town were destroyed during World War II warfare. On the night of 27 September 1943, Cham militias arrested 53 Greek citizens in Paramythia and executed 49 of them two days later; this action was orchestrated by the brothers Nuri and Mazar Dino in order to get rid of the town's Greek representatives and intellectuals. According to German reports, Cham militias were part of the firing squad. During September 20–29, as a result of serial terrorist activities, at least Greek 75 citizens were killed in Paramythia and 19 municipalities were destroyed. On September 30, the Swiss representative of the International Red Cross, Hans-Jakob Bickel, visited the area and confirmed the atrocities committed by the Cham militia in collaboration with the Axis forces. Sotirios Voulgaris, the notable Greek who founded the jewelry and luxury goods company Bulgari, his jewelry store in Paramythia survives. Following his wish, his sons funded the building of the elementary school of the town.
Dionysius the Philosopher, Greek monk and revolutionary. Alexios Pallis, Greek writer; the municipal unit Paramythia is subdivided int
Epirus, is a traditional geographic and modern administrative region in northwestern Greece. It borders the regions of West Macedonia and Thessaly to the east, West Greece to the south, the Ionian Sea and Ionian Islands to the west and Albania to the north; the region has an area of about 9,200 km2. It is part of the wider historical region of Epirus, which overlaps modern Albania and Greece but lies within Greek territory. Greek Epirus, like the region as a whole, is mountainous, it comprises the land of the ancient Molossians and Thesprotians and a small part of the land of the Chaonians the greater part being in Southern Albania. It is made up of mountainous ridges, part of the Dinaric Alps; the region's highest spot is at an altitude of 2.637 metres above sea level. In the east, the Pindus Mountains that form the spine of mainland Greece separate Epirus from Macedonia and Thessaly. Most of Epirus lies on the windward side of the Pindus; the winds from the Ionian Sea offer the region more rainfall than any other part of Greece.
The Vikos-Aoos and Pindus National Parks are situated in the Ioannina Prefecture of the region. Both areas have imposing landscapes of dazzling beauty as well as a wide range of flora; the climate of Epirus is alpine. The vegetation is made up of coniferous species; the animal life is rich in this area and includes, among other species, wolves, foxes and lynxes. The region was established in the 1987 administrative reform as the Epirus Region and is divided into four regional units, which are further subdivided into municipalities; the regional units are: Thesprotia, Ioannina and Preveza. In January 2011, according to the reform introduced by the Kallikratis Programme the prefectures were abolished and replaced by regional units; the former municipalities and communities were re-structured to form only 18 new municipalities. The region's governor is, since 1 January 2011, Alexandros Kachrimanis, elected in the November 2010 local administration elections for the New Democracy and Popular Orthodox Rally parties.
Arta Igoumenitsa Ioannina Konitsa Metsovo Paramythia Parga Preveza Syvota Epirus has few resources and its rugged terrain makes agriculture difficult. Sheep and goat pastoralism have always been an important activity in the region but there seems to be a decline in recent years. Tobacco is grown around Ioannina, there is some farming and fishing, but most of the area's food must be imported from more fertile regions of Greece. Epirus is home to a number of the country's most famous dairy products' brands, which produce feta cheese among others. Another important area of the local economy is tourism eco-tourism; the outstanding natural beauty of the area, as well as its picturesque villages and traditional lifestyle, have made Epirus a strong tourist attraction. Around 350,000 people live in Epirus. According to the 2001 census, it has the lowest population of the 13 regions of Greece; this is due to the impact of repeated wars in the 20th century as well as mass emigration due to adverse economic conditions.
The capital and largest city of the region is Ioannina, where nearly a third of the population lives. The great majority of the population are Greeks, including Arvanites; the delineation of the border between Greece and Albania in 1913 left some Albanian-populated villages on the Greek side of the border as well as Greek-populated villages and cities in Northern Epirus, in present-day Albania. In the past, the coastal region of Thesprotia was home to a Cham Albanian minority, whose number did not exceed 25,000 in 1940s, alongside the local Greeks. After the war and their expulsion, the Greek census of 1951 counted a total of 127 Muslim Albanian Chams in Epirus, while in 1986 44 were counted in Thesprotia. Official website Preveza Weather Station SV6GMQ - Live Weather Conditions
Regional units of Greece
The 74 regional units are administrative units of Greece. They are subdivisions of the country's 13 regions, further subdivided into municipalities, they were introduced as part of the "Kallikratis" administrative reform on 1 January 2011 and are comparable in area and, in the mainland, coterminous with the pre-"Kallikratis" prefectures of Greece
A time zone is a region of the globe that observes a uniform standard time for legal and social purposes. Time zones tend to follow the boundaries of countries and their subdivisions because it is convenient for areas in close commercial or other communication to keep the same time. Most of the time zones on land are offset from Coordinated Universal Time by a whole number of hours, but a few zones are offset by 30 or 45 minutes; some higher latitude and temperate zone countries use daylight saving time for part of the year by adjusting local clock time by an hour. Many land time zones are skewed toward the west of the corresponding nautical time zones; this creates a permanent daylight saving time effect. Before clocks were first invented, it was common practice to mark the time of day with apparent solar time – for example, the time on a sundial –, different for every location and dependent on longitude; when well-regulated mechanical clocks became widespread in the early 19th century, each city began to use some local mean solar time.
Apparent and mean solar time can differ by up to around 15 minutes because of the elliptical shape of the Earth's orbit around the Sun and the tilt of the Earth's axis. Mean solar time has days of equal length, the difference between the two sums to zero after a year. Greenwich Mean Time was established in 1675, when the Royal Observatory was built, as an aid to mariners to determine longitude at sea, providing a standard reference time while each city in England kept a different local time. Local solar time became inconvenient as rail transport and telecommunications improved, because clocks differed between places by amounts corresponding to the differences in their geographical longitudes, which varied by four minutes of time for every degree of longitude. For example, Bristol is about 2.5 degrees west of Greenwich, so when it is solar noon in Bristol, it is about 10 minutes past solar noon in London. The use of time zones accumulates these differences into longer units hours, so that nearby places can share a common standard for timekeeping.
The first adoption of a standard time was on December 1, 1847, in Great Britain by railway companies using GMT kept by portable chronometers. The first of these companies to adopt standard time was the Great Western Railway in November 1840; this became known as Railway Time. About August 23, 1852, time signals were first transmitted by telegraph from the Royal Observatory, Greenwich. Though 98% of Great Britain's public clocks were using GMT by 1855, it was not made Britain's legal time until August 2, 1880; some British clocks from this period have two minute hands—one for the local time, one for GMT. Improvements in worldwide communication further increased the need for interacting parties to communicate mutually comprehensible time references to one another; the problem of differing local times could be solved across larger areas by synchronizing clocks worldwide, but in many places that adopted time would differ markedly from the solar time to which people were accustomed. On November 2, 1868, the British colony of New Zealand adopted a standard time to be observed throughout the colony, was the first country to do so.
It was based on the longitude 172°30′ East of Greenwich, 11 hours 30 minutes ahead of GMT. This standard was known as New Zealand Mean Time. Timekeeping on the American railroads in the mid-19th century was somewhat confused; each railroad used its own standard time based on the local time of its headquarters or most important terminus, the railroad's train schedules were published using its own time. Some junctions served by several railroads had a clock for each railroad, each showing a different time. Charles F. Dowd proposed a system of one-hour standard time zones for American railroads about 1863, although he published nothing on the matter at that time and did not consult railroad officials until 1869. In 1870 he proposed four ideal time zones, the first centered on Washington, D. C. but by 1872 the first was centered with geographic borders. Dowd's system was never accepted by American railroads. Instead, U. S. and Canadian railroads implemented a version proposed by William F. Allen, the editor of the Traveler's Official Railway Guide.
The borders of its time zones ran through railroad stations in major cities. For example, the border between its Eastern and Central time zones ran through Detroit, Pittsburgh and Charleston, it was inaugurated on Sunday, November 18, 1883 called "The Day of Two Noons", when each railroad station clock was reset as standard-time noon was reached within each time zone. The zones were named Intercolonial, Central and Pacific. Within a year 85% of all cities with populations over 10,000, about 200 cities, were using standard time. A notable exception was Detroit which kept local time until 1900 tried Central Standard Time, local mean time, Eastern Standard Time before a May 1915 ordinance settled on EST and was ratified by popular vote in August 1916; the confusion of times came to an end when Standard zone time was formally adopted by the U. S. Congress in the Standard Time Act of March 19, 1918; the first known person to conceive of a worldwide system of time zones was the Italian mathematician
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a numeric commercial book identifier, intended to be unique. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency. An ISBN is assigned to each variation of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN; the ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country; the initial ISBN identification format was devised in 1967, based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108. Published books sometimes appear without an ISBN; the International ISBN agency sometimes assigns such books ISBNs on its own initiative.
Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines and newspapers. The International Standard Music Number covers musical scores; the Standard Book Numbering code is a 9-digit commercial book identifier system created by Gordon Foster, Emeritus Professor of Statistics at Trinity College, for the booksellers and stationers WHSmith and others in 1965. The ISBN identification format was conceived in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the United States by Emery Koltay; the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108. The United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. ISO has appointed the International ISBN Agency as the registration authority for ISBN worldwide and the ISBN Standard is developed under the control of ISO Technical Committee 46/Subcommittee 9 TC 46/SC 9; the ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978.
An SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit "0". For example, the second edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has "SBN 340 01381 8" – 340 indicating the publisher, 01381 their serial number, 8 being the check digit; this can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8. Since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format, compatible with "Bookland" European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each variation of a book. For example, an ebook, a paperback, a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN; the ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. An International Standard Book Number consists of 4 parts or 5 parts: for a 13-digit ISBN, a prefix element – a GS1 prefix: so far 978 or 979 have been made available by GS1, the registration group element, the registrant element, the publication element, a checksum character or check digit. A 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces. Figuring out how to separate a given ISBN is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN is most used among others special identifiers to describe references in Wikipedia and can help to find the same sources with different description in various language versions. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency, responsible for that country or territory regardless of the publication language; the ranges of ISBNs assigned to any particular country are based on the publishing profile of the country concerned, so the ranges will vary depending on the number of books and the number and size of publishers that are active. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture and thus may receive direct funding from government to support their services. In other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded.
A full directory of ISBN agencies is available on the International ISBN Agency website. Partial listing: Australia: the commercial library services agency Thorpe-Bowker.
Provinces of Greece
The provinces of Greece were sub-divisions of some the country's prefectures. From 1887, the provinces were abolished as actual administrative units, but were retained for some state services finance services and education, as well as for electoral purposes. Before the Second World War, there were 139 provinces, after the war, with the addition of the Dodecanese Islands, their number grew to 147. According to the Article 7 of the Code of Prefectural Self-Government, the provinces constituted a "particular administrative district" within the wider "administrative district" of the prefectures; the provinces were abolished after the 2006 local elections, in line with Law 2539/1997, as part of the wide-ranging administrative reform known as the "Kapodistrias Project", replaced by enlarged municipalities. Provincial administration consisted of two parts: a collective Provincial Council and an eparch. Members of the Provincial Council were the prefectural councillors of the respective province; the eparch or sub-prefect was the prefectural councillor who received the most votes in the prefectural elections.
This is a list of the former provinces of Greece and their capitals, sorted by prefecture, as they stood in 1991: Achaea Aigialeia Province - Aigio Kalavryta Province - Kalavryta Patras Province - Patras Aetolia-Acarnania Missolonghi Province - Missolonghi Nafpaktia Province - Nafpaktos Trichonida Province - Agrinio Valtos Province - Amfilochia Vonitsa-Xiromero Province - Vonitsa Arcadia Gortynia Province - Dimitsana Kynouria Province - Leonidio Mantineia Province - Tripoli Megalopoli Province - Megalopoli Argolis Argos Province - Argos Ermionida Province - Kranidi Nafplia Province - Nafplio Arta Prefecture: no provinces Athens Prefecture: no provinces Boeotia Thebes Province - Thebes Livadeia Province - Livadeia Chalkidiki Arnaia Province - Arnaia Chalkidiki Province - Polygyros Chania Prefecture Apokoronas Province - Vamos Kissamos Province - Kissamos Kydonia Province - Chania Selino Province - Kandanos Sfakia Province - Chora Sfakion Chios Prefecture: no provinces Corfu Prefecture Corfu Province - Corfu Paxoi Province - Gaios Corinthia: no provinces Cyclades Prefecture Andros Province - Andros Kea Province - Ioulis Milos Province - Milos Naxos Province - Naxos Syros Province - Ermoupoli Paros Province - Paros Thira Province - Santorini Tinos Province - Tinos Dodecanese Prefecture Kalymnos Province - Kalymnos Karpathos Province - Karpathos Kos Province - Kos Rhodes Province - Rhodes Drama Prefecture: no provinces East Attica Attica Province Elis Prefecture Elis Province - Pyrgos Olympia Province - Andritsaina Euboea Prefecture Chalcis Province - Chalcis Istiaia Province - Istiaia Karystia Province - Karystos Evros Prefecture Alexandroupoli Province - Alexandroupoli Didymoteicho Province - Didymoteicho Orestiada Province - Orestiada Samothrace Province - Samothrace Soufli Province - Soufli Evrytania: no provinces Florina Prefecture: no provinces Heraklion Prefecture Kainourgio Province - Moires Malevizi Province - Agios Myronas Monofatsi Province - Pyrgos Pediada Province - Kastelli Pyrgiotissa Province - Voroi Temenos Province - Heraklion Viannos Province - Pefkos Grevena Prefecture: no provinces Imathia Imathia Province - Veroia Naousa Province - Naousa Ioannina Prefecture Dodoni Province - Ioannina Konitsa Province - Konitsa Metsovo Province - Metsovo Pogoni Province - Delvinaki Kastoria Prefecture: no provinces Kavala Prefecture Kavala Province - Kavala Nestos Province - Chrysoupoli Pangaio Province - Eleftheroupoli Thasos Province - Thasos Kefallinia Prefecture Ithaca Province - Ithaca Kranaia Province - Argostoli Pali Province - Lixouri Sami Province - Sami Karditsa Prefecture: no provinces Kilkis Prefecture Kilkis Province - Kilkis Paionia Province - Goumenissa Kozani Prefecture Kozani Province - Kozani Eordaia Province - Ptolemaida Voio Province - Siatista Laconia Epidavros Limira - Molaoi Gytheio Province - Gytheio Lacedaemon Province - Sparti Oitylo Province - Areopoli Larissa Prefecture Agia Province - Agia Elassona Province - Elassona Farsala Province - Farsala Larissa Province - Larissa Tyrnavos Province - Tyrnavos Lasithi Ierapetra Province - Ierapetra Lasithi Province - Tzermiado Mirampello Province - Neapoli Siteia Province - Siteia Lefkada Prefecture: no provinces Lesbos Prefecture Lemnos Province - Myrina Mithymna Province - Mithymna Mytilene Province - Mytilene Plomari Province - Plomari Magnesia Prefecture Almyros Province - Almyros Skopelos Province - Skopelos Volos Province - Volos Messenia Kalamai Province - Kalamata Messini Province - Messini Pylia Province - Pylos Trifylia Province - Kyparissia Pella Prefecture Almopia Province - Aridaia Edessa Province - Edessa Giannitsa Province - Giannitsa Phocis Dorida Province - Lidoriki Parnassida Province - Amfissa Phthiotis Domokos Province - Domokos Locris Province - Atalanti Phthiotis Province - Lamia Pieria Prefecture: no provinces Piraeus Prefecture Aegina Province - Aegina Cythera Province - Cythera Hydra Province - Hydra Piraeus Province Troizinia Province - Poros Preveza Prefecture: no provinces Rethymno Prefecture Agios Vasileios Province - Spili Amari Province - Amari Mylopotamos Province - Perama Rethymno Province - Rethymno Rhodope Prefecture Komotini Province - Komotini Sapes Province - Sapes Samos Prefecture Ikaria Province - Agios Kirykos Samos Province - Samos Serres Prefecture Fyllida Province - Nea Zichni Serres Province - Serres Sintiki Province - Sidirokastro Visaltia Province - Nigrita Thesprotia Filiates Province - Filiates Thyamida Province - Igoumenitsa Margariti Province - Margariti Souli Province - Paramythia Thessaloniki Prefecture Thessaloniki Province - Thessaloniki Lagkadas Province - Lagkadas Trikala Prefecture Trikala Province - Trikala Ka