Southern District (Botswana)
Southern is one of the districts of Botswana. The capital of Southern district is Kanye, home to the Bangwaketse, one of the largest growing villages in Botswana; the Southern district, is home to Botswana’s second largest beef farmers where there are large owned ranges, several government run beef ranges which provide agricultural support to the local farmers. Maize and sorghum, Botswana’s staple crop, are raised in the area. Southern district is where the third diamond mine of Botswana was found, which buoys Botswana’s economic state of prosperity, it was the first district to house the capital city before being moved to Gaborone after independence. In the south, Southern borders the North West Province of South Africa. Domestically, it borders South-East District in east, Kweneng District in north, Kgalagadi District and south west; as of 2011, the total population of the district was 197,767 compared to 171,652 in 2001. The growth rate of population during the decade was 1.43. The total number of workers constituted 51,187 with 29,043 males and 22,141 females, with a majority involved in agriculture.
The district is administered by a district administration and district council which are responsible for local administration. In the south, Southern borders the North West Province of South Africa. Domestically, it borders South-East District in east, Kweneng District in north, Kgalagadi District and south west. Southern District is traversed by the northwesterly line of equal longitude. Most part of Botswana has tableland slopes sliding from east to west; the region has an average elevation of around 915 m above the mean sea level. The vegetation type is Savannah, with tall grasses and trees; the annual precipitation is around 65 cm, most of, received during the summer season from November to May. Most of the rivers in the region are seasonal prone to flash floods. Southern district is where the third diamond mine of Botswana was found, which drives Botswana’s economic state of prosperity. Botswana gained independence from the British in 1966 and adapted the colonial administration framework to form its district administration.
The policies were modified during 1970-74 to address some of the basic issues. The district is administered by a district administration and district council which are responsible for local administration; the policies for the administration are framed by the Ministry of Local Government. The major activities of the council are Tribal Administration, Remote Area Development and Local Governance; the executive powers of the council are vested on a commissioner appointed by the central government. Technical services wing of the Department of Local Government is responsible for developing roads, infrastructure in villages like water supply and recreational facilities. All the staff of the local administration expect District Administration are selected via Unified Local Government Services and the Ministry of Local Government is responsible for their training and career development; the sub-districts of Southern District created as a part of National Development Park of the district are Barolong and Ngwaketse West.
In the 2011 Census the following villages were listed under each sub-district: Barolong sub-district: Bethel, Digawana, Dinatshana, Gamajalela, Good Hope, Kangwe, Lejwana, Logagane, Mabule, Magoriapitse, Malokaganyane, Metlobo, Mmakgori, Mogojogojo, Mokatako, Molete, Musi, Papatlo, Pitsana-Potokwe, Pitsane Siding, Pitshane Molopo, Ramatlabama, Sekhutlane, Sheep Farm, Tshidilamolomo, Tswagare/Lothoje/Lokalana and Tswanyaneng Ngwaketse sub-district: Betesankwe, Dipotsana, Kanye, Lefoko, Lorolwana, Lotlhakane West, Manyana, Mogonye, Molapowabojang, Moshupa, Pitseng, Ranaka, Seherelela, Semane, Sesung, Tlhankane and Tsonyane Ngwaketse West sub-district: Itholoke, Keng, Khonkhwa, Kutuku, Mahotshwane, Sekoma As of 2011, the total population of the district was 197,767 compared to 171,652 in 2001. The growth rate of population during the decade was 1.43. The population in the district was 9.77 per cent of the total population in the country. The sex ratio stood at 93.97 for every 100 males, compared to 92.25 in 2001.
The average house hold size was 3.51 in 2011 compared to 4.60 in 2001. There were 5,405 craft and related workers, 1,656 clerks, 11,018 people working in elementary occupation 724 legislators and managers 2,069 plant and machine operators and assemblers, 1,195 professionals, 3,820 service workers and market sales workers, 3,646 skilled agricultural and related workers, 2,705 technicians and associated professionals, making the total work force 32,431; as of 2011, there were a total of 128 schools in the district, with 8.30 per cent private schools. The total number of students in the Council schools was 40,973, while it was 1,602 in private schools; the total number of students enrolled in the district was 42,575: 20,704 girls and 21,871 boys. The total number of qualified teachers was 1,819, 1,370 female and 449 male. There were around 73 temporary teachers, 41 male and 114 female. There were 2 untrained teachers in the district; as of 2006, 18,751 were involved in Agriculture, 1,832 in Construction, 5,042 in Education, 304 in Electricity & Water, 399 in Finance, 1,339 in Health, 1,08
The Limpopo River rises in South Africa, flows eastwards to the Indian Ocean in Mozambique. The term Limpopo is derived from Rivombo, a group of Tsonga setters led by Hosi Rivombo who settled in the mountainous vicinity and named the area after their leader; the river is 1,750 kilometres long, with a drainage basin 415,000 square kilometres in size. The mean discharge measured over a year is 170 m3/s at its mouth; the Limpopo is the second largest river in Africa that drains to the Indian Ocean, after the Zambezi River. The first European to sight the river was Vasco da Gama, who anchored off its mouth in 1498 and named it Espiritu Santo River, its lower course was explored by St Vincent Whitshed Erskine in 1868–69, Captain J F Elton travelled down its middle course in 1870. The drainage area of Limpopo River has decreased over geological time. Up to Late Pliocene or Pleistocene times the upper course of Zambezi River drained into the Limpopo River; the change of the drainage divide is the result of epeirogenic movement that uplifted the surface north of present-day Limpopo River diverting waters into Zambezi River.
The river flows in a great arc, first zigzagging north and north-east turning east and south-east. It serves as a border for about 640 kilometres, separating South Africa to the southeast from Botswana to the northwest and Zimbabwe to the north. Two of its tributaries, the Marico River and the Crocodile River join, at which point the name changes to Limpopo River. There are several rapids; the Notwane River is a major tributary of the Limpopo, rising on the edge of the Kalahari Desert in Botswana and flowing in a north-easterly direction. The main tributary of the Limpopo, the Olifants River, contributes around 1,233 million m3 of water per year. Other major tributaries include the Shashe River, Mzingwane River, Crocodile River, Mwenezi River and Luvuvhu River. In the north-eastern corner of South Africa the river borders the Kruger National Park; the port town of Xai-Xai, Mozambique is on the river near the mouth. Below the Olifants, the river is permanently navigable to the sea, though a sandbar prevents access by large ships except at high tide.
Notwane River Bonwapitse River Mahalapswe River Lotsane River Motloutse River Shashe River Umzingwani River Bubi River Mwenezi River Changane River Marico River Crocodile River Matlabas River Mokolo River Palala River Mogalakwena River Kolope River Sand River Nwanedi River Luvuvhu River Olifants River The waters of the Limpopo flow sluggishly, with considerable silt content. Rudyard Kipling's characterization of the river as the "great grey-green, greasy Limpopo River, all set about with fever-trees," where the "Bi-Coloured Python Rock-Snake" dwells in the Just So Stories is apt. Rainfall is seasonal and unreliable: in dry years, the upper parts of the river flow for 40 days or less; the upper part of the drainage basin, in the Kalahari Desert, is arid but conditions become less arid further downriver. The next reaches drain the Waterberg Massif, a biome of semi-deciduous forest and low-density human population. About 14 million people live in the Limpopo basin; the fertile lowlands support a denser population.
Flooding during the rainy season is an occasional problem in the lower reaches. During February 2000 heavy rainfalls caused the catastrophic 2000 Mozambique flood; the highest concentration of hippopotamus in the Limpopo River is found between the Mokolo and the Mogalakwena Rivers. There is a lot of mining activity in the Limpopo River basin with about 1,900 mines, not counting about 1,700 abandoned mines. Vasco da Gama on his first expedition, was among the first Europeans to sight the river, when he anchored off the mouth in 1498. However, there has been human habitation in the region since time immemorial — sites in the Makapans Valley near Mokopane contain Australopithecus fossils from 3.5 million years ago. St Vincent Whitshed Erskine Surveyor General for South Africa, traveled to the mouth of the river in 1868-69. A Zambezi shark was caught hundreds of kilometres upriver at the confluence of the Limpopo and Luvuvhu Rivers in July 1950. Zambezi sharks can travel far up the Limpopo. In 2013 15,000 Nile crocodiles were released into the river from flood gates at the nearby Rakwena Crocodile Farm.
Limpopo Water Management Area Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park List of international border rivers Drainage basin A Climate change implications for water resources in the Limpopo River Basin, study by IFPRI Green and blue water accounting in the Limpopo and Nile Basins, study by IFPRI Limpopo Watercourse Commission www.limcom.org Limpopo River Awareness Kit FROC - Reference frequency of occurrence of fish species in South Africa
Scramble for Africa
The Scramble for Africa was the occupation and colonisation of African territory by Western European powers during the period of the New Imperialism, between 1881 and 1914. In 1870, only 10 percent of Africa was under formal European control. With the Italian occupation of Ethiopia in 1936, only Liberia remained independent. There were multiple motivations for European colonizers, including the quest for national prestige, tensions between pairs of European powers, religious missionary zeal and internal African native politics; the Berlin Conference of 1884, which regulated European colonisation and trade in Africa, is referred to as the ultimate point of the Scramble for Africa. Consequent to the political and economic rivalries among the European empires in the last quarter of the 19th century, the partitioning, or splitting up of Africa was how the Europeans avoided warring amongst themselves over Africa; the years of the 19th century saw the transition from "informal imperialism" by military influence and economic dominance, to direct rule, bringing about colonial imperialism.
By 1840, European powers had established small trading posts along the coast, but they moved inland. In the middle decades of the 19th century, European explorers had mapped areas of East Africa and Central Africa; as late as the 1870s, Western European states controlled only ten percent of the African continent, with all their territories located near the coast. The most important holdings were Mozambique, held by Portugal. By 1914, only Ethiopia and Liberia remained independent of European control. Technological advances facilitated European expansion overseas. Industrialisation brought about rapid advancements in transportation and communication in the forms of steamships and telegraphs. Medical advances played an important role medicines for tropical diseases; the development of quinine, an effective treatment for malaria, made vast expanses of the tropics more accessible for Europeans. Sub-Saharan Africa, one of the last regions of the world untouched by "informal imperialism", was attractive to Europe's ruling elites for economic and social reasons.
During a time when Britain's balance of trade showed a growing deficit, with shrinking and protectionist continental markets due to the Long Depression, Africa offered Britain, Germany and other countries an open market that would garner them a trade surplus: a market that bought more from the colonial power than it sold overall. Surplus capital was more profitably invested overseas, where cheap materials, limited competition, abundant raw materials made a greater premium possible. Another inducement for imperialism arose from the demand for raw materials copper, rubber, palm oil, diamonds and tin, to which European consumers had grown accustomed and upon which European industry had grown dependent. Additionally, Britain wanted the southern and eastern coasts of Africa for stopover ports on the route to Asia and its empire in India. However, in Africa – excluding the area which became the Union of South Africa in 1910 – the amount of capital investment by Europeans was small, compared to other continents.
The companies involved in tropical African commerce were small, apart from Cecil Rhodes's De Beers Mining Company. Rhodes had carved out Rhodesia for himself; these events might detract from the pro-imperialist arguments of colonial lobbyists such as the Alldeutscher Verband, Francesco Crispi and Jules Ferry, who argued that sheltered overseas markets in Africa would solve the problems of low prices and overproduction caused by shrinking continental markets. John A. Hobson argued in Imperialism that this shrinking of continental markets was a key factor of the global "New Imperialism" period. William Easterly, disagrees with the link made between capitalism and imperialism, arguing that colonialism is used to promote state-led development rather than "corporate" development, he has stated that "imperialism is not so linked to capitalism and the free markets... there has been a closer link between colonialism/imperialism and state-led approaches to development." The rivalry between Britain, France and the other Western European powers accounts for a large part of the colonization.
While tropical Africa was not a large zone of investment, other overseas regions were. The vast interior between Egypt and the gold and diamond-rich southern Africa had strategic value in securing the flow of overseas trade. Britain was under political pressure to secure lucrative markets against encroaching rivals in China and its eastern colonies, most notably India, Malaya and New Zealand. Thus, it was crucial to secure the key waterway between West -- the Suez Canal. However, a theory that Britain sought to annex East Africa during the 1880 onwards, out of geostrategic concerns connected to Egypt, has been challenged by historians such as John Darwin and Jonas F. Gjersø; the scramble for African territory reflected concern for the acquisition of military and naval bases, for strategic purposes and the exercise of power. The growing navies, new ships driven by steam power, required coaling stations and ports for maintenance. Defense bases were needed for the protection of sea routes and communication lines of expensive and vital internatio
Mokolodi Nature Reserve
Mokolodi Nature Reserve is a private not-for-profit game reserve in southern Botswana. Founded in 1994 by The Mokolodi Wildlife Foundation, it is situated on 30 km sq. of donated land 10 km south of the capital Gaborone. The nature reserve is inhabited by a wide variety of indigenous African game and reptile species, some of which are rare and vulnerable to the threat of extinction; the southern white rhinoceros herd at Mokolodi Nature Reserve is part of a national breeding programme which contributes to the re-building of the national herd in Botswana. Environmental and conservation education are the key objectives of The Mokolodi Wildlife Foundation; the nature reserve hosts children from across Botswana, some of whom are from disadvantaged backgrounds. The fee-based activity and accommodation services offered to the public by Mokolodi Nature Reserve support the Foundation's charitable objectives, to present the children of Botswana with the opportunity to embrace the natural world and to promote the wider protection of Botswana's natural environment.
The park contains many species of wildlife such as southern white rhino, South African cheetah, mountain reedbuck, South African giraffe, red hartebeest, gemsbok, kudu, spotted hyena and waterbuck. The park is developed as a game sanctuary with an extensive network of paths, which permits viewing the wild life at close quarters; the park administration is planning to expand its limits of conservation area up to the Lion Park. Official Website
North West (South African province)
North West is a province of South Africa. Its capital is Mahikeng. Klerksdorp is the largest city in the province; the province is located to the west of the major population centre of Gauteng. North West was created after the end of Apartheid in 1994, includes parts of the former Transvaal Province and Cape Province, as well as most of the former Bantustan of Bophuthatswana, it was the scene of political violence in Khutsong, Merafong City Local Municipality in 2006 and 2007, after cross-province municipalities were abolished and Merafong Municipality was transferred to North West. Merafong has since been transferred to Gauteng province in 2009; this province is birth place of prominent politicians: Ahmed Kathrada, Moses Kotane, Ruth Mompati, Aziz Pahad, Essop Pahad, Abram Onkgopotse Tiro and others. The provincial government consists of a premier, an executive council of ten ministers, a legislature; the provincial assembly and premier are elected for five-year terms, or until the next national election.
Political parties are awarded assembly seats based on the percentage of votes each party receives in the province during the national elections. The assembly elects a premier, who appoints the members of the executive council; the premier of North West Province as of 22 June 2018 is Job Mokgoro of the African National Congress. He replaced Supra Mahumapelo as premier after Mahumapelo stepped down in May 2018. Much of the province grassland; the Magaliesberg mountain range in the northeast extends about 130 km from Pretoria to Rustenburg. The Vaal River flows along the southern border of the province. Temperatures range from 17 ° from 3 ° to 21 °C in the winter. Annual rainfall totals about 360 mm, with all of it falling during the summer months, between October and April. North West borders the following districts of Botswana: Kgatleng – far northeast South-East – northeast Southern – north Kgalagadi – northwestDomestically, it borders the following provinces: Limpopo – northeast Gauteng – east Free State – southeast Northern Cape – southwestNorth West Province is traversed by the northwesterly line of equal latitude and longitude.
The North West Province is divided into four district municipalities. The district municipalities are in turn divided into 18 local municipalities: Population 500,000+ KlerksdorpPopulation 100,000+ Population 50,000+ Population 10,000+ Population < 10,000 The mainstay of the economy of North West Province is mining, which generates more than half of the province's gross domestic product and provides jobs for a quarter of its workforce. The chief minerals are gold, mined at Klerksdorp. About 85 % of all money-making activities take place between Potchefstroom; the economic heart of the province is Klerksdorp. The northern and western parts of the province have game ranches; the eastern and southern parts are crop-growing regions that produce maize, tobacco and citrus fruits. The entertainment and casino complex at Sun City and Lost City contributes to the provincial economy; the majority of the province's residents are Tswana people who speak Tswana, as in neighbouring Botswana. Smaller groups include Afrikaans and Xhosa speaking people.
English is spoken as a second language. Most of the population belong to Christian denominations.. According to the 2007 community survey 90.8% of the province's population was Black, 7.2% as White, 1.6% as Coloured and 0.4% as Asian. The 2007 community survey showed; the province's white population is unevenly distributed. In the southern and eastern municipalities, the white percentage in double figures such as the Tlokwe and Matlosana where the white percentages were 27% and 12% respectively; the province has the lowest number of people aged 35 years and older who have received higher education. Since 1994 the number of people receiving higher education has increased. After the disbanding of the bantustans, many people migrated to the economic centres of Cape Town and Gauteng; the province had two universities: the University of North West, called the University of Bophuthatswana, in Mmabatho. These two universities have now merged and the new institution is called North-West University. There is a private university found in Klerksdorp: Centurion Akademie Klerksdorp, which caters to Afrikaans students.
Because it is a private institution classes may be in Afrikaans and the foundation of education gained at Centurion Akademie is based on the Christian faith. It is the largest institution of its kind in existence; as part of the Department of Education's proposed plans for higher education, the existing four higher learning institutions will be merged to form two. During 2003, as part of the Year of Further Education and Training project, three mega institutions, Taletso, ORBIT and Vuselela, were established to provide technical and vocational training to the youth; these institutions have been incorporated into many of the
Kgatleng is one of the districts of Botswana, coterminous with the homeland of the Bakgatla people. Its capital is Mochudi, the hometown of protagonist Precious Ramotswe in Alexander McCall Smith's popular The No. 1 Ladies' Detective Agency series. According to the 2001 Census, Kgatleng had a population of 73,507 people. Kgatleng borders the North West Province of South Africa in the south, to the east it borders South Africa's Limpopo Province. Domestically, it borders South-East District in southwest, Kweneng District in the west, Central District in north; the tourist and game reserves in the region are Oodi Matsieng footprints. As of 2011, the total population of the district was 91,660 compared to 73,507 in 2001; the growth rate of population during the decade was 2.23. The total number of workers constituted 25,130 with 13,278 males and 11,853 females, with a majority involved in agriculture; the district is administered by a district administration and district council which are responsible for local administration.
Kgatleng borders the North West Province of South Africa in the south, to the east it borders South Africa's Limpopo Province. Domestically, it borders South-East District in southwest, Kweneng District in the west, Central District in north. Most part of Botswana has tableland slopes sliding from east to west; the region has an average elevation of around 915 m above the mean sea level. The vegetation type is Savannah, with tall grasses and tress; the annual precipitation is around 55 cm, most of, received during the summer season from November to May. Most of the rivers in the region are seasonal which are prone to flash floods, being the most prominent; the tourist and game reserves in the region are Oodi Matsieng footprints. As of 2011, the total population of the district was 91,660 compared to 73,507 in 2001; the growth rate of population during the decade was 2.23. The population in the district was 4.53 per cent of the total population in the country. The sex ratio stood at 94.63 for every 100 males, compared to 94.60 in 2001.
The average house hold size was 2.96 in 2011 compared to 4.29 in 2001. There were 3,690 craft and related workers, 1,708 clerks, 6,031 people working in elementary occupation 457 Legislators, Administrators & managers 1,477 Plant & machine operators and assemblers, 741 professionals, 2,171 service workers, shop & market sales workers, 1,237 skilled agricultural & related workers 1,482 technicians and associated professionals, making the total work force to 19,167; as of 2011, there were a total of 038 schools in the district, with 1.70 per cent private schools. The total number of students in the Council schools was 13,882; the total number os students enrolled in the district was 14,444 constituting 6,963 girls and 7,481 boys. The total number of qualified teachers was 621 with 135 males. There were around 034 temporary teachers, 15 male and 49 female. There were a total of 0 untrained teachers in the district; as of 2006, 7,216 were involved in Agriculture, 1,264 in Construction, 3,362 in Education, 177 in Electricity & Water, 410 in Finance, 709 in Health, 658 in Hotels & Restaurants, 1,397 in Manufacturing, 057 in Mining and Quarrying, 554 in Other Community Services, 1,059 in Private Households, 2,598 in Public Administration, 1,014 in Real Estate, 952 in Transport & Communications and 3,703 in Wholesale & Retail Trade.
The total number of workers constituted 25,130 with 11,853 females. Botswana gained independence from the British in 1966 and adapted the colonial administration framework to form its district administration; the policies were modified during 1970-74 to address some of the basic issues. The district is administered by a district administration and district council which are responsible for local administration; the policies for the administration are framed by the Ministry of Local Government. The major activities of the council are Tribal Administration, Remote Area Development and Local Governance; the executive powers of the council are vested on a commissioner appointed by the central government. Technical services wing of the Department of Local Government is responsible for developing roads, infrastructure in villages like water supply and recreational facilities. All the staff of the local administration expect District Administration are selected via Unified Local Government Services and the Ministry of Local Government is responsible for their training and career development.
The district has no sub-districts. Sub-districts of Botswana