Hypertext is text displayed on a computer display or other electronic devices with references to other text that the reader can access. Hypertext documents are interconnected by hyperlinks, which are activated by a mouse click, keypress set or by touching the screen. Apart from text, the term "hypertext" is sometimes used to describe tables and other presentational content formats with integrated hyperlinks. Hypertext is one of the key underlying concepts of the World Wide Web, where Web pages are written in the Hypertext Markup Language; as implemented on the Web, hypertext enables the easy-to-use publication of information over the Internet.'Hypertext' is a recent coinage.'Hyper-' is used in the mathematical sense of extension and generality rather than the medical sense of'excessive'. There is no implication about size— a hypertext could contain only 500 words or so.'Hyper-' refers to structure and not size. The English prefix "hyper-" comes from the Greek prefix "ὑπερ-" and means "over" or "beyond".
It signifies the overcoming of the previous linear constraints of written text. The term "hypertext" is used where the term "hypermedia" might seem appropriate. In 1992, author Ted Nelson – who coined both terms in 1963 – wrote: By now the word "hypertext" has become accepted for branching and responding text, but the corresponding word "hypermedia", meaning complexes of branching and responding graphics and sound – as well as text – is much less used. Instead they use the strange term "interactive multimedia": this is four syllables longer, does not express the idea of extending hypertext. Hypertext documents can either be dynamic. Static hypertext can be used to cross-reference collections of data in documents, software applications, or books on CDs. A well-constructed system can incorporate other user-interface conventions, such as menus and command lines. Links used in a hypertext document replace the current piece of hypertext with the destination document. A lesser known feature is StretchText, which expands or contracts the content in place, thereby giving more control to the reader in determining the level of detail of the displayed document.
Some implementations support transclusion, where text or other content is included by reference and automatically rendered in place. Hypertext can be used to support complex and dynamic systems of linking and cross-referencing; the most famous implementation of hypertext is the World Wide Web, written in the final months of 1990 and released on the Internet in 1991. In 1941, Jorge Luis Borges published "The Garden of Forking Paths", a short story, considered an inspiration for the concept of hypertext. In 1945, Vannevar Bush wrote an article in The Atlantic Monthly called "As We May Think", about a futuristic proto-hypertext device he called a Memex. A Memex would hypothetically store - and record - content on reels of microfilm, using electric photocells to read coded symbols recorded next to individual microfilm frames while the reels spun at high speed, stopping on command; the coded symbols would enable the Memex to index and link content to create and follow associative trails. Because the Memex was never implemented and could only link content in a crude fashion — by creating chains of entire microfilm frames — the Memex is now regarded not only as a proto-hypertext device, but it is fundamental to the history of hypertext because it directly inspired the invention of hypertext by Ted Nelson and Douglas Engelbart.
In 1963, Ted Nelson coined the terms'hypertext' and'hypermedia' as part of a model he developed for creating and using linked content. He worked with Andries van Dam to develop the Hypertext Editing System in 1967 at Brown University. By 1976, its successor FRESS was used in a poetry class in which students could browse a hyperlinked set of poems and discussion by experts and other students, in what was arguably the world’s first online scholarly community which van Dam says "foreshadowed wikis and communal documents of all kinds". Ted Nelson said in the 1960s that he began implementation of a hypertext system he theorized, named Project Xanadu, but his first and incomplete public release was finished much in 1998. Douglas Engelbart independently began working on his NLS system in 1962 at Stanford Research Institute, although delays in obtaining funding and equipment meant that its key features were not completed until 1968. In December of that year, Engelbart demonstrated a'hypertext' interface to the public for the first time, in what has come to be known as "The Mother of All Demos".
The first hypermedia application is considered to be the Aspen Movie Map, implemented in 1978. The Movie Map allowed users to arbitrarily choose which way they wished to drive in a virtual cityscape, in two seasons as well as 3-D polygons. In 1980, Tim Berners-Lee created ENQUIRE, an early hypertext database system somewhat like a wiki but without hypertext punctuation, not invented until 1987; the early 1980s saw a number of experimental "hyperediting" functions in word processors and hypermedia programs, many of whose features and terminology were analogous to the World Wide Web. Guide, the first significant hypertext system for personal computers, was developed by Peter J. Brown at UKC in 1982. In 1980 Roberto Busa, an Italian Jesuit priest and one of the pioneers in the usage of
A wiki is a website on which users collaboratively modify content and structure directly from the web browser. In a typical wiki, text is written using a simplified markup language and edited with the help of a rich-text editor. A wiki is run using wiki software, otherwise known as a wiki engine. A wiki engine is a type of content management system, but it differs from most other such systems, including blog software, in that the content is created without any defined owner or leader, wikis have little inherent structure, allowing structure to emerge according to the needs of the users. There are dozens of different wiki engines in use, both standalone and part of other software, such as bug tracking systems; some wiki engines are open source. Some permit control over different functions. Others may permit access without enforcing access control. Other rules may be imposed to organize content; the online encyclopedia project Wikipedia is the most popular wiki-based website, is one of the most viewed sites in the world, having been ranked in the top ten since 2007.
Wikipedia is not a single wiki but rather a collection of hundreds of wikis, with each one pertaining to a specific language. In addition to Wikipedia, there are tens of thousands of other wikis in use, both public and private, including wikis functioning as knowledge management resources, notetaking tools, community websites, intranets; the English-language Wikipedia has the largest collection of articles. Ward Cunningham, the developer of the first wiki software, WikiWikiWeb described wiki as "the simplest online database that could work". "Wiki" is a Hawaiian word meaning "quick". Ward Cunningham and co-author Bo Leuf, in their book The Wiki Way: Quick Collaboration on the Web, described the essence of the Wiki concept as follows: A wiki invites all users—not just experts—to edit any page or to create new pages within the wiki Web site, using only a standard "plain-vanilla" Web browser without any extra add-ons. Wiki promotes meaningful topic associations between different pages by making page link creation intuitively easy and showing whether an intended target page exists or not.
A wiki is not a crafted site created by experts and professional writers, designed for casual visitors. Instead, it seeks to involve the typical visitor/user in an ongoing process of creation and collaboration that changes the website landscape. A wiki enables communities of contributors to write documents collaboratively. All that people require to contribute is a computer, Internet access, a web browser, a basic understanding of a simple markup language. A single page in a wiki website is referred to as a "wiki page", while the entire collection of pages, which are well-interconnected by hyperlinks, is "the wiki". A wiki is a database for creating and searching through information. A wiki allows non-linear, evolving and networked text, while allowing for editor argument and interaction regarding the content and formatting. A defining characteristic of wiki technology is the ease with which pages can be created and updated. There is no review by a moderator or gatekeeper before modifications are accepted and thus lead to changes on the website.
Many wikis are open to alteration by the general public without requiring registration of user accounts. Many edits can be made in real-time and appear instantly online, but this feature facilitates abuse of the system. Private wiki servers require user authentication to edit pages, sometimes to read them. Maged N. Kamel Boulos, Cito Maramba, Steve Wheeler write that the open wikis produce a process of Social Darwinism. "'Unfit' sentences and sections are ruthlessly culled and replaced if they are not considered'fit', which results in the evolution of a higher quality and more relevant page. While such openness may invite'vandalism' and the posting of untrue information, this same openness makes it possible to correct or restore a'quality' wiki page." Some wikis have an Edit button or link directly on the page being viewed, if the user has permission to edit the page. This can lead to a text-based editing page where participants can structure and format wiki pages with a simplified markup language, sometimes known as Wikitext, Wiki markup or Wikicode.
An example of this is the VisualEditor on Wikipedia. WYSIWYG controls do not, always provide
Everything2, or E2 for short, is a collaborative Web-based community consisting of a database of interlinked user-submitted written material. E2 has no formal policy on subject matter. Writing on E2 covers a wide range of topics and genres, including encyclopedic articles, diary entries, poetry and fiction; the predecessor of E2 was a similar database called Everything, started around March 1998 by Nathan Oostendorp and was closely aligned with and promoted by the technology-related news website Slashdot sharing some administrators. The Everything1 software offered vastly more features, the Everything1 data was twice incorporated into E2: once on November 13, 1999, again in January 2000; the Everything2 server used to be colocated with the Slashdot servers. However, some time after OSDN acquired Slashdot, moved the Slashdot servers, this hosting was terminated on short notice; this resulted in Everything2 being offline from November 6 to December 9, 2003. Everything2 was hosted by the University of Michigan for a time.
As the Everything2 site put it on October 2, 2006: Now, we have an arrangement with the University of Michigan, located in Ann Arbor. We exist thanks to their generosity, they gave us some servers and act as our ISP, free of charge, all they ask in exchange is that we not display advertisements. The Everything2 servers were moved to the nearby Michigan State University in February 2007. E2 was owned by the Blockstackers Intergalactic company, but does not make a profit and is viewed by its long-term users as a collaborative work-in-progress; until mid-2007 it accepted donations of money and, on occasion, of computer hardware but no longer does so. Some of its administrators are affiliated with Blockstackers, some are not; the site is not a democracy, the degree to which users influence decisions depends on the nature of the decisions and the administrators making them. As of January 23, 2012, it was announced that the site had been sold to long-time user and coder Jay Bonci under the name Everything2 Media LLC.
Writeups in E1 were limited to 512 bytes in size. This, plus the predominantly "geek" membership back and the lack of chat facilities, meant the early work was of poor quality and was filled with self-referential humor; as E2 has expanded, stricter quality standards have developed, much of the old material has been removed, the membership has become broader in interest, although smaller in number. Many noders prefer to write encyclopedic articles similar to those on Wikipedia; some write fiction or poetry, some discuss issues, some write daily journals, called "daylogs." Unlike Wikipedia, E2 does not have an enforced neutral point of view. An informal survey of noder political beliefs indicates that the user base tends to lean left politically. There are conservative voices as well and while debate nodes are tolerated, well-formed points of view from any part of the political or cultural spectrum are. According to E2's "Site Trajectory", traffic has dropped from 9976 new write-ups created in the month of August 2000, down to 93 new write-ups in February 2017.
Some of the management regard Everything2 as a publication. Although Everything2 does not seek to become an encyclopedia, a substantial amount of factual content has been submitted to Everything2. Policy states that "Everything2 is not a bulletin board." Writeups which exist as replies to other writeups, or which add a minor point to them or which otherwise do not stand well alone are discouraged, not least because the deletion of the original writeup orphans any replies. This policy helps to moderate flame wars on controversial topics. Everything2 is not a wiki, there is no direct way for non-content editors to make corrections or amendments to another author's article. Avenues for correction involve discussing the writeup with its author. Like other online communities, E2 has a social hierarchy and code of behavior, to which it is sometimes difficult for a newcomer to adjust. Moreover, some people complain that new users are held to a different standard from established contributors, that their writeups are singled out for deletion regardless of content.
Another complaint is that all too site administrators remove articles that they do not agree with or which they do not see explicit value in, thus biasing the content of the database. Others dismiss such complaints as unjustified. There is no consistent, written site policy on acceptable behavior, although the usual intolerance for trolling or hatemongering remains, as is the case with most web-based communities. Bans have occurred for antisocial and/or insulting behaviour, albeit rarely and only after a more personal approach to change the offender's behavior. Though these decisions are broadly accepted, some current and ex-members of the site believe that this amounts to mismanagement, point to accumulation of disgruntled ex-users as evidence of a problem. A noder will request their E2 account be locked, preventing them from logging in; the causes for this are varied as the causes f
World Wide Web
The World Wide Web known as the Web, is an information space where documents and other web resources are identified by Uniform Resource Locators, which may be interlinked by hypertext, are accessible over the Internet. The resources of the WWW may be accessed by users by a software application called a web browser. English scientist Tim Berners-Lee invented the World Wide Web in 1989, he wrote the first web browser in 1990 while employed at CERN near Switzerland. The browser was released outside CERN in 1991, first to other research institutions starting in January 1991 and to the general public in August 1991; the World Wide Web has been central to the development of the Information Age and is the primary tool billions of people use to interact on the Internet. Web resources may be any type of downloaded media, but web pages are hypertext media that have been formatted in Hypertext Markup Language; such formatting allows for embedded hyperlinks that contain URLs and permit users to navigate to other web resources.
In addition to text, web pages may contain images, video and software components that are rendered in the user's web browser as coherent pages of multimedia content. Multiple web resources with a common theme, a common domain name, or both, make up a website. Websites are stored in computers that are running a program called a web server that responds to requests made over the Internet from web browsers running on a user's computer. Website content can be provided by a publisher, or interactively where users contribute content or the content depends upon the users or their actions. Websites may be provided for a myriad of informative, commercial, governmental, or non-governmental reasons. Tim Berners-Lee's vision of a global hyperlinked information system became a possibility by the second half of the 1980s. By 1985, the global Internet began to proliferate in Europe and the Domain Name System came into being. In 1988 the first direct IP connection between Europe and North America was made and Berners-Lee began to discuss the possibility of a web-like system at CERN.
While working at CERN, Berners-Lee became frustrated with the inefficiencies and difficulties posed by finding information stored on different computers. On March 12, 1989, he submitted a memorandum, titled "Information Management: A Proposal", to the management at CERN for a system called "Mesh" that referenced ENQUIRE, a database and software project he had built in 1980, which used the term "web" and described a more elaborate information management system based on links embedded as text: "Imagine the references in this document all being associated with the network address of the thing to which they referred, so that while reading this document, you could skip to them with a click of the mouse." Such a system, he explained, could be referred to using one of the existing meanings of the word hypertext, a term that he says was coined in the 1950s. There is no reason, the proposal continues, why such hypertext links could not encompass multimedia documents including graphics and video, so that Berners-Lee goes on to use the term hypermedia.
With help from his colleague and fellow hypertext enthusiast Robert Cailliau he published a more formal proposal on 12 November 1990 to build a "Hypertext project" called "WorldWideWeb" as a "web" of "hypertext documents" to be viewed by "browsers" using a client–server architecture. At this point HTML and HTTP had been in development for about two months and the first Web server was about a month from completing its first successful test; this proposal estimated that a read-only web would be developed within three months and that it would take six months to achieve "the creation of new links and new material by readers, authorship becomes universal" as well as "the automatic notification of a reader when new material of interest to him/her has become available". While the read-only goal was met, accessible authorship of web content took longer to mature, with the wiki concept, WebDAV, Web 2.0 and RSS/Atom. The proposal was modelled after the SGML reader Dynatext by Electronic Book Technology, a spin-off from the Institute for Research in Information and Scholarship at Brown University.
The Dynatext system, licensed by CERN, was a key player in the extension of SGML ISO 8879:1986 to Hypermedia within HyTime, but it was considered too expensive and had an inappropriate licensing policy for use in the general high energy physics community, namely a fee for each document and each document alteration. A NeXT Computer was used by Berners-Lee as the world's first web server and to write the first web browser, WorldWideWeb, in 1990. By Christmas 1990, Berners-Lee had built all the tools necessary for a working Web: the first web browser and the first web server; the first web site, which described the project itself, was published on 20 December 1990. The first web page may be lost, but Paul Jones of UNC-Chapel Hill in North Carolina announced in May 2013 that Berners-Lee gave him what he says is the oldest known web page during a 1991 visit to UNC. Jones stored it on his NeXT computer. On 6 August 1991, Berners-Lee published a short summary of the World Wide Web project on the newsgroup alt.hypertext.
This date is sometimes confused with the public availability of the first web servers, which had occurred months earlier. As another example of such confusion, several news media reported that the first photo on the Web was published by Berners-Lee in 1992, an image of the CERN house band Les Horribles Cernettes taken by Silvano de Gennaro.
A digital watermark is a kind of marker covertly embedded in a noise-tolerant signal such as audio, video or image data. It is used to identify ownership of the copyright of such signal. "Watermarking" is the process of hiding digital information in a carrier signal. Digital watermarks may be used to verify the authenticity or integrity of the carrier signal or to show the identity of its owners, it is prominently used for banknote authentication. Like traditional physical watermarks, digital watermarks are only perceptible under certain conditions, i.e. after using some algorithm. If a digital watermark distorts the carrier signal in a way that it becomes perceivable, it may be considered less effective depending on its purpose. Traditional watermarks may be applied to visible media, whereas in digital watermarking, the signal may be audio, video, texts or 3D models. A signal may carry several different watermarks at the same time. Unlike metadata, added to the carrier signal, a digital watermark does not change the size of the carrier signal.
The needed properties of a digital watermark depend on the use case. For marking media files with copyright information, a digital watermark has to be rather robust against modifications that can be applied to the carrier signal. Instead, if integrity has to be ensured, a fragile watermark would be applied. Both steganography and digital watermarking employ steganographic techniques to embed data covertly in noisy signals. While steganography aims for imperceptibility to human senses, digital watermarking tries to control the robustness as top priority. Since a digital copy of data is the same as the original, digital watermarking is a passive protection tool, it just does not degrade it or control access to the data. One application of digital watermarking is source tracking. A watermark is embedded into a digital signal at each point of distribution. If a copy of the work is found then the watermark may be retrieved from the copy and the source of the distribution is known; this technique has been used to detect the source of illegally copied movies.
The term "Digital Watermark" was coined by Andrew Tirkel and Charles Osborne in December 1992. The first successful embedding and extraction of a steganographic spread spectrum watermark was demonstrated in 1993 by Andrew Tirkel, Charles Osborne and Gerard Rankin. Watermarks are identification marks produced during the paper making process; the first watermarks appeared in Italy during the 13th century, but their use spread across Europe. They were used as a means to identify the paper maker or the trade guild that manufactured the paper; the marks were created by a wire sewn onto the paper mold. Watermarks continue to prevent forgery. Digital watermarking may be used for a wide range of applications, such as: Copyright protection Source tracking Broadcast monitoring Video authentication Software crippling on screencasting and video editing software programs, to encourage users to purchase the full version to remove it. ID card security Fraud and Tamper detection. Content management on social networks The information to be embedded in a signal is called a digital watermark, although in some contexts the phrase digital watermark means the difference between the watermarked signal and the cover signal.
The signal where the watermark is to be embedded is called the host signal. A watermarking system is divided into three distinct steps, embedding and detection. In embedding, an algorithm accepts the host and the data to be embedded, produces a watermarked signal; the watermarked digital signal is transmitted or stored transmitted to another person. If this person makes a modification, this is called an attack. While the modification may not be malicious, the term attack arises from copyright protection application, where third parties may attempt to remove the digital watermark through modification. There are many possible modifications, for example, lossy compression of the data, cropping an image or video, or intentionally adding noise. Detection is an algorithm, applied to the attacked signal to attempt to extract the watermark from it. If the signal was unmodified during transmission the watermark still is present and it may be extracted. In robust digital watermarking applications, the extraction algorithm should be able to produce the watermark even if the modifications were strong.
In fragile digital watermarking, the extraction algorithm should fail if any change is made to the signal. A digital watermark is called robust with respect to transformations if the embedded information may be detected reliably from the marked signal if degraded by any number of transformations. Typical image degradations are JPEG compression, cropping, additive noise, quantization. For video content, temporal modifications and MPEG compression are added to this list. A digital watermark is called imperceptible if the watermarked content is perceptually equivalent to the original, unwatermarked content. In general, it is easy to create either robust watermarks—or—imperceptible watermarks, but the creation of both robust—and—imperceptible watermarks has proven to be quite challenging. Robust imperceptible watermarks have been proposed as a tool for the protection of digital content, for example as an embedded no-copy-allowed flag
It describes 18 elements comprising the initial simple design of HTML. Except for the hyperlink tag, these were influenced by SGMLguid, an in-house Standard Generalized Markup Language -based documentation format at CERN. Eleven of these elements still exist in HTML 4. HTML is a markup language that web browsers use to interpret and compose text and other material into visual or audible web pages. Default characteristics for every item of HTML markup are defined in the browser, these characteristics can be altered or enhanced by the web page designer's additional use of CSS. Many of the text elements are found in the 1988 ISO technical report TR 9537 Techniques for using SGML, which in turn covers the features of early text formatting languages such as that used by the RUNOFF command developed in the early 1960s for the CTSS operating system: these formatting commands were derived from the commands used by typesetters to manually format documents. However, the SGML concept of generalized markup is based on elements rather than print effects, with the separation of structure and markup.
Berners-Lee considered HTML to be an application of SGML. It was formally defined as such by the Internet Engineering Task Force with the mid-1993 publication of the first proposal for an HTML specification, the "Hypertext Markup Language" Internet Draft by Berners-Lee and Dan Connolly, which included an SGML Document type definition to define the grammar; the draft expired after six months, but was notable for its acknowledgment of the NCSA Mosaic browser's custom tag for embedding in-line images, reflecting the IETF's philosophy of basing standards on successful prototypes. Dave Raggett's competing Internet-Draft, "HTML+", from late 1993, suggested standardizing already-implemented features like tables and fill-out forms. After the HTML and HTML+ drafts expired in early 1994, the IETF created an HTML Working Group, which in 1995 completed "HTML 2.0", the first HTML specification intended to be treated as a standard against which future implementations should be based. Further development under the auspices of the IETF was stalled by competing interests.
Since 1996, the HTML specifications have been maintained, with input from commercial software vendors, by the World Wide Web Consortium. However, in 2000, HTML became an international standard. HTML 4.01 was published in late 1999, with further errata published through 2001. In 2004, development began on HTML5 in the Web Hypertext Application Technology Working Group, which became a joint deliverable with the W3C in 2008, completed and standardized on 28 October 2014. November 24, 1995 HTML 2.0 was published as RFC 1866. Supplemental RFCs added capabilities: November 25, 1995: RFC 1867 May 1996: RFC 1942 August 1996: RFC 1980 January 1997: RFC 2070 January 14, 1997 HTML 3.2 was published as a W3C Recommendation. It was the first version developed and standardized by the W3C, as the IETF had closed its HTML Working Group on September 12, 1996. Code-named "Wilbur", HTML 3.2 dropped math formulas reconciled overlap among various proprietary extensions and adopted most of Netscape's visual markup tags.
Netscape's blink element and Microsoft's marquee element were omitted due to a mutual agreement between the two companies. A markup for mathematical formu
Hypertext Transfer Protocol
The Hypertext Transfer Protocol is an application protocol for distributed, hypermedia information systems. HTTP is the foundation of data communication for the World Wide Web, where hypertext documents include hyperlinks to other resources that the user can access, for example by a mouse click or by tapping the screen in a web browser. HTTP was developed to facilitate the World Wide Web. Development of HTTP was initiated by Tim Berners-Lee at CERN in 1989. Development of HTTP standards was coordinated by the Internet Engineering Task Force and the World Wide Web Consortium, culminating in the publication of a series of Requests for Comments; the first definition of HTTP/1.1, the version of HTTP in common use, occurred in RFC 2068 in 1997, although this was made obsolete by RFC 2616 in 1999 and again by the RFC 7230 family of RFCs in 2014. A version, the successor HTTP/2, was standardized in 2015, is now supported by major web servers and browsers over Transport Layer Security using Application-Layer Protocol Negotiation extension where TLS 1.2 or newer is required.
HTTP functions as a request–response protocol in the client–server computing model. A web browser, for example, may be the client and an application running on a computer hosting a website may be the server; the client submits an HTTP request message to the server. The server, which provides resources such as HTML files and other content, or performs other functions on behalf of the client, returns a response message to the client; the response contains completion status information about the request and may contain requested content in its message body. A web browser is an example of a user agent. Other types of user agent include the indexing software used by search providers, voice browsers, mobile apps, other software that accesses, consumes, or displays web content. HTTP is designed to permit intermediate network elements to improve or enable communications between clients and servers. High-traffic websites benefit from web cache servers that deliver content on behalf of upstream servers to improve response time.
Web browsers cache accessed web resources and reuse them, when possible, to reduce network traffic. HTTP proxy servers at private network boundaries can facilitate communication for clients without a globally routable address, by relaying messages with external servers. HTTP is an application layer protocol designed within the framework of the Internet protocol suite, its definition presumes an underlying and reliable transport layer protocol, Transmission Control Protocol is used. However, HTTP can be adapted to use unreliable protocols such as the User Datagram Protocol, for example in HTTPU and Simple Service Discovery Protocol. HTTP resources are identified and located on the network by Uniform Resource Locators, using the Uniform Resource Identifiers schemes http and https. URIs and hyperlinks in HTML documents form interlinked hypertext documents. HTTP/1.1 is a revision of the original HTTP. In HTTP/1.0 a separate connection to the same server is made for every resource request. HTTP/1.1 can reuse a connection multiple times to download images, stylesheets, etc after the page has been delivered.
HTTP/1.1 communications therefore experience less latency as the establishment of TCP connections presents considerable overhead. The term hypertext was coined by Ted Nelson in 1965 in the Xanadu Project, in turn inspired by Vannevar Bush's 1930s vision of the microfilm-based information retrieval and management "memex" system described in his 1945 essay "As We May Think". Tim Berners-Lee and his team at CERN are credited with inventing the original HTTP, along with HTML and the associated technology for a web server and a text-based web browser. Berners-Lee first proposed the "WorldWideWeb" project in 1989—now known as the World Wide Web; the first version of the protocol had only one method, namely GET, which would request a page from a server. The response from the server was always an HTML page; the first documented version of HTTP was HTTP V0.9. Dave Raggett led the HTTP Working Group in 1995 and wanted to expand the protocol with extended operations, extended negotiation, richer meta-information, tied with a security protocol which became more efficient by adding additional methods and header fields.
RFC 1945 introduced and recognized HTTP V1.0 in 1996. The HTTP WG planned to publish new standards in December 1995 and the support for pre-standard HTTP/1.1 based on the developing RFC 2068 was adopted by the major browser developers in early 1996. By March that year, pre-standard HTTP/1.1 was supported in Arena, Netscape 2.0, Netscape Navigator Gold 2.01, Mosaic 2.7, Lynx 2.5, in Internet Explorer 2.0. End-user adoption of the new browsers was rapid. In March 1996, one web hosting company reported that over 40% of browsers in use on the Internet were HTTP 1.1 compliant. That same web hosting company reported that by June 1996, 65% of all browsers accessing their servers were HTTP/1.1 compliant. The HTTP/1.1 standard as defined in RFC 2068 was released in January 1997. Improvements and updates to the HTTP/1.1 standard were released under RFC 2616 in June 1999. In 2007, the HTTPbis Working Group was formed, in part, to revise and clarify the HTTP/1.1 specification. In June 2014, the WG released an updated six-part specification obsoleting RFC 2616: RFC 7230, HTTP/1.1: Message Syntax and Routing RFC 7231, HTTP/1.1: Semantics and Content RFC 7232, HTTP/1.1: Conditional Requests RFC 7233, HTTP/1.1: Range Requests RFC 7234, HTTP/1.1: Caching RFC 7235, HTTP/1