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Sound bite

A sound bite or soundbite is a short clip of speech or music extracted from a longer piece of audio used to promote or exemplify the full length piece. In the context of journalism, a sound bite is characterized by a short phrase or sentence that captures the essence of what the speaker was trying to say, is used to summarize information and entice the reader or viewer; the term was coined by the U. S. media in the 1970s. Since politicians have employed sound bites to summarize their positions. Due to its brevity, the sound bite overshadows the broader context in which it was spoken, can be misleading or inaccurate; the insertion of sound bites into news broadcasts or documentaries is open to manipulation, leading to conflict over journalistic ethics. In the 1960s and 1970s, pressure from advertisers on the American television industry to create entertaining news material made sound bites central to political coverage. Politicians began to use PR techniques to craft self-images and slogans that would resonate with the television-viewing audience and ensure their victory in campaigns.

The term "sound bite" was coined in the late 1970s, several years before the presidency of Ronald Reagan, famous for short, memorable phrases like, "Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall!" in reference to the Berlin Wall. During the 1988 United States presidential election, candidate Michael Dukakis highlighted the prominent role of sound bites and spin doctors in political campaigns by running a commercial that mocked contender George H. W. Bush's handlers' frustration over the gaffes of his vice presidential running-mate Dan Quayle. In journalism, sound bites are used to summarize the position of the speaker, as well as to increase the interest of the reader or viewer in the piece. In both print and broadcast journalism, sound bites are conventionally juxtaposed and interspersed with commentary from the journalist to create a news story. A balanced news report is expected to contain sound bites representing both sides of the debate; this technique, can lead to biased reporting when a sound bite is selected for sensationalism, or is used to promote the point of view of one individual or group over another.

In his book The Sound Bite Society, Jeffrey Scheuer argues that the sound bite was the product of television's increased power over all forms of communication, that the resulting trend toward short, catchy snippets of information had a significant negative impact on American political discourse. In contrast, Peggy Noonan feels that sound bites have acquired a negative connotation but are not inherently negative, that what we now think of as great historical sound bites—such as "The only thing we have to fear is fear itself", the most famous phrase in Franklin D. Roosevelt's first Inaugural Address—were examples of eloquent speakers unselfconsciously and "simply trying in words to capture the essence of the thought they wished to communicate."The increased use of sound bites in news media has been criticized, has led to discussions on journalistic and media ethics. According to the Code of Ethics of the Society of Professional Journalists, journalists should "make certain that headlines, news teases and promotional material, video, graphics, sound bites and quotations do not misrepresent.

They should not oversimplify or highlight incidents out of context." Despite this criticism, sound bites are employed by businesses, trade groups, labor unions and politicians. Senator Jim DeMint admitted this when he said, "There’s a reason why most politicians talk in sanitized sound bites: Once you get out of that, you’re opening yourself up to get attacked." Ash heap of history Axis of evil Ever closer union Evil Empire speech Manifest destiny Peace for our time Read my lips: no new taxes Shock and awe War on terror Weapons of mass destruction Buzzword Catchphrase Concision Gotcha journalism Media clip Sheeple Slogan Sounds to Sample Spin Video clip SoundBite Concert Series at CU-Boulder Top 5 Political Soundbites SoundBite Capturing App

Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890

The Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890 is a United States antitrust law that regulates competition among enterprises, passed by Congress under the presidency of Benjamin Harrison. It is named for its principal author; the Sherman Act broadly prohibits anticompetitive agreements and unilateral conduct that monopolizes or attempts to monopolize the relevant market. The Act authorizes the Department of Justice to bring suits to enjoin conduct violating the Act, additionally authorizes private parties injured by conduct violating the Act to bring suits for treble damages. Over time, the federal courts have developed a body of law under the Sherman Act making certain types of anticompetitive conduct per se illegal, subjecting other types of conduct to case-by-case analysis regarding whether the conduct unreasonably restrains trade; the law attempts to prevent the artificial raising of prices by restriction of supply. "Innocent monopoly", or monopoly achieved by merit, is legal, but acts by a monopolist to artificially preserve that status, or nefarious dealings to create a monopoly, are not.

The purpose of the Sherman Act is not to protect competitors from harm from legitimately successful businesses, nor to prevent businesses from gaining honest profits from consumers, but rather to preserve a competitive marketplace to protect consumers from abuses. In Spectrum Sports, Inc. v. McQuillan 506 U. S. 447 the Supreme Court said: According to its authors, it was not intended to impact market gains obtained by honest means, by benefiting the consumers more than the competitors. Senator George Hoar of Massachusetts, another author of the Sherman Act, said the following: At Apex Hosiery Co. v. Leader 310 U. S. 469, 310 U. S. 492-93 and n. 15: At Addyston Pipe and Steel Company v. United States, 85 F.2d 1, affirmed, 175 U. S. 175 U. S. 211. The Sherman Act is divided into three sections. Section 1 delineates and prohibits specific means of anticompetitive conduct, while Section 2 deals with end results that are anti-competitive in nature. Thus, these sections supplement each other in an effort to prevent businesses from violating the spirit of the Act, while technically remaining within the letter of the law.

Section 3 extends the provisions of Section 1 to U. S. territories and the District of Columbia. Section 1: Every contract, combination in the form of trust or otherwise, or conspiracy, in restraint of trade or commerce among the several States, or with foreign nations, is declared to be illegal. Section 2: Every person who shall monopolize, or attempt to monopolize, or combine or conspire with any other person or persons, to monopolize any part of the trade or commerce among the several States, or with foreign nations, shall be deemed guilty of a felony The Clayton Antitrust Act, passed in 1914, proscribes certain additional activities, discovered to fall outside the scope of the Sherman Antitrust Act. For example, the Clayton Act added certain practices to the list of impermissible activities: price discrimination between different purchasers, if such discrimination tends to create a monopoly exclusive dealing agreements tying arrangements mergers and acquisitions that reduce market competition.

The Robinson–Patman Act of 1936 amended the Clayton Act. The amendment proscribed certain anti-competitive practices in which manufacturers engaged in price discrimination against equally-situated distributors; the federal government began filing cases under the Sherman Antitrust Act in 1890. Some cases were successful and others were not. Notable cases filed under the act include: United States v. Workingmen's Amalgamated Council of New Orleans, the first to hold that the law applied to labor unions. Chesapeake & Ohio Fuel Co. v. United States, in which the trust was dissolved Northern Securities Co. v. United States, which reached the Supreme Court, dissolved the company and set many precedents for interpretation. Hale v. Henkel reached the Supreme Court. Precedent was set for the production of documents by an officer of a company, the self-incrimination of the officer in his or her testimony to the grand jury. Hale was an officer of the American Tobacco Co. Standard Oil Co. of New Jersey v. United States, which broke up the company based on geography, contributed to the Panic of 1910–11.

United States v. American Tobacco Co. which split the company into four. United States v. General Electric Co, where GE was judged to have violated the Sherman Anti-Trust Act, along with International General Electric, Sylvania and Consolidated and Chicago Miniature. Corning and Westinghouse made consent decrees. Federal Baseball Club v. National League in which the Supreme Court ruled that Major League Baseball was not interstate commerce and was not subject to the antitrust law. United States v. National City Lines, related to the General Motors streetcar conspiracy. United States v. AT&T Co., settled in 1982 and resulted in the breakup of the company. United States v. Microsoft Corp. was settled in 2001 without the breakup of the company. Congress claimed power to pass the Sherman Act through its constitutional authority to regulate interstate commerce. Therefore, federal courts only have jurisdiction to apply the Act to conduct that restrains or affects either interstate commerce or trade within the District of Columbia.

This requires that the plaintiff must show that the conduct occ

Florida Central Railroad (1907–1914)

The Florida Central Railroad, headquartered in Thomasville, constructed a 47 miles line between that city and Fanlew, Florida in 1907 and 1908. The first 10 miles ran from Thomasville to the lumber mill in Metcalf, Georgia on to Roddenberry; the Florida Central ran parallel to part of an Atlantic Coast Line Railroad line, crossing the ACL near the Florida/Georgia border and running south to Stringers in extreme northeastern Leon County. From there the FC ran to Miccosukee and Wadesboro in Leon County to Capitola in Leon County, Cody in Jefferson County, terminating at Fanlew. In 1914, the Atlantic Coast Line purchased the Florida Central Railroad

European civil code

The European civil code is a proposed harmonisation of private law across the European Union. The ultimate aim of a European civil code is, like a national civil code, to deal comprehensively with the core areas of private law. Private law covered in a civil code includes the family law, the law of inheritance, property law and the Law of Obligations; the law of obligations includes the law of contracts and restitution. It was from work on European contract law that the push for a comprehensive European civil code arose; the development of a European civil code has focused on creating a unified law of contracts. Thus, the term'European civil code' is used in specific reference to the harmonisation of contract law throughout the EU; the idea of a unified European civil code can be traced to the idea of a unified Europe and the creation of the European Union. The European Parliament requested the creation of a European civil code in 1989, 1994 and 2000. A pragmatic approach has seen the proponents of a European civil code develop uniform laws in discrete areas before working towards a comprehensive European civil code.

Development of a European code for contract law began in 1982 with the formation of the Commission on European Contract Law. This became known as the Lando Commission after its chairman Ole Lando. At the same time UNIDROIT began similar studies leading to their 1994 publication Principles for International Commercial Contracts; the Lando Commission focused on creating their Principles of European Contract Law. The first part of the PECL was published in 1995, followed by Part II in 1999 and the final Part III in 2003; these Principles of European Contract Law may form one part of the European civil code. In 1997 the Dutch Government, as Chair of the European Union, held a conference titled'Towards a European Civil Code'; the conference considered the feasibility of such a code and led to the creation of a book titled Towards a European Civil Code. The third edition was published in 2004 and although the primary focus is European contract law, it considers other areas of private law that may form part of a European civil code as well.

The years following this conference have seen the development of many academic groups focusing on different areas of private law. These include: The Study Group on a European Civil Code, formed in 1997 and chaired by Professor Christian von Bar at the University of Osnabrück; the Acquis Group at the University of Münster focuses on existing European Community private law. The Commission on European Family Law based at Utrecht University; the European Group on Tort Law called the Spier/Koziol group, in association with the European Centre of Tort and Insurance Law in Vienna. The Common Core of European Private Law project conducted by Mauro Bussani and Ugo Mattei at the University of Trento; the Académie des Privatistes Européens at the University of Pavia, headed by Giuseppe Gandolfi. It published a Draft Code in 2002; the Leuven Centre for a Common Law of Europe, founded in 2001 by professor Walter Van Gerven, who wrote a number of European casebooks together with Basil Markesinis. The Joint Network on European Private Law has been created and includes several of the above groups.

On 11 July 2001, the European Commission issued a Communication in relation to possible developments in European contract law. Following the review of submissions on the Communication, the Commission released an Action Plan for a more coherent European contract law in 2003; the Action Plan began the process of creating. This was followed in 2004 by the publication of “European Contract Law and revision of the acquis: the way forward”; the CFR is intended to provide a structure and guideline for the development of harmonised European private law but has a specific focus on contract law. It was hoped that the creation of a unified European contract law would be achieved by 2010; the Draft Common Frame of Reference, a joint project of the Study Group and Acquis Group, was published in December 2007. Although the European Commission downplayed the CFR's expected future importance in a July 2006 report, a March 2006 European Parliament resolution stated that "Even though the Commission denies that this is its objective, it is clear that many of the researchers and stakeholders working on the project believe that the ultimate long-term outcome will be a European code of obligations or a full-blown European Civil Code."

Economist Gerhard Wagner hailed "the drafting of a coherent set of rules" for all of Europe, such as the DCFR, as "an immense scientific achievement". A comprehensive European civil code would cover the major areas of private law in much the same way as domestic civil codes; the major areas that have been suggested are contract law, property and company law. Although family law and inheritance law are covered by domestic civil codes there is doubt over whether it is possible to include them in a broad European code. Family and Inheritance law is closely tied to a nation’s culture. For this reason it may not be possible or suitable to create a uniform code to cover the entire European Union; as stated, contract law is the most suited for harmonisation, followed by other areas of the law of obligations and the law of property. The creation of individual codes for discrete areas of private law is considered the most feasible and realistic goal. For this reason efforts have concentrated on creating a unified European contract law before attempting a more comprehensive European civil code.

An example of a modern comprehensive code

Janine Thompson

Janine G. Thompson Tremelling is an Australian former tennis player who won the Girls' Doubles in the 1985 Wimbledon Championships, with Louise Field, she is playing on the seniors tour. As both a singles and doubles player, she featured in the Australian and US Opens and Roland Garros between 1985 and 1990, she has a career singles win/loss record of 39–58, a doubles record of 110–78. Thompson won the 1986 Virginia Slims of Pennsylvania singles title, won doubles titles in Wellington and the German Open in 1989, won competitions in Nashville in 1988. Janine Thompson at the Women's Tennis Association Janine Thompson at the International Tennis Federation Janine Thompson at the Fed Cup Janine Thompson at the Australian Open

Robert Sapolsky

Robert Morris Sapolsky is an American neuroendocrinologist and author. He is a professor of biology, professor of neurology and neurological sciences and, by courtesy, neurosurgery, at Stanford University. In addition, he is a research associate at the National Museums of Kenya. Sapolsky was born in New York, to immigrants from the Soviet Union, his father, Thomas Sapolsky, was an architect who renovated the restaurants Lundy's. Robert was raised an Orthodox Jew and spent his time reading about and imagining living with silverback gorillas. By age 12, he was writing fan letters to primatologists, he attended John Dewey High School and, by that time, he was reading textbooks on the subject and teaching himself Swahili. Sapolsky describes himself as an atheist, he stated in his acceptance speech for the Emperor Has No Clothes Award, "I was raised in an Orthodox household, I was raised devoutly religious up until around age 13 or so. In my adolescent years, one of the defining actions in my life was breaking away from all religious belief whatsoever."In 1978, Sapolsky received his B.

A. in biological anthropology summa cum laude from Harvard University. He went to Kenya to study the social behaviors of baboons in the wild; when the Uganda–Tanzania War broke out in the neighboring countries, Sapolsky decided to travel into Uganda to witness the war up close commenting that "I was twenty-one and wanted adventure. I was behaving like a late-adolescent male primate." He went to Uganda's capital Kampala, from there to the border with Zaire, back to Kampala, witnessing some fighting, including the Ugandan capital's conquest by the Tanzanian army and its Ugandan rebel allies on 10–11 April 1979. Sapolsky returned to New York and studied at Rockefeller University, where he received his Ph. D. in neuroendocrinology working in the lab of endocrinologist Bruce McEwen. After the initial year-and-a-half field study in Africa, he would return every summer for another twenty-five years to observe the same group of baboons, from the late 70s to the early 90s, he spent 8 to 10 hours a day for four months each year recording the behaviors of these primates.

Sapolsky is the John A. and Cynthia Fry Gunn Professor at Stanford University, holding joint appointments in several departments, including Biological Sciences, Neurology & Neurological Sciences, Neurosurgery. As a neuroendocrinologist, he has focused his research on issues of stress and neuronal degeneration, as well as on the possibilities of gene therapy strategies for protecting susceptible neurons from disease, he is working on gene transfer techniques to strengthen neurons against the disabling effects of glucocorticoids. Each year, Sapolsky spends time in Kenya studying a population of wild baboons in order to identify the sources of stress in their environment, the relationship between personality and patterns of stress-related disease in these animals. More Sapolsky studies the cortisol levels between the alpha male and female and the subordinates to determine stress level. An early but still relevant example of his studies of olive baboons is to be found in his 1990 Scientific American article, "Stress in the Wild".

He has written about neurological impairment and the insanity defense within the American legal system. Sapolsky's work has been featured in the press, most notably in the National Geographic documentary Stress: Portrait of a Killer, articles in The New York Times, Wired magazine and the Stanford magazine, his speaking style as heard on Radiolab and Joe Rogan, his Stanford human behavioural biology lectures have garnered his otherwise serious topics attention, adulation. Sapolsky's specialising in primatology and neuroscience has made him prominent in the public discussion of mental health—and, more broadly, human relationships—from an evolutionary context. Sapolsky has received numerous honors and awards for his work, including the prestigious MacArthur Fellowship Genius Grant in 1987, an Alfred P. Sloan Fellowship, the Klingenstein Fellowship in Neuroscience, he was awarded the National Science Foundation Presidential Young Investigator Award and the Young Investigator of the Year Awards from the Society for Neuroscience, the International Society for Psychoneuroendocrinology, the Biological Psychiatry Society.

In 2007 he received the John P. McGovern Award for Behavioral Science, awarded by the American Association for the Advancement of Science. In 2008 he received Wonderfest's Carl Sagan Prize for Science Popularization. In February 2010 Sapolsky was named to the Freedom From Religion Foundation's Honorary Board of distinguished achievers, following the earlier Emperor Has No Clothes Award for year 2002. Sapolsky is married to a doctor in neuropsychology, they have two children and Rachel. Stress, the Aging Brain, the Mechanisms of Neuron Death ISBN 0-262-19320-5 Why Zebras Don't Get Ulcers ISBN 0-8050-7369-8 The Trouble with Testosterone: And Other Essays on the Biology of the Human Predicament ISBN 0-684-83891-5 Junk Food Monkeys ISBN 978-0-7472-7676-0 A Primate's Memoir ISBN 0-7432-0247-3 Monkeyluv: And Other Essays on Our Lives as Animals ISBN 0-7432-6015-5 Behave: The Biology of Humans at Our Best and Worst ISBN 1-5942-0507-8 Human Behavioral Biology 25 lectures (Last 2 lectures were not taped / included in the official Stanford playlist but older versions/tapings of those lectures are available here Sapolsky, Robert.

Stress and Your Body. Chantilly, VA: The Tea