Old English, or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages. It was brought to Great Britain by Anglo-Saxon settlers in the mid-5th century, the first Old English literary works date from the mid-7th century. After the Norman conquest of 1066, English was replaced, for a time, as the language of the upper classes by Anglo-Norman, a relative of French; this is regarded as marking the end of the Old English era, as during this period the English language was influenced by Anglo-Norman, developing into a phase known now as Middle English. Old English developed from a set of Anglo-Frisian or Ingvaeonic dialects spoken by Germanic tribes traditionally known as the Angles and Jutes; as the Anglo-Saxons became dominant in England, their language replaced the languages of Roman Britain: Common Brittonic, a Celtic language, Latin, brought to Britain by Roman invasion. Old English had four main dialects, associated with particular Anglo-Saxon kingdoms: Mercian, Northumbrian and West Saxon.
It was West Saxon that formed the basis for the literary standard of the Old English period, although the dominant forms of Middle and Modern English would develop from Mercian. The speech of eastern and northern parts of England was subject to strong Old Norse influence due to Scandinavian rule and settlement beginning in the 9th century. Old English is one of the West Germanic languages, its closest relatives are Old Frisian and Old Saxon. Like other old Germanic languages, it is different from Modern English and difficult for Modern English speakers to understand without study. Old English grammar is similar to that of modern German: nouns, adjectives and verbs have many inflectional endings and forms, word order is much freer; the oldest Old English inscriptions were written using a runic system, but from about the 9th century this was replaced by a version of the Latin alphabet. Englisc, which the term English is derived from, means'pertaining to the Angles'. In Old English, this word was derived from Angles.
During the 9th century, all invading Germanic tribes were referred to as Englisc. It has been hypothesised that the Angles acquired their name because their land on the coast of Jutland resembled a fishhook. Proto-Germanic *anguz had the meaning of'narrow', referring to the shallow waters near the coast; that word goes back to Proto-Indo-European *h₂enǵʰ- meaning'narrow'. Another theory is that the derivation of'narrow' is the more connection to angling, which itself stems from a Proto-Indo-European root meaning bend, angle; the semantic link is the fishing hook, curved or bent at an angle. In any case, the Angles may have been called such because they were a fishing people or were descended from such, therefore England would mean'land of the fishermen', English would be'the fishermen's language'. Old English was not static, its usage covered a period of 700 years, from the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain in the 5th century to the late 11th century, some time after the Norman invasion. While indicating that the establishment of dates is an arbitrary process, Albert Baugh dates Old English from 450 to 1150, a period of full inflections, a synthetic language.
Around 85 per cent of Old English words are no longer in use, but those that survived are basic elements of Modern English vocabulary. Old English is a West Germanic language, it came to be spoken over most of the territory of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms which became the Kingdom of England. This included most of present-day England, as well as part of what is now southeastern Scotland, which for several centuries belonged to the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Northumbria. Other parts of the island – Wales and most of Scotland – continued to use Celtic languages, except in the areas of Scandinavian settlements where Old Norse was spoken. Celtic speech remained established in certain parts of England: Medieval Cornish was spoken all over Cornwall and in adjacent parts of Devon, while Cumbric survived to the 12th century in parts of Cumbria, Welsh may have been spoken on the English side of the Anglo-Welsh border. Norse was widely spoken in the parts of England which fell under Danish law. Anglo-Saxon literacy developed after Christianisation in the late 7th century.
The oldest surviving text of Old English literature is Cædmon's Hymn, composed between 658 and 680. There is a limited corpus of runic inscriptions from the 5th to 7th centuries, but the oldest coherent runic texts date to the 8th century; the Old English Latin alphabet was introduced around the 9th century. With the unification of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms by Alfred the Great in the 9th century, the language of government and literature became standardised around the West Saxon dialect. Alfred advocated education in English alongside Latin, had many works translated into the English language. In Old English, typical of the development of literature, poetry arose before prose, but King Alfred the Great chiefly inspired the growth of prose. A literary standard, dating from the 10th century, arose under the influence of Bishop Æthelwold of Winchester, was followed by such writers as the prolific Ælfric of Eynsham. Th
Badminton is a village and civil parish in Gloucestershire, England. It consists of Little Badminton. In 1612 Edward Somerset, 4th Earl of Worcester, bought from Nicholas Boteler his manors of Great and Little Badminton, called Madmintune in the Domesday Book while one century earlier the name Badimyncgtun was recorded, held by that family since 1275; the village houses the Duke of Beaufort's residence, Badminton House, the principal seat of the Somerset family since the late 17th century. Badminton House gives its name to the sport of badminton; the village does have a small shop which serves as a Post Office. The village is located close to the A46 and A433, the B4040 passes south of it; the next motorway junction is Tormarton Interchange between A46 and M4. The former railway station in nearby Acton Turville closed in 1968; the nearest railway station is Yate on the Bristol–Gloucester line. West of the village is Badminton Airfield; the village is famous for its horse trials, which take place in early May each year in the grounds of Badminton House.
The parish church of St Michael and All Angels in Great Badminton is attached to the Duke of Beaufort's residence. The current church was built in 1785 and serves as the principal burial place of the Somerset family. Nearly all Dukes and Duchesses are interred here. A smaller church dedicated to St Michael and All Angels, stands in neighbouring Little Badminton. To the north of the main village is the small rural settlement of Little Badminton. Here can be found farm houses and estate lodges much in the traditional Cotswold style of architecture. Remains of a medieval'sunken village' can be seen in Little Badminton, as well as an ornamental dovecote or croft, mentioned in the Domesday book. Field Marshal FitzRoy James Henry Somerset, 1st Baron Raglan, aide-de-camp to the Duke of Wellington in the Peninsular War and commander of all the British forces in the Crimean War was born and buried in Badminton, he was the youngest son of the 5th Duke of Beaufort. The village of Badminton played host to the Dowager Queen Mary during the Second World War, evacuated from Marlborough House in London to take up residence at Badminton House for the duration of the war.
She lived here with her niece Duchess of Beaufort, wife of the 10th Duke. An air show was held in Badminton until the early 1990s. Badminton Golf Club was founded in early 1900s; the club closed in 1914. Media related to Badminton, Gloucestershire at Wikimedia Commons Badminton in the Domesday Book
Charlton was the name of a small village or large hamlet in Gloucestershire, England in its heyday having a Bethel Chapel and Sunday School, it was demolished in the late 1940s. Its site is safety margins of Bristol Filton Airport, it was between Filton and what is today the Cribbs Causeway out-of-town commercial and retail area north of Bristol. In contemporary terms to the north lay fields Over Court Deer Park, today Bristol Golf Club and a short section of the M5 motorway. Charlton was a tything in the ancient parish, civil parish, of Henbury which still ecclesiastically covers more than 9,000 acres. In 1870 Charlton had a population of 425. From 1910-1915 the place was served by Charlton Halt, on the Henbury Loop railway just south of the village. In 1935 the civil parish of Henbury was abolished, Charlton was transferred to the civil parish of Almondsbury; the B4057 road ran through the village. Charlton had farm houses, a public house called the Carpenters Arms, a post office, large houses and a few cottages.
In the late 1940s nearly all of the place was demolished to make way for an extension of the main runway at Filton Airfield to accommodate take-offs of the Bristol Brabazon propeller-driven airliner. By virtue of compulsory purchase, government offered residents a market price for their homes and here offered rehousing in council housing in Patchway, which many took up to retain community links. Filton Airfield Bristol Filton Airport, operated until the end of 2012. Although the Brabazon project was cancelled in 1953, the extended runway proved useful when Vulcan V bombers were dispersed to Filton during the Cuban Missile Crisis and when Concorde supersonic airliners took off; the runway over the site was used by various large Airbus jetliners, such as the A300 and A330. After the closure of the airfield, parts of the site were sold for redevelopment. Nine acres of the site were developed to house the Aerospace Bristol museum, including a new hangar to house Concorde 216; the runway over the site of Charlton was used to bring in exhibits, the museum opened in 2017.
A mixed use development, to be known as New Charlton, has been proposed between Patchway and Cribbs Causeway, on the site of the runway extension over the village. The name survives in Charlton Common – a public recreation area, to the south of the original settlement – Charlton Road, which led from Passage Road, Westbury on Trym, to the village, Charlton Lane, which led from Henbury and Brentry. In the 1970s the name was resurrected for the new development of Charlton Mead, on the south side of Filton Airfield near Southmead, in 2009 it was used again for the new development of Charlton Hayes, on the north side of Filton Airfield at Patchway. Heathrow, a less populous hamlet demolished Paul Townsend. "The Lost Villages of Bristol". Retrieved 2011-01-05. Google Earth view of Bristol Filton Airport and the site of Charlton Closer Google Earth view of the site of Charlton
Acton Turville is a parish in the Cotswold Edge ward within South Gloucestershire, England. It lies 17 miles east-northeast of Bristol and 93 miles due west of London, with the M4 running southwards of the parish. Acton Turville consists of a cluster of households across 1,009 acres, with a total population of 370 people. Acton Turville is listed as "Achetone" in the Domesday Book. According to John Marius in 1870, From the imperial gazetteer of England and Wales - Acton Turville is: "a parish in Chipping Sodbury district, Gloucester, it lies 5.5 miles east of Chipping Sodbury, 7.5 miles east of Yate railway station". The Parish Church St, Mary's is dated back to the 12th century and is Grade II* listed. According to the Church of England, in the Diocese of Gloucester "minor alterations were made in the 13th century and again in the 15th century". And, in 1853 with the help of architect T,H Wyatt, enlarged the parish church, so central to the parish, due to a population increase within the parish.
The church's stained glass windows were "due to the generosity of a few local benefactors", which were finely designed by some of the "leading studios of the day". The most notable benefactor in the parish - Reverend R H Mullens, appointed vicar in 1869, made a generous donation to St Mary's Church in his retirement in 1911. One stained glass window was presented in memory of his wife; as the monarchy was restored, the presentation of a Royal Coat of Arms was made compulsory, asserting a royal "supremacy" within the church. St Mary's Church coat of arms reflects George III monarchy, dated 1801-1816. From the 1800s, population evidently began to rise until it reached a total of 175 residents in 1850; this can be explained by the events occurring in Gloucester in the 1800s, where city boundaries were beginning to be breached, a population increase was beginning to take place in surrounding rural areas. Evidently, in 1852 suburbs were reported to be "extending" a considerable distance and villages and parish's such as Acton Turville, were beginning to increase up to six times more than the population a hundred years ago.
Acton Turville's sudden increase in population can be explained by the introduction of industry in the area, where new canals and railways were promoted. Following this, there was a significant decrease in population around the 1900s, where population was 20% lower than it was in 1850 due to expansion in other surrounding areas. However, we see an exponential increase from 1950 to 2000, where population peaks at 370 residents, which to date, is the current population of Acton Turville; the 2001 Census data, show Acton Turville to have a population of 328 British/Irish, small number of other ethnicity groups. The ward of Cotswold Edge however, presents a much more diverse range of results with a total of 78 residents from other ethnic groups such as. According to the 2011 census data, 72% are Christian, 18% have no specified religion and the remaining 8% state no religion at all. In the first census in 1801, Britain saw a great increase in international trade. A global introduction to trading is a fact that reflects on occupational change in such small villages such as Acton Turville.
In the 1831 occupational statistics, where industrialisation is beginning, 0 residents were employed in the manufacturing industry, whereas 44 were employed in the agricultural sector. Women however, were domesticated or under an "unspecified" occupation. In the following census data, 50 years in 1881, more industrialised sectors appeared; the transport and communications sector had a total of 3 residents, where occupations such as "dress", "professionals", "domestic service and offices", "workers in house and decorations" had increased with both male and female employees. In this 50 year difference, those employed in agriculture had decreased by 5, showing a progressive shift in industry. Evidence for this can be reflected in the decline of servants which could explain the rising affluence within Acton Turville. Presently, a total of 6 residents are in the agricultural field, a high number in education, real estate and retail in accordance with the 2001 census data. Public transport in Acton Turville is limited, with the main transport link being the local bus service.
The local bus service is named "Coachstyle", with a total of 12 bus links between locations such as: Bath, Yate, Chippenham and Hallavington. The nearest train stations are Chippenham which are around 7 -- 8 miles away from the parish. According to the 2001 census data, only 6% of households in the parish are without a car/van; this shows evidence for the lack of reliance on public transport, whereas the result of those reliant on personal transport is a high result of 88.6%. Acton in the Domesday Book
Coalpit Heath is a small village in the parish of Westerleigh, South Gloucestershire, south of Yate and east of Frampton Cotterell in South Gloucestershire. Due to the expansion of Coalpit Heath and the neighbouring villages in the late 20th century, the borders of Coalpit Heath with Frampton Cotterell have become vague; the village contains one post office, a 27-hole golf course and a few local shops. The village includes a parish church, a local primary school, it was founded as a coal mining settlement. One pit was on Frog Lane at ST 685 815. Other mines operated between Mays Hill and Nibley to the north and at Ram Hill and Henfield to the south; these were closed some decades ago and no longer visible on the ground. In 1949 the coal ran out, since it has become a sought after place to live, with fields and easy accommodation; the South Gloucestershire Mines Research Group has done a lot of research into the history of mining in the area. When the Kendleshire golf course was built, the remains of many bell pits were found and there are many more in the area.
Frampton Cotterell lies along the northwest border, but the rest of the village is surrounded by the rolling Cotswold countryside, stocked full of wildlife and country pursuits. St. Saviour's Church lies within the village, it was his first Anglican Church. The history is documented here. Amenities used and supported by the village include Bitterwell Lake at Henfield and Coalpit Heath Cricket Club at Ram Hill. A number of sources, including Frank Barrett's book Where Was Wonderland? A Traveller's Guide to the Settings of Classic Children's Books, cite Coalpit Heath as the setting for the Dick King Smith children's book The Sheep-Pig adapted for film as Babe; the South Gloucestershire Mines Research Group have written two books on Coalpit Heath and the surrounding area. Details of these can be found on their website:. Available are:'Frog Lane' £12 ISBN 978-1-899889-33-4 and'Kingswood Coal' ISBN 978-0-9553464-2-2. St Saviour's Church, Coalpit Heath The Manor C of E Primary School, Coalpit Heath The South Gloucestershire Mines Research Group Review of Frank Barrett's Where Was Wonderland?
A Traveller's Guide to the Settings of Classic Children's book, within the text of the review, identifies Coalpit Heath as the location of the Sheep-Pig A site detailing the locations of popular books, which identifies Coalpit Heath as the Sheep-Pig's location interview with Paul Hawkins for God is in the TV magazine in which he talks about a song being set in Coalpit Heath
Hill is a village and civil parish in South Gloucestershire, midway between the towns of Thornbury in South Gloucestershire and Berkeley in Gloucestershire. The parish stretches from the banks of the River Severn to an outcrop of the Cotswold escarpment. At the 2001 census, it had a population of 114. Hill is 5 miles from the M5 motorway which links to Gloucester and Bristol. In 1870-72, John Marius Wilson's Imperial Gazetteer of England and Wales described Hill like this: HILL, a parish in Thornbury district, Gloucester. Posttown, Berkeley. Acres, 2, 476. Real property, £4, 146. Pop. 216. Houses, 44; the property is divided among a few. The manor belongs to Esq.. Hill Court is an ancient mansion, supposed to occupy the site of a monastery of the 12th century; the living is a donative in the diocese of Bristol. Value, £250.* Patron, Herbert Jenner, Esq. The church is good. In the Domesday Book, Hill is recorded as Hilla later between the years of 1250 to 1455 is referred to as Hulla, it was not until after 1773 until it was more known as Hill.
Census data dating back to 1831 shows that the principal industry in Hill has been agriculture, accounting for 75 percent of the workforce in 1831. One product still farmed in Hill is rapeseed, grown for the oil-rich seeds used in the production of vegetable oil; the continuing existence of four working farms in Hill today indicates that agriculture is still of importance to the local economy. The second largest category of employment has been as labourers this proportion however decreased throughout the end of the twentieth century to make way for an increase in professional employment; the employment in agriculture was male-dominated, census data from 1881 indicates that 80 percent of the employed women in Hill were employed in domestic service. According to the 2011 Census the largest proportions of employment in Hill was in the areas of manufacturing and retail; the total number of households in Hill today is similar to the number of households in Hill in 1901. The 1901 census showed there being a total of 40 households, whereas the 2011 census showed there to be a total of 42 households, the majority of which were made up of two adults with one or two children.
The Manor of Hill, known as Hill Court, was included in a grant of the Barony of Berkeley, bestowed upon Robert Fitzharding by Henry II of England after his ascension to the throne in 1154. The manor was transferred down successive generations of the Berkeley family until it came into the possession of Robert Poyntz of nearby Iron Acton in 1418; the Poyntz family gave up the Manor at the beginning of the 17th century, Richard Fust subsequently assuming the lordship in 1609. Built in 1863, the present Hill Court, home of the Jenner-Fust family, replaced an earlier building. On 18 January 1816, a group of sixteen poachers were encountered by a party of gamekeepers belonging to Colonel Berkeley and Lord Ducie at Catgrove, a wooded area in the parish of Hill; some of the poachers were in possession of firearms, which led to an assistant gamekeeper named William Ingram, a member of Colonel Berkeley's contingent, to be shot dead. The poachers, all of whom had blackened faces, fled the scene. Most, but not all, were subsequently taken into custody.
In total 11 men stood trial, all of whom were found guilty, leading to two of the guilty party being executed the following day and the remaining convicts faced transportation to Australia. According to the Ordnance Survey of 1880, the total area of the civil parish of Hill was 2270.7 acres, this included 217.95 acres of foreshore of the tidal River Severn. The boundary of the parish being the centre of the river’s channel at low tide. Over 1500 acres of Hill are meadow and pasture lands 210 acres of arable land and 130 acres of woodland. Ordnance Survey maps show Hill to have four small areas of woodland, in order of descending size these areas are. Along with these Woodland areas, Ordnance Survey maps show a number of small streams running through the centre and towards to the west of the Parish; the British History Online’s website contains an extract from A Topographical Dictionary of England by Samuel Lewis, which described Hill’s geography as: The surface of the western portion, extending to the river, here more than two miles wide, is a complete level, clothed with luxuriant herbage, studded with numerous groups of stately trees.
The soil is chiefly a loam. Hill is home to one parish church, St Michael the Archangel's Church, dedicated to Saint Michael the Archangel. St Michael's is in the archdeaconry and Diocese of Gloucester; the church was constructed in the 13th century and is a Grade II* listed building. The church has undergone restorations; the chancel was restored in 1870 by Ewan Christian, followed by the rebuilding of the porch and addition of buttresses in 1909 by William Weir and Temple Moore. Media related to Hill, Gloucestershire at Wikimedia Commons
Downend, South Gloucestershire
Downend is a residential outer suburb of Bristol in Gloucestershire, the housing stock is terraced Victorian, 1930s and 1950s semi-detached and detached. It is in the South Gloucestershire local district, located to the northeast of Bristol and bordered by the Bristol City suburb of Fishponds, the South Gloucestershire suburbs of Staple Hill, Frenchay and Emersons Green. Downend forms, with the suburb of Bromley Heath, the civil parish of Downend and Bromley Heath, created in 2003. An electoral ward in the same name exists; the total population of the ward at the 2011 census was 10,785. Downend residents are represented by the Mayor of the West of Tim Bowles. W. G. Grace, the cricketer, was born at Downend House on North Street. Olympic bronze medal winner Jenny Jones was born in Downend. Downend air crash Downend School Website Rotary Club of Fishponds & Downend Downend Round Table Downend & Bromley Heath Parish Council Website Downend Parish Magazine – August 1905