Thabo Mvuyelwa Mbeki is a South African politician who served as the second post-Apartheid President of South Africa from 14 June 1999 to 24 September 2008. On 20 September 2008, with about nine months left in his second term, Mbeki announced his resignation after being recalled by the National Executive Committee of the ANC, following a conclusion by judge C. R. Nicholson of improper interference in the National Prosecuting Authority, including the prosecution of Jacob Zuma for corruption. On 12 January 2009, the Supreme Court of Appeal unanimously overturned judge Nicholson's judgment but the resignation stood. During his tenure in office, the South African economy grew at an average rate of 4.5% per year, creating employment in the middle sectors of the economy. The Black middle-class was expanded with the implementation of Black Economic Empowerment; this growth exacerbated the demand for trained professionals strained by emigration due to violent crime, but failed to address unemployment amongst the unskilled bulk of the population.
He attracted the bulk of Africa's Foreign Direct Investment and made South Africa the focal point of African growth. He was the architect of NEPAD whose aim is to develop an integrated socio-economic development framework for Africa, he oversaw the successful building of economic bridges to BRIC nations with the eventual formation of the India-Brazil-South Africa Dialogue Forum to "further political consultation and co-ordination as well as strengthening sectoral co-operation, economic relations". Mbeki mediated in issues on the African continent including: Burundi, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Ivory Coast, some important peace agreements. Mbeki oversaw the transition from the Organisation of African Unity to the African Union, his "quiet diplomacy" in Zimbabwe, however, is blamed for protracting the survival of Robert Mugabe's regime at the cost of thousands of lives and intense economic pressure on Zimbabwe's neighbours. He became a vocal leader of the Non-Aligned Movement in the United Nations, while leveraging South Africa's seat on the Security Council, he agitated for reform of that body.
Mbeki has received worldwide criticism for his stance on AIDS. He questions the link between HIV and AIDS, believes that the correlation between poverty and the AIDS rate in Africa was a challenge to the viral theory of AIDS, his fate was not helped by Health Minister Manto Tshabalala-Msimang and the overhaul of the pharmaceutical industry in South Africa. His ban of antiretroviral drugs in public hospitals is estimated to be responsible for the premature deaths of between 330,000 and 365,000 people. Mbeki has been criticised for responding to negative comments made about his government by accusing critics of racism. Born and raised in Mbewuleni, Cape Province, Union of South Africa, Mbeki is one of four children of Epainette and Govan Mbeki; the economist Moeletsi Mbeki is one of his brothers. His father was a stalwart of the South African Communist Party, he is a native Xhosa speaker and his father Govan named him Thabo after his old close friend Thabo Mofutsanyana. His parents were both teachers and activists in a rural area of strength to the African National Congress, Mbeki describes himself as "born into the struggle".
Mbeki attended primary school in Idutywa and Butterworth and acquired a secondary education at Lovedale, Alice. In 1959, he was expelled from school as a result of student strikes and forced to continue his studies at home. In the same year, he sat for matriculation examinations at Umtata. In the ensuing years, he completed A-level examinations in Johannesburg. During this time, the ANC was outlawed and Mbeki was involved in underground activities in the Pretoria-Witwatersrand area, he was involved in mobilising students in support of the ANC call for a stay at home to be held in protest of South Africa becoming a republic. In December 1961, Mbeki was elected secretary of the African Students' Association. In the following year, he left South Africa on instructions of the ANC. Govan Mbeki had come to the rural Eastern Cape as a political activist after earning two university degrees. Mbeki, aged 16, had a child with Olive Mpahlwa named Monwabise Kwanda. Monwabise Kwanda disappeared in 1981 with Thabo's youngest brother Jama.
On 23 November 1974, Mbeki married Zanele at Farnham Castle in the United Kingdom. They have no children. After the banning of the ANC, the organisation decided it would be better for Mbeki to go into exile. In 1962, Mbeki and a group of comrades left South Africa disguised as a football team, they travelled in a minibus to Botswana and flew from there to Tanzania, where Mbeki accompanied Kenneth Kaunda, who became Zambia's post-independence president, to London. Mbeki stayed with Oliver Tambo, who would be elected the longest serving president of the ANC in the absence of the jailed Rivonia trialists. Mbeki worked part-time with Tambo and Yusuf Dadoo while studying economics at Sussex University in the coastal town of Brighton. At one stage, Mbeki shared a flat with Mike Yates and Derek Gunby. Together the trio would become firm friends and frequent a local bar wh
Soviet Union-Africa relations
Soviet Union-Africa relations covers the diplomatic, political and cultural relationships between the Soviet Union and Africa, from the 1940s to 1991. Joseph Stalin made Africa a low priority, discouraged relationships or studies of the continent; however the decolonization process of the 1950s and early 1960s opened new opportunities, which Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev was eager to exploit. The Kremlin developed four major long-term policy goals: 1) To gain a lasting presence on the continent. 2) To gain a voice in African affairs. 3) To undermine Western/NATO influence by identifying capitalism with Western imperialism. 4) After 1962, it fought hard to prevent communist China from developing its own countervailing presence. At no time was Moscow willing to engage in combat in Africa, although its ally Cuba did so. Indeed the Kremlin at first assumed that the Russian model of socialized development would prove attractive to Africans eager to modernize; that did not happen, instead the Soviets emphasized identifying analyze and giving them financial aid and munitions, as well as credits to purchase from the Soviet bloc.
Although some countries, such as Angola and Ethiopia, became allies for a while, the connections proved temporary. With the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, Russian influence diminished; until the death of Stalin in 1953, the Soviet Union showed little interest in Africa. It did not appear right for revolution because it was entirely controlled by European imperial powers, with the peasantry under the political control of tribal leaders, low levels of proletarian consciousness in the small working-class, he had a fleeting interest in establishing Soviet port facilities in Libya, but the NATO containment policy blocked those efforts. In the Comintern, the chief spokesmen for Africa were whites from the Communist Party of South Africa. After 1953, the continent underwent a rapid process of decolonization, whereby nearly all the colonies became independent nations. However, The nationalist movement was led by the better educated young middle-class that had little exposure to communism or socialism.
Soviet leaders, beginning with Nikita Khrushchev, were excited by the enthusiastic young black Africans who first came to Moscow for a major youth festival in 1957. Patrice Lumumba Peoples' Friendship University was established in Moscow in 1960 to provide higher education to Third World students, it became an integral part of the Soviet cultural offensive in nonaligned countries. The Kremlin saw an opportunity, established four foreign policy goals regarding Africa. First it wanted a lasting presence including port facilities in the Indian Ocean. Second it wanted to gain a voice in African affairs by supporting local communist parties, providing economic and military aid to the governments. Third it wanted to undermine Western/NATO influence; however the Kremlin was reluctant to send Soviet troops because of its fear of a major escalation with NATO powers. Fidel Castro sent 300,000 Cuban troops to Africa to support fellow revolutionaries against Western imperialism; the Kremlin thought Castro's adventurism was dangerous but it was unable to stop him.
And after 1962, it was engaged in a bitter controversy with China for influence and control of local radical movements. Stalin thought in terms of a black and white world of class conflict, capitalists versus the proletariat. Khrushchev said it was a three-way contest, the third pole being bourgeois nationalist movements that were inherently anti-imperialist and were demanding decolonization across the globe; the favorite technique therefore was to identify the Soviet Union with the rising tide of nationalism – to demonstrate that they in Moscow were engaged in a common struggle against Western imperialism. Moscow expected that the Soviet model of industrialization and nationalization would prove attractive, but that approach did not resonate with the nationalistic forces, which were black based on the small middle class and were socializing the means of production; the passive reliance on the Soviet model of development failed because of the unreliability of local leaders, by the Congo crisis.
The Kremlin learned that it was essential to find and promote ideologically reliable leaders, who needed Soviet help to build enough military strength to control their country. As early as the 1930s, the Communists made up an important faction of the Algerian nationalist movement, its activist joined the militant National Liberation Front. Throughout the ferocious Algerian War of Independence in the 1950s, Moscow provided military and material assistance to the FLN, trained hundreds of its military leaders in the USSR; the Soviet Union was the first country in the world to recognize the Provisional Government of the Algerian Republic in 1962 by establishing diplomatic relations a few months before the official proclamation of its independence. Algeria became a leader the nonalignment movement, targeted its angry rhetoric more on the United States on France; however it was an oil exporting country, the United States was a principal customer for oil, a major supplier of machinery and engineering and technical engineering expertise.
By the 1960s both the Soviets of the Chinese were angling for Algerians attention. Moscow extended $100 million and credits to buy Russian exports, while China provided $50 million in credits. Ahmed Ben Bella, in power 1963 to 1965 leaned toward China, he was overthrown by his defense minister Houari Boumédiène, in charge 1965-1976. Algeria supported the Palestinian cause, when Moscow was lukewarm in support of the Six-Day War in 1967
Bonginkosi Emmanuel "Blade" Nzimande is a South African politician and Minister of Transport. He was the Minister for Higher Education and Training from 2009 to 2017, he has been the General Secretary of the South African Communist Party since 1998. "Blade" Nzimande was one of the three children of Nozipho Alice and Phillip Sphambano, a Shangaan herbalist from Mozambique. He attended the Roman Catholic School and Plessiers Lower Primary School before going to Mthethomusha School in Edendale, the first school in the area established under the new Bantu education system, he matriculated in 1975 at Edendale. He completed a Psychology Honours degree at the University of Natal in 1980, a master's degree in Industrial Psychology in 1981, a PhD from the same university for a thesis titled The corporate guerrillas: class formation and the African corporate petty bourgeoisie in post-1973 South Africa, in the field of Sociology. In 1976 Nzimande enrolled at the University of Zululand to study for a BA degree in Public Administration and Psychology.
He became involved in student activity, including a food boycott and demonstrations against the award of an honorary doctorate to Prince Mangosuthu Buthelezi in May 1976. Nzimande returned to university in 1977 and completed his degree in 1979. After graduating, he returned to Edendale and joined the Azanian Students’ Organisation which broke away from the Black Consciousness Movement, aligning itself with the Congress or Charterist tendency. For Nzimande the shift from BCM to the Chartersist position was facilitated by weekly Zulu broadcasts from Radio Freedom and Radio Moscow. In this way he and his colleagues became acquainted with the policy of the African National Congress and they started to receive underground ANC documents. While active in Azaso Nzimande completed his Honours and master's degrees. In January 1982 Nzimande moved to Durban, at that stage was active in the Dambuza Youth Organisation which affiliated to the United Democratic Front after its launch in 1983. In 1982 Nzimande undertook his internship in Industrial Psychology in the personnel department of Tongaat Hulett Sugar Ltd.
There he met Jay Naidoo and began working informally with unions, addressing union seminars on job grading and other issues. He resigned his job in 1984. Nzimande was offered a post as a lecturer at the Umlazi branch of the University of Zululand where he founded the Department of Industrial Psychology on that campus. At the same time, he became involved with the trade unions and served on the editorial board of the South African Labour Bulletin in 1986, he continued to assist with trade unions seminars teaching the history of trade unionism. In Umlazi he began to work on educational issues in mid-1986 and held clandestine Marxist study classes with the youth. Nzimande lectured until June 1987 and joined the University of Natal, Durban to lecture in the Psychology Department. There he became involved in the Culture and Working Life Project, initiated the cultural activities of the Dumbuzo Cultural Organisation which produced a play on violence, Koze Kube Nini, performed in the townships, he wrote various articles on violence, assisted in the presentation of seminars.
Nzimande criticized the government of Thabo Mbeki and its economic policy, he was vocal in his support for the removal of Mbeki as President of South Africa. Nzimande began to attack Mbeki's interim successor, President Kgalema Motlanthe, in early January 2009. Saying he was part of the "old Mbeki crowd", senior ANC members loyal to Jacob Zuma called for Nzimande to become second Deputy President, alongside Baleka Mbete. President Motlanthe was attacked by Nzimande because he fired Vusi Pikoli in 2008, refused to sign the SABC bill, which would give the ANC full control of state television; when Zuma took office as President in May 2009, he appointed Nzimande as Minister of Higher Education. On many occasions, Nzimande criticised the rulings of the judiciary. In 2015 he criticised the ruling that decided that the Marxist–Leninist Economic Freedom Fighters could exercise their democratic right to disrupt the parliament. In June 2017 Nzimande criticised President Zuma, calling his latest Cabinet reshuffle an abuse of power and repeating calls for him to step down.
In October 2017, Nzimande was removed from his position as Minister of Higher Education and Training and replaced by Hlengiwe Mkhize. In October 2017, President Zuma, in a cabinet reshuffle, removed Nzimande from his position as the Minister of Higher Education and Training and replaced him with Hlengiwe Mkhize. After much'careful consideration', Zuma decided to make six changes to his cabinet this time. On 22 February 2018, President Ramaphosa, in an incoming cabinet reshuffle, reinstated Nzimande as a Minister of the Ministry of Transport
Red is the color at the end of the visible spectrum of light, next to orange and opposite violet. It has a dominant wavelength of 625–740 nanometres, it is a primary color in the RGB color model and the CMYK color model, is the complementary color of cyan. Reds range from the brilliant yellow-tinged scarlet and vermillion to bluish-red crimson, vary in shade from the pale red pink to the dark red burgundy; the red sky at sunset results from Rayleigh scattering, while the red color of the Grand Canyon and other geological features is caused by hematite or red ochre, both forms of iron oxide. Iron oxide gives the red color to the planet Mars; the red colour of blood comes from protein hemoglobin, while ripe strawberries, red apples and reddish autumn leaves are colored by anthocyanins. Red pigment made from ochre was one of the first colors used in prehistoric art; the Ancient Egyptians and Mayans colored their faces red in ceremonies. It was an important color in China, where it was used to colour early pottery and the gates and walls of palaces.
In the Renaissance, the brilliant red costumes for the nobility and wealthy were dyed with kermes and cochineal. The 19th century brought the introduction of the first synthetic red dyes, which replaced the traditional dyes. Red became the color of revolution. Since red is the color of blood, it has been associated with sacrifice and courage. Modern surveys in Europe and the United States show red is the color most associated with heat, passion, anger and joy. In China and many other Asian countries it is the color of symbolizing happiness and good fortune. See below for shades of pink The human eye sees red when it looks at light with a wavelength between 625 and 740 nanometers, it is a primary color in the RGB color model and the light just past this range is called infrared, or below red, cannot be seen by human eyes, although it can be sensed as heat. In the language of optics, red is the color evoked by light that stimulates neither the S or the M cone cells of the retina, combined with a fading stimulation of the L cone cells.
Primates can distinguish the full range of the colors of the spectrum visible to humans, but many kinds of mammals, such as dogs and cattle, have dichromacy, which means they can see blues and yellows, but cannot distinguish red and green. Bulls, for instance, cannot see the red color of the cape of a bullfighter, but they are agitated by its movement.. One theory for why primates developed sensitivity to red is that it allowed ripe fruit to be distinguished from unripe fruit and inedible vegetation; this may have driven further adaptations by species taking advantage of this new ability, such as the emergence of red faces. Red light is used to help adapt night vision in low-light or night time, as the rod cells in the human eye are not sensitive to red. Red illumination was used as a safelight while working in a darkroom as it does not expose most photographic paper and some films. Today modern darkrooms use an amber safelight. On the color wheel long used by painters, in traditional color theory, red is one of the three primary colors, along with blue and yellow.
Painters in the Renaissance mixed red and blue to make violet: Cennino Cennini, in his 15th-century manual on painting, wrote, "If you want to make a lovely violet colour, take fine lac, ultramarine blue with a binder" he noted that it could be made by mixing blue indigo and red hematite. In modern color theory known as the RGB color model, red and blue are additive primary colors. Red and blue light combined together makes white light, these three colors, combined in different mixtures, can produce nearly any other color; this is the principle, used to make all of the colors on your computer screen and your television. For example, magenta on a computer screen is made by a similar formula to that used by Cennino Cennini in the Renaissance to make violet, but using additive colors and light instead of pigment: it is created by combining red and blue light at equal intensity on a black screen. Violet is made on a computer screen in a similar way, but with a greater amount of blue light and less red light.
So that the maximum number of colors can be reproduced on your computer screen, each color has been given a code number, or sRGB, which tells your computer the intensity of the red and blue components of that color. The intensity of each component is measured on a scale of zero to 255, which means the complete list includes 16,777,216 distinct colors and shades; the sRGB number of pure red, for example, is 255, 00, 00, which means the red component is at its maximum intensity, there is no green or blue. The sRGB number for crimson is 220, 20, 60, which means that the red is less intense and therefore darker, there is some green, which leans it toward orange; as a ray of white sunlight travels through the atmosphere to the eye, some of the colors are scattered out of the beam by air molecules and airborne particles due to Rayleigh scattering, changing the final color of the beam, seen. Colors with a shorter wavelength, such as blue and green, scatter more and are removed from the light that reaches the eye.
At sunrise and sunset, when the
National Party (South Africa)
The National Party known as the Nationalist Party, was a political party in South Africa founded in 1914 and disbanded in 1997. The party was an Afrikaner ethnic nationalist party that promoted Afrikaner interests in South Africa; however in the early 1990s it became a South African civic nationalist party seeking to represent all South Africans. It first became the governing party of the country in 1924, it was in opposition during World War II but it returned to power and was again in the government from 4 June 1948 until 9 May 1994. Beginning in 1948 the party as the governing party of South Africa began implementing its policy of racial segregation, known as apartheid. Although White-minority rule and racial segregation based on White supremacy were in existence in South Africa with non-Whites not having voting rights and efforts made to encourage segregation, apartheid intensified the segregation with stern penalties for non-Whites entering into areas designated for Whites-only without having a pass to permit them to do so, interracial marriage and sexual relationships were illegal and punishable offences, blacks faced significant restrictions on property rights.
Upon South Africa being condemned in the British Commonwealth for its policies of apartheid the NP-led government had South Africa leave the Commonwealth, abandon its monarchy led by the British monarch and become a republic. During the 1970s and 1980s, the NP-led government faced internal unrest in South Africa and international pressure for accommodation of non-Whites in South Africa resulted in policies of granting concessions to the non-White population, while still retaining the apartheid system, such as the creation of Bantustans that were autonomous self-governing Black homelands, removing legal prohibitions on interracial marriage, legalizing non-White and multiracial political parties; those identified as Coloureds and Indian South Africans were granted separate legislatures in 1983 alongside the main legislature that represented Whites to provide them self-government while maintaining apartheid, but no such legislature was provided to the Black population as their self-government was to be provided through the Bantustans.
The NP-led government began changed laws affected by the apartheid system that had come under heavy domestic and international condemnation such as removing the pass laws, granting Blacks full property rights that ended previous major restrictions on Black ownership of land, the right to form trade unions. Following escalating economic sanctions over apartheid, negotiations between the NP-led government led by P. W. Botha and the outlawed ANC led by then-imprisoned Nelson Mandela began in 1987 with Botha seeking to accommodate the ANC's demands and consider releasing Mandela and legalizing the ANC on the condition that it would renounce use of political violence to attain its aims. In the 1989 South African general election, the party under F. W. de Klerk's leadership declared that it intended to negotiate with the Black South African community for a political solution to accommodate Black South Africans. This resulted in De Klerk declaring in February 1990 the decision to transition South Africa out of apartheid, permitted the release of Mandela from prison and ending South Africa's ban on the ANC and other anti-apartheid movements, began negotiations with the ANC for a post-apartheid political system.
However there was significant opposition among hardliner supporters of apartheid that resulted in De Klerk's government responding to them by holding a national referendum on Apartheid in 1992 for the White population only allowed to vote in that asked them if they supported the government's policy to end apartheid and establish elections open to all South Africans, a large majority voted in favour of the government's policy. With support for ending apartheid secured among White South Africans, the party opened up its membership to all racial groups and rebranded itself as no longer being an ethnic nationalist party only representing Afrikaners, but would henceforth be a civic nationalist and conservative party representing all South Africans. In the 1994 elections it managed to expand its base to include many non-Whites including significant support from Coloured and Indian South Africans, it participated in the Government of National Unity between 1994 and 1996. In an attempt to distance itself from its past, the party was renamed the New National Party in 1997.
The attempt was unsuccessful and the new party was decided to merge with the ANC. The National Party was founded in Bloemfontein in 1914 by Afrikaner nationalists soon after the establishment of the Union of South Africa, its founding was rooted in disagreements among South African Party politicians Prime Minister Louis Botha and his first Minister of Justice, J. B. M. Hertzog. After Hertzog began speaking out publicly against the Botha government's "one-stream" policy in 1912, Botha removed him from the cabinet. Hertzog and his followers in the Orange Free State province subsequently moved to establish the National Party to oppose the government by advocating a "two-stream" policy of equal rights for the English and Afrikaner communities. Afrikaner nationalists in the Transvaal and Cape provinces soon followed suit, so that three distinct provincial NP organisations were in existence in time for the 1915 general elections; the NP first came to power in coalition w
International Meeting of Communist and Workers Parties
The International Meeting of Communist and Workers' Parties is an annual conference attended by communist and workers' parties from several nations. It originated in 1998 when the Communist Party of Greece invited communist and workers' parties to participate in an annual conference where parties could gather to share their experiences and issue a joint declaration; the meetings are held annually, with participants from all around the globe. Additionally there are extraordinary meetings such as the meeting in Damascus 28–30 September 2009 on "Solidarity with the heroic struggle of the Palestinian people and the other people in Middle East". In December 2009, the communist and workers parties agreed to the creation of the International Communist Review, published annually in English and Spanish and has a website; the participants of the meeting have created a working group to address all aspects of organizing the meetings. As of May 2018, the working group is composed by communist and worker's parties of Brazil, Cuba, Czech Republic, Hungary, Iran, North Korea, Mexico, Palestine, Russian Federation, South Africa, Turkey, Venezuela and Ukraine.
The working group is in charge of defining the agenda for each meeting, as well as general organization. The 20th International Meeting of Communist and Workers' Parties, with the theme "The contemporary working class and its alliance; the tasks of its political vanguard – the Communist and Worker’s Parties – in the struggle against exploitation and imperialist wars, for the rights of the workers and of the peoples, for peace, for socialism", took place in Athens, Greece from 23 to 25 November 2018. The 19th International Meeting of Communist and Workers' Parties, with the theme "The 100th Anniversary of the Great October Socialist Revolution:the ideals of the Communist Movement,revitalizing the struggle against imperialistic wars, for peace, socialism", took place in St Petersburg, Russia from 2 to 3 November 2017 and in Moscow, Russia from 5 to 7 November 2017; the 18th International Meeting of Communist and Workers' Parties took place in Hanoi, Vietnam from 28 to 30 October 2016. The 17th International Meeting of Communist and Workers' Parties took place in Istanbul, Turkey from 30 October to 1 November 2015.
The 16th International Meeting of Communist and Workers' Parties took place from 13 to 15 November 2014 in Guayaquil, Ecuador. It was attended by 85 delegates representing 53 parties from 44 countries; the 15th International Meeting of Communist and Workers' Parties took place from 8 to 10 November 2013 in Lisbon, Portugal. The 14th International Meeting of Communist and Workers' Parties took place from 22 to 25 November 2012 in Beirut, Lebanon; the 13th meeting was held in Athens, from 9 to 11 December 2011 and was hosted by the Communist Party of Greece. Under the motto "Socialism is the future!", it was attended by 80 parties, while additional eight parties sent a message. The 13th meeting was held in Johannesburg, South Africa, from 3 to 5 December 2010 and was hosted by the South African Communist Party; the 11th meeting was held in New Delhi, from 20 to 22 November 2009 and was hosted by both the Communist Party of India and the Communist Party of India. It was attended by 89 participants representing workers' parties and 48 countries.
The 10th meeting was held in São Paulo, from 21 to 23 November 2008 and was hosted by the Communist Party of Brazil. It was attended by dlegations of 65 communist and workers' parties from 55 countries; the 9th meeting was held in Minsk, from 3 to 5 November 2007 and was hosted by the Communist Party of Brazil. It was attended by 154 representatives of 72 communist and workers' parties, representing 59 countries; the following table is a list of participants in each meeting. Key: x = participated – = did not participate o = observer m = sent message List of communist parties List of communist parties represented in European Parliament International Communist Seminar Solidarity Network of Communist and Workers' Parties Information Bulletin International Communist Review
Suppression of Communism Act, 1950
The Suppression of Communism Act 44 of 1950 was legislation of the national government in apartheid South Africa, passed on 26 June 1950 which formally banned the Communist Party of South Africa and proscribed any party or group subscribing to communism according to a uniquely broad definition of the term. The Act defined communism as any scheme aimed at achieving change--whether economic, political, or industrial--"by the promotion of disturbance or disorder" or any act encouraging "feelings of hostility between the European and the non-European races...calculated to further ". The government could deem any person to be a communist if it found that person's aims to be aligned with these aims. After a nominal two-week appeal period, the person's status as a communist became an unreviewable matter of fact, subjected the person to being barred from public participation, restricted in movement, or imprisoned; the government justified passage of the Act by noting the involvement of members of the South African Communist Party in the anti-apartheid movement.
The Act was used to silence critics of racial segregation and apartheid. Justice Frans Rumpff, presiding in the 1952 trial of African National Congress leaders, observed such "statutory communism" might have "nothing to do with communism as it is known."The Act facilitated the government suppression of organisations such as the ANC and others which advocated for black equal rights. The Suppression of Communism Act forced these groups to go underground with their activism; because of this Act, groups such as uMkhonto we Sizwe, led by Nelson Mandela as a branch of the ANC, did seek financial support from the Communist Party. Most of the Act was replaced in 1982 by the Internal Security Act, 1982. Benson, Mary. Nelson Mandela: The Man and the Movement, 2nd Edition. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0-393-31281-2 Byrnes, Rita M.. South Africa a Country Study. Claitor's Law Books and Publishing Division. ISBN 978-1-57980-355-1 The full text of Suppression of Communism Act, 1950 at Wikisource Suppression of Communism Act, 1950 - PDF Statement Condemning the First Banning Orders Under the Suppression of Communism Act, 22 May 1952 South African Communist Party timeline 1870-1996