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Source code

In computing, source code is any collection of code with comments, written using a human-readable programming language as plain text. The source code of a program is specially designed to facilitate the work of computer programmers, who specify the actions to be performed by a computer by writing source code; the source code is transformed by an assembler or compiler into binary machine code that can be executed by the computer. The machine code might be stored for execution at a time. Alternatively, source code may be interpreted and thus executed. Most application software is distributed in a form. If the source code were included it would be useful to a user, programmer or a system administrator, any of whom might wish to study or modify the program; the Linux Information Project defines source code as: Source code is the version of software as it is written by a human in plain text. The notion of source code may be taken more broadly, to include machine code and notations in graphical languages, neither of which are textual in nature.

An example from an article presented on the annual IEEE conference and on Source Code Analysis and Manipulation: For the purpose of clarity "source code" is taken to mean any executable description of a software system. It is therefore so construed as to include machine code high level languages and executable graphical representations of systems. There are several steps of program translation or minification between the original source code typed by a human and an executable program. While some, like the FSF, argue that an intermediate file "is not real source code and does not count as source code", others find it convenient to refer to each intermediate file as the source code for the next steps; the earliest programs for stored-program computers were entered in binary through the front panel switches of the computer. This first-generation programming language had no distinction between machine code; when IBM first offered software to work with its machine, the source code was provided at no additional charge.

At that time, the cost of developing and supporting software was included in the price of the hardware. For decades, IBM distributed source code with its software product licenses, until 1983. Most early computer magazines published source code as type-in programs; the entire source code to a large program is published as a hardback book, such as Computers and Typesetting, vol. B: TeX, The Program by Donald Knuth, PGP Source Code and Internals by Philip Zimmermann, PC SpeedScript by Randy Thompson, µC/OS, The Real-Time Kernel by Jean Labrosse; the source code which constitutes a program is held in one or more text files stored on a computer's hard disk. Source code can be stored in a database or elsewhere; the source code for a particular piece of software may be contained in many files. Though the practice is uncommon, a program's source code can be written in different programming languages. For example, a program written in the C programming language, might have portions written in assembly language for optimization purposes.

It is possible for some components of a piece of software to be written and compiled separately, in an arbitrary programming language, integrated into the software using a technique called library linking. In some languages, such as Java, this can be done at run time, yet another method is to make the main program an interpreter for a programming language, either designed for the application in question or general-purpose, write the bulk of the actual user functionality as macros or other forms of add-ins in this language, an approach taken for example by the GNU Emacs text editor. The code base of a computer programming project is the larger collection of all the source code of all the computer programs which make up the project, it has become common practice to maintain code bases in version control systems. Moderately complex software customarily requires the compilation or assembly of several, sometimes dozens or maybe hundreds, of different source code files. In these cases, instructions for compilations, such as a Makefile, are included with the source code.

These describe the programming relationships among the source code files, contain information about how they are to be compiled. Source code is used as input to the process that produces an executable program, it is used as a method of communicating algorithms between people. Computer programmers find it helpful to review existing source code to learn about programming techniques; the sharing of source code between developers is cited as a contributing factor to the maturation of their programming skills. Some people consider source code an expressive artistic medium. Porting software to other computer platforms is prohibitively difficult without source code. Without the source code for a particular piece of software, portability is computationally expensive. Possible porting options include binary emulation of the original platform. Decompilation of an executable program can be used to generate source code, either in assembly code or in a high-level language. Programmers adapt source code from one piece of software to use in other projects, a concept kno

451st Flying Training Squadron

The 451st Flying Training Squadron is an active United States Air Force unit. Its assigned to the 479th Flying Training Group, stationed at Florida. Established as a Martin B-26 Marauder medium bomber squadron in mid-1942. Deployed to European Theater of Operations, being assigned to VIII Bomber Command 3d Bombardment Wing in England. Engaged in attacks on enemy targets in France and the Low Countries. Supported VIII Bomber Command strategic bombardment raids in Occupied Europe and Nazi Germany, attacking enemy airfields to disrupt interceptor attacks on heavy bomber formations and destroy enemy interceptor aircraft on the ground before they could be launched. After D-Day deployed to Advanced Landing Grounds in France and Belgium. Provided tactical air support and bombardment of enemy strong points and military targets to disrupt resistance to Allied ground forces advancing from the French invasion beaches and the ensuing offensives on the continent. Attacked enemy forces as part of the Western Allied invasion of Germany, 1945 and continued offensive tactical operations in support of ground forces until German capitulation in May 1945.

Became part of the United States Air Forces in Europe army of occupation in Germany during 1945. Demobilized in place and personnel returned to the United States in the fall of 1945. Reactivated as a reserve air training command squadron. Inactivated due to funding restrictions. Assigned to Tactical Air Command and reactivated in 1954 flying North American F-86 Sabres. Inactivated in 1957 due to funding restrictions. Reactivated in 1972 as an Air Training Command navigator training squadron; as of 2 October 2009, the 451st FTS trains Combat Systems Officers utilizing 21 modified T-1A Jayhawk aircraft. Constituted as the 451st Bombardment Squadron on 19 June 1942Activated on 17 July 1942 Redesignated 451st Bombardment Squadron, Medium on 20 August 1943 Inactivated on 11 December 1945Redesignated 451st Bombardment Squadron, Light on 3 July 1947Activated in the reserve on 9 August 1947 Inactivated on 27 June 1949Redesignated 451st Fighter-Day Squadron on 24 March 1954Activated on 1 July 1954 Inactivated on 18 November 1957.

Redesignated 451st Flying Training Squadron on 28 July 1972Activated on 1 April 1973 Inactivated on 31 May 1993 Activated on 2 October 2009 322d Bombardment Group, 17 July 1942 – 11 December 1945 322d Bombardment Group, 9 August 1947 – 27 June 1949 322d Fighter-Day Group, 1 July 1954 – 18 November 1957 323d Flying Training Wing, 1 April 1973 323d Operations Group, 15 December 1991 – 31 May 1993 479th Flying Training Group, 2 October 2009 – present MacDill Field, Florida, 17 July 1942 Drane Field, Florida, 22 September-15 November 1942 RAF Rattlesden, England, 1 December 1942 RAF Bury St Edmunds, England, 22 March 1943 RAF Great Saling, England, 12 June 1943 Beauvais/Tille Airfield, France, c. 29 September 1944 Le Culot Airfield, Belgium, c. 26 March 1945 Arolsen, July 1945 Clastres Airfield, France, c. 1 October-3 December 1945 Camp Kilmer, New Jersey, 9–11 December 1945 Reading AAFld, Pennsylvania, 9 August 1947 – 27 June 1949 Foster Air Force Base, Texas, 1 July 1954 – 18 November 1957Deployed to Landstuhl Air Base, West Germany, 20 September-4 October 1956Mather Air Force Base, California, 1 April 1973 – 31 May 1993 Naval Air Station Pensacola, Florida, 2 October 2009 – present Notes American Air Museum in Britain – 451st Bomb Squadron American Battle Monuments Historical Marker Database – Calendar of Acitivities 351st Bomb Squadron This article incorporates public domain material from the Air Force Historical Research Agency website

Anderson, Capt. Barry. Army Air Forces Stations: A Guide to the Stations Where U. S. Army Air Forces Personnel Served in the United Kingdom During World War II. Maxwell AFB, AL yes: Research Division, USAF Historical Research Center. Archived from the original on 23 January 2016. Retrieved 28 June 2017. Johnson, 1st Lt. David C.. U. S. Army Air Forces Continental Airfields D-Day to V-E Day. Maxwell AFB, AL: Research Division, USAF Historical Research Center. Archived from the original on 29 September 2015. Retrieved 26 June 2017. Maurer, Maurer, ed.. Air Force Combat Units of World War II. Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History. ISBN 0-912799-02-1. LCCN 61060979. Maurer, Maurer, ed.. Combat Squadrons of the Air Force, World War II. Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History. ISBN 0-405-12194-6. LCCN 70605402. OCLC 72556. Ravenstein, Charles A.. Air Force Combat Wings, Lineage & Honors Histories 1947–1977. Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History. ISBN 0-912799-12-9. Retrieved 17 December 2016. Watkins, Robert.

Battle Colors. Vol III Insignia and Markings of the Ninth Air Force in World War II. Atglen, PA: Shiffer Publishing Ltd. ISBN 978-0-7643-2938-8


WAND, virtual channel 17, is an NBC-affiliated television station licensed to Decatur, United States and serving the Central Illinois region. The station is owned by Block Communications. WAND's studios are located on South Side Drive in Decatur, its transmitter is located along I-72, between Oreana and Argenta; the station began operations on June 17, 1953 as WTVP, owned by the Prairie Broadcasting Company of Decatur. It broadcast an analog signal on UHF channel 17 from a tower southwest of Decatur, it is the oldest station in central Illinois, the state's second-oldest station on the UHF band. It hoped to pick up programs from all four networks of the time; those hopes were dashed, WTVP had to settle for a primary affiliation with ABC and a secondary affiliation with DuMont. It was one of ABC's first fourteen primary affiliates, one of the few early ABC affiliates on the UHF band that survived the 1950s. Like many stations in medium-sized markets, WTVP was not able to get a direct network feed.

The station had to rely on kinescopes of ABC and DuMont programming from New York City and the programs aired two weeks after their live broadcast. By October, however, WTVP was able to get ABC programming live from a microwave link in Danville. At this time, it took on a secondary CBS affiliation. During the late-1950s, the station was briefly affiliated with the NTA Film Network. After WCIA signed-on from Champaign in November, WTVP continued to air some CBS programs until 1959. WTVP was sold to a Chicago-based group in 1958, only to be sold two years to Metromedia. In 1961, the station activated a low-powered translator on channel 70 in Champaign. At the time, channel 17 provided only a Grade B signal to the Champaign–Urbana side of the market and much of that area could not see it at all. Prairie Broadcasting merged with LIN Broadcasting at the end of 1965. On February 15, 1966, the call letters changed to the present WAND, its previous calls reside on a PBS member station in Peoria. On October 8, 1966, WAND activated a new 1,100-foot tower located between Oreana and Argenta, retaining its original tower as a backup.

It was topped with an experimental RCA "Vee-Zee" antenna, one of only two put into service. The second antenna was used by WJJY-TV in nearby Jacksonville, it was the first million-watt tower in the state and added Champaign-Urbana to the station's city-grade coverage. As a result, WAND became the first station in the region to provide a city-grade signal to all four of the market's largest cities. At the same time, the channel 70 translator was moved to Danville on channel 68. On March 26, 1978, WAND's tower was brought down by a massive ice storm. All but 100 feet of the tower fell down under the weight of massive sheets of ice; the collapse exposed a serious design flaw in the tower. Due to WAND's location near the bottom of the UHF dial, the antenna had been one of the heaviest used for broadcasting. However, the tower had been designed with the specifications of a much lighter antenna, was thus not properly engineered to handle so much weight; the same storm destroyed the former tower of WJJY, of a similar design and had been assembled by the same company.

WAND was off-the-air for two weeks. The translator was moved back to Champaign still on channel 68; this left Danville without over-the-air programming from ABC for several months. In 1979, WAND activated its current 1,289-foot tower situated between Oreana and Argenta, it is the tallest broadcasting tower in Illinois. Operating at a full five million watts, it was the most powerful analog signal in the state. Around this time, the station moved the translator back to Danville, this time on channel 31. LIN wholly owned WAND until March 2000 when it sold 67 percent of the station to current owner Block Communications in exchange for 100 percent of WLFI-TV in Lafayette, Indiana. However, LIN continued to operate the station for another seven years as part of the deal. On September 5, 2005, WAND became an NBC affiliate, swapping affiliations with WICS/WICD; the switch came as part of a larger nationwide deal that saw sister station WDTN in Dayton, Ohio join NBC as well. LIN sold its 33 percent share of WAND to Block, along with full operational control of the station, on November 9, 2007.

However, WAND's website remained in the old format of most of the other LIN-owned stations of the time until the WAND web site was redesigned in late-2009 or early-2010. In addition to its main signal, WAND can be seen on two low-powered digital translators: The station's digital signal is multiplexed: WAND shut down its analog signal, over UHF channel 17, on February 17, 2009, the original target date in which full-power television stations in the United States were to transition from analog to digital broadcasts under federal mandate; the station's digital signal remained on its pre-transition UHF channel 18. Through the use of PSIP, digital television receivers display the station's virtual channel as its former UHF analog channel 17. On June 6, 2011, the FCC granted WAND a construction permit to move its digital frequency back to its former analog allotment on channel 17. In late 1993, a Doppler weather radar was installed atop the station's building in Decatur. In 2006, new technology was introduced called "Live Doppler 4X".

This system consists of four real-time N


Akpeteshie is the national spirit of Ghana, produced by distilling palm wine or sugar cane. It is the most popular alcoholic drink in Ghana with many accolades such as apio, ogogoro, VC10, Kill Me Quick, Efie Nipa, Kumepreko, Apiatiti, Home Boy, Nana Drobo, One Touch among others. Ghanaian moonshine is referred to as akpeteshie. Before the advent of European colonization of what is today Ghana, the Anlo brewed a local spirit known as "kpótomenui," meaning "something hidden in a coconut mat fence."With British colonization of what became known as the Gold Coast, such local brewing was outlawed in the early 1930s. According to a 1996 interview with S. S. Dotse about his life under British colonial rule: "Our contention was that the drink the white man brought is the same as ours; the white men's contention was that ours was too strong... Before the white men came we were using akpeteshie, but when they came they banned it because they wanted to make sales on their own liquor. And so we were calling it kpótomenui.

When you had a visitor whom you knew well you ordered that kpótomenui be brought. This is akpeteshie, but it was never referred to by name."The name "akpeteshie" was given to the drink with its prohibition: the word comes from the Ga language spoken in greater Accra and means they are hiding, referring to the secretive way in which non-European inhabitants were forced to consume the beverage. Despite being outlawed, Illicit spirits remained commonplace, with reports that schoolboys were able to obtain akpeteshie through the 1930s. Demand for akpeteshie and the profits to be made from its sale was enough to encourage the spread of sugar cane cultivation in the Anlo region of Ghana. Distillation was legalized with Ghanaian independence; the first factory was established in the Volta Region, taking advantage of the area's supply of sugar cane plantations. Akpeteshie is distilled from sugarcane juice; this sweetened liquid or wine is first fermented in a large barrels, sometimes with the help of yeast.

After this first stage of fermentation, fires are built under the barrels in order to bring the liquid to a boil and pass the resulting vapor through a copper pipe within cooling barrels, where it condenses and drips into sieved jars. The boiled juice undergoes a distillation; the resulting spirit is between 50 % alcohol by volume. Akpeteshie is not professionally sealed, but instead poured into unlabeled used bottles; the spirit can be bought wholesale by the glass at boutiques and bars. Although not professionally advertised, the drink is popular; this is due to its price, lower than that of other professionally bottled or imported drinks. Its relative cheapness makes it a drink associated more with the poor, but those who can afford better quality are said to consume the spirit in secret; the potency of the liquor affects the bodily senses, providing a feeling likened to that of a knockout punch. Practiced drinkers can be seen pounding their chest. Medical practitioners have been critical of the drink's high concentration of alcohol the damage it can cause the liver and the risk of alcoholism.

66 people in Rivers State died over a few weeks that started in April 2015 due to methanol contaminated ogogoro

Janko Prunk

Janko Prunk is a Slovenian historian of modern history. He has published articles and monographs on analytical politology, modern history, the genesis of modern political formations, the history of social and political philosophy in Slovenia, he has written on the history of political movements in Europe from the end of the 18th century until today about Slovene Christian socialism and the history of Slovenian national questions. Prunk was born in the small settlement of Loka pri Zidanem Mostu, in central Slovenia, the German-occupied Slovenian Styria. Prunk started going to primary school in his birthplace. After fourth grade, he shifted to the school in nearby Radeče, he continued his secondary education at Gymnasium in Celje. Graduating from history and sociology at the University of Ljubljana in 1966, he was recruited into Yugoslav People's Army in Sisak, Socialist Republic of Croatia in the years 1966/67. He obtained his master's degree from University of Ljubljana in 1972. In 1976, he obtained his PhD with a thesis on Slovenian Christian Socialist movement 1918-1941, still a controversial topic at that time.

Prunk was awarded scholarships by the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation. He worked as a researcher and visiting professor at the University of Freiburg in 1984/1985 and 1994/1995, in 1988/1989 at the University of Cologne. From 1966 to 1995, he worked at the Institute for modern history in Ljubljana; until his retirement in 2013 he worked as professor at the Faculty of Social Sciences of the University of Ljubljana. Prunk is a member of Leibniz Institute of European History in Mainz, a senior member of the Center for European Integration Studies in Bonn. Prunk has been involved in politics; as an early admirer of Jože Pučnik, Prunk joined the Democratic Opposition of Slovenia after the democratization of Slovenia. He was an active member of the Slovenian Democratic Party. Between 1992 and 1993, Prunk served as Minister for Slovenes outside Slovenia and National Minorities in Slovenia in the first coalition cabinet of Janez Drnovšek. After 1994, Prunk withdrew from politics for over a decade. Before the parliamentary elections of 2004, he campaigned for the Slovenian Democratic Party.

In 2005, he was appointed by the Foreign Minister Dimitrij Rupel, as president of the Slovene-Croatian Historical Commission, formed by the Government of the two countries, to shed light on the history of the relations between them. Between 2004 and 2008, he served as chairman of the Slovenian Democratic Party's internal Committee for Education Policies, he resigned in 2008 because of disagreements over the Government's policy favoring private universities. After the split with the party, he became critical of the Prime Minister Janez Janša, whom he accused of being a "liberal with an authoritative touch, who aspires at becoming a Slovenian Piłsudski". After the parliamentary elections of 2008, Prunk explained his disappointment with the Slovenian Democratic Party as a consequence of its neo-liberal turn. In Prunk's opinion, the party turned its back to the ideals of welfare state held by its founding father Jože Pučnik. Prunk criticised the charismatic type of leadership of the party's president Janez Janša, stating that the party would most collapse if Janša resigned.

1999: Ambassador of the Republic of Slovenia in science award. 2016: Sigmund Zois award for superior achievement, for scientific monography Zgodovina Evrope v dobi racionalistične civilizacije 1775-2015. Prunk has written over 500 specialized articles and books, since 1966, his book, A brief history of Slovenia: Historical background of the Republic of Slovenia is one of the most comprehensive works on modern Slovenian history. History of Slovenia Official website

Floriano Ferramola

Floriano or Fioravante Ferramola was an Italian painter of the Renaissance period, active in Brescia. Mentioned for the first time in 1503, his first known work is a Nativity from 1507-1508, now in the Civi Museums of Pavia. Ferramola frescoed an Annunciation for the church of the Carmine in Brescia, painted for the church of Santa Maria delle Grazie in Brescia, he is known for his frescoes painted for the Palazzo Calini in Brescia, one of which may be viewed in London at the Victoria and Albert Museum. Farquhar, Maria. Ralph Nicholson Wornum. Biographical catalogue of the principal Italian painters. Woodfall & Kinder, Angel Court, Skinner Street, London. P. 59. Nicoli Cristiani, Federico. Della Vita delle pitture di Lattanzio Gambara. Spinelli e Valgiti, Brescia. Pp. 156–157