SourceForge is a web-based service that offers software developers a centralized online location to control and manage free and open-source software projects. It provides a source code repository, bug tracking, mirroring of downloads for load balancing, a wiki for documentation and user mailing lists, user-support forums, user-written reviews and ratings, a news bulletin, micro-blog for publishing project updates, other features. SourceForge was one of the first to offer this service free of charge to open-source projects. Since 2012, the website has run on Apache Allura software. SourceForge offers free access to tools for developers of free and open-source software; as of March 2014, the SourceForge repository claimed to host more than 430,000 projects and had more than 3.7 million registered users. The domain sourceforge.net attracted at least 33 million visitors by August 2009 according to a Compete.com survey. From mid-2013 SourceForge introduced a program called DevShare, which offered projects a way to monetize their downloads by having an optional download that includes prompts for the user to download additional software, not part of the project.
Negative community reactions to the partnership program led to a review of the program, nonetheless opened up to all SourceForge projects on February 7, 2014. The program was cancelled by new owners BIZX, LLC on February 9, 2016. SourceForge is a web-based source code repository, it acts as a centralized location for open-source software projects. It was the first to offer this service for free to open-source projects. Project developers have access to centralized storage and tools for managing projects, though it is best known for providing revision control systems such as CVS, SVN, Bazaar and Mercurial. Major features include project wikis and analysis, access to a MySQL database, unique sub-domain URLs; the vast number of users at SourceForge.net exposes prominent projects to a variety of developers and can create a positive feedback loop. As a project's activity rises, SourceForge.net's internal ranking system makes it more visible to other developers through SourceForge directory and Enterprise Directory.
Given that many open-source projects fail due to lack of developer support, exposure to such a large community of developers can continually breathe new life into a project. SourceForge's traditional revenue model is through advertising banner sales on their site. In 2006 SourceForge Inc. reported quarterly takings of US$6.5 million. In 2009 SourceForge reported a gross quarterly income of US$23 million through media and e-commerce streams. In 2011 a revenue of US$20 million was reported for the combined value of the SourceForge and freecode holdings, prior to SourceForge's acquisition. Since 2013 additional revenue generation schemes, such as bundleware models, have been trialled, with the goal of increasing SourceForge's revenue; the result has in some cases been the appearance of malware bundled with SourceForge downloads. On February 9, 2016, SourceForge announced they had eliminated their DevShare program practice of bundling installers with project downloads. SourceForge, founded in 1999 by VA Software, was the first provider of a centralized location for free and open-source software developers to control and manage software development and offering this service without charge.
The software running the SourceForge site was released as free software in January 2000 and was named SourceForge Alexandria. The last release under a free license was made in November 2001. SourceForge has been temporarily banned in China three times: in September 2002, in July 2008 and on August 6, 2012. In November 2008, SourceForge was sued by the French collection society Société civile des Producteurs de Phonogrammes en France for hosting downloads of the file sharing application Shareaza. In 2009 SourceForge announced a new site platform known as Allura, which would be an extensible, open source platform licensed under the Apache License, utilizing components such as Python and MongoDB, offering REST APIs. In June 2012 the Allura project was donated to the Apache Software Foundation as Apache Allura. In September 2012 SourceForge and Freecode were acquired from Geeknet by the online job site Dice.com for $20 million, incorporated into a subsidiary known as Slashdot Media. In July 2015 Dice announced that it planned to sell SourceForge and Slashdot, in January 2016 the two sites were sold to the San Diego-based BIZX, LLC for an undisclosed amount..
In December 2019, BIZX rebranded as Slashdot Media. On September 26, 2012, it was reported that attackers had compromised a SourceForge mirror, modified a download of phpMyAdmin to add security exploits; some of SourceForge's monetization practices have been met with criticism by developers and end users. In July 2013 SourceForge announced that it would provide project owners with an optional feature called DevShare, which places closed-source ad-supported content into the binary installers and gives the project part of the ad revenue. Opinions of this new feature varied. In November 2013 GIMP, a free image manipulation program, removed i
Les Champs magnétiques is a 1920 book by André Breton and Philippe Soupault. It is famous as the first work of literary Surrealism; the authors used a surrealist automatic writing technique. The book is considered Surrealist, rather than Dadaist, because it attempts to create something new rather than react to an existing work. Les Champs magnetiques is characterised by rich textured language that seems to border on the nonsensical; this is considered a "normal" result of automatic writing and is more logical than the output from other Surrealist techniques, such as "exquisite corpse". A typical paragraph in Les Champs magnetiques is: It was the end of sorrow lies; the rail stations were dead. The people hung back and watched the ocean, animals flew out of focus; the time had come. Yet king dogs never grow old – they stay young and fit, someday they might come to the beach and have a few drinks, a few laughs, get on with it, but not now. The time had come, but who would go first? The division between chapters was the point.
The next chapter was started the following morning. Breton gave many interviews about the creation of the book; the Magnetic Fields by André Breton and Philippe Soupault and introduced by David Gascoyne: Atlas Press, London, 1985
Ramsey Faragher is the CEO and Founder of Focal Point Positioning Ltd. He is a Bye-Fellow of Queens' College and lives in Cambridge, he was a Senior Research Associate at the University of Cambridge Computer Laboratory in England, working in the Digital Technology Group on infrastructure-free smartphone positioning. Faragher graduated with a Bachelor of Arts, Master of Science degrees in Experimental and Theoretical Physics from the University of Cambridge in 2004. In 2008 he was awarded a PhD, supervised by Peter Duffett Smith with a thesis on the Effects of Multipath Interference on Radio Positioning Systems. On completing his PhD, Faragher worked for BAE systems where he was a Technical Lead for a number of navigation and sensor fusion programmes, building on expertise in GPS-Denied navigation using novel methods including opportunistic radio signals, he developed the award-winning NAVSOP positioning suite. In 2014 Faragher was awarded a Fellowship by the Royal Institute of Navigation in recognition of his accomplishments.
His work in industry was recognised by Top Gear, who described Faragher as a real-life Q. Faragher founded Focal Point Positioning in 2015 with members of the original NAVSOP team. Ramsey Faragher's home page at the Computer Laboratory Focal Point Positioning Computer Laboratory Queens' College