Computer programming is the process of designing and building an executable computer program for accomplishing a specific computing task. Programming involves tasks such as: analysis, generating algorithms, profiling algorithms' accuracy and resource consumption, the implementation of algorithms in a chosen programming language; the source code of a program is written in one or more languages that are intelligible to programmers, rather than machine code, directly executed by the central processing unit. The purpose of programming is to find a sequence of instructions that will automate the performance of a task on a computer for solving a given problem; the process of programming thus requires expertise in several different subjects, including knowledge of the application domain, specialized algorithms, formal logic. Tasks accompanying and related to programming include: testing, source code maintenance, implementation of build systems, management of derived artifacts, such as the machine code of computer programs.
These might be considered part of the programming process, but the term software development is used for this larger process with the term programming, implementation, or coding reserved for the actual writing of code. Software engineering combines engineering techniques with software development practices. Reverse engineering is the opposite process. A hacker is any skilled computer expert that uses their technical knowledge to overcome a problem, but it can mean a security hacker in common language. Programmable devices have existed at least as far back as 1206 AD, when the automata of Al-Jazari were programmable, via pegs and cams, to play various rhythms and drum patterns. However, the first computer program is dated to 1843, when mathematician Ada Lovelace published an algorithm to calculate a sequence of Bernoulli numbers, intended to be carried out by Charles Babbage's Analytical Engine. Women would continue to dominate the field of computer programming until the mid 1960s. In the 1880s Herman Hollerith invented the concept of storing data in machine-readable form.
A control panel added to his 1906 Type I Tabulator allowed it to be programmed for different jobs, by the late 1940s, unit record equipment such as the IBM 602 and IBM 604, were programmed by control panels in a similar way. However, with the concept of the stored-program computers introduced in 1949, both programs and data were stored and manipulated in the same way in computer memory. Machine code was the language of early programs, written in the instruction set of the particular machine in binary notation. Assembly languages were soon developed that let the programmer specify instruction in a text format, with abbreviations for each operation code and meaningful names for specifying addresses. However, because an assembly language is little more than a different notation for a machine language, any two machines with different instruction sets have different assembly languages. Kathleen Booth created one of the first Assembly languages in 1950 for various computers at Birkbeck College. High-level languages allow the programmer to write programs in terms that are syntactically richer, more capable of abstracting the code, making it targetable to varying machine instruction sets via compilation declarations and heuristics.
The first compiler for a programming language was developed by Grace Hopper. When Hopper went to work on UNIVAC in 1949, she brought the idea of using compilers with her. Compilers harness the power of computers to make programming easier by allowing programmers to specify calculations by entering a formula using infix notation for example. FORTRAN, the first used high-level language to have a functional implementation which permitted the abstraction of reusable blocks of code, came out in 1957. In 1951 Frances E. Holberton developed the first sort-merge generator which ran on the UNIVAC I. Another woman working at UNIVAC, Adele Mildred Koss, developed a program, a precursor to report generators. In USSR, Kateryna Yushchenko developed the Address programming language for the MESM in 1955; the idea for the creation of COBOL started in 1959 when Mary K. Hawes, who worked for Burroughs Corporation, set up a meeting to discuss creating a common business language, she invited six people, including Grace Hopper.
Hopper was involved in developing COBOL as a business language and creating "self-documenting" programming. Hopper's contribution to COBOL was based on her programming language, called FLOW-MATIC. In 1961, Jean E. Sammet developed FORMAC and published Programming Languages: History and Fundamentals which went on to be a standard work on programming languages. Programs were still entered using punched cards or paper tape. See computer programming in the punch card era. By the late 1960s, data storage devices and computer terminals became inexpensive enough that programs could be created by typing directly into the computers. Frances Holberton created a code to allow keyboard inputs while she worked at UNIVAC. Text editors were developed that allowed changes and corrections to be made much more than with punched cards. Sister Mary Kenneth Keller worked on developing the programming language, BASIC when she was a graduate student at Dartmouth in the 1960s. One of the first object-oriented programming languages, was developed by seven programmers, including Adele Goldberg, in the 1970s.
In 1985, Radia Perlman developed the Spannin
C++ is a general-purpose programming language, developed by Bjarne Stroustrup as an extension of the C language, or "C with Classes". It has imperative, object-oriented and generic programming features, while providing facilities for low-level memory manipulation, it is always implemented as a compiled language, many vendors provide C++ compilers, including the Free Software Foundation, Intel, IBM, so it is available on many platforms. C++ was designed with a bias toward system programming and embedded, resource-constrained software and large systems, with performance and flexibility of use as its design highlights. C++ has been found useful in many other contexts, with key strengths being software infrastructure and resource-constrained applications, including desktop applications and performance-critical applications. C++ is standardized by the International Organization for Standardization, with the latest standard version ratified and published by ISO in December 2017 as ISO/IEC 14882:2017.
The C++ programming language was standardized in 1998 as ISO/IEC 14882:1998, amended by the C++03, C++11 and C++14 standards. The current C++ 17 standard supersedes these with an enlarged standard library. Before the initial standardization in 1998, C++ was developed by Danish computer scientist Bjarne Stroustrup at Bell Labs since 1979 as an extension of the C language. C++20 is the next planned standard, keeping with the current trend of a new version every three years. In 1979, Bjarne Stroustrup, a Danish computer scientist, began work on "C with Classes", the predecessor to C++; the motivation for creating a new language originated from Stroustrup's experience in programming for his Ph. D. thesis. Stroustrup found that Simula had features that were helpful for large software development, but the language was too slow for practical use, while BCPL was fast but too low-level to be suitable for large software development; when Stroustrup started working in AT&T Bell Labs, he had the problem of analyzing the UNIX kernel with respect to distributed computing.
Remembering his Ph. D. experience, Stroustrup set out to enhance the C language with Simula-like features. C was chosen because it was general-purpose, fast and used; as well as C and Simula's influences, other languages influenced C++, including ALGOL 68, Ada, CLU and ML. Stroustrup's "C with Classes" added features to the C compiler, including classes, derived classes, strong typing and default arguments. In 1983, "C with Classes" was renamed to "C++", adding new features that included virtual functions, function name and operator overloading, constants, type-safe free-store memory allocation, improved type checking, BCPL style single-line comments with two forward slashes. Furthermore, it included the development of a standalone compiler for Cfront. In 1985, the first edition of The C++ Programming Language was released, which became the definitive reference for the language, as there was not yet an official standard; the first commercial implementation of C++ was released in October of the same year.
In 1989, C++ 2.0 was released, followed by the updated second edition of The C++ Programming Language in 1991. New features in 2.0 included multiple inheritance, abstract classes, static member functions, const member functions, protected members. In 1990, The Annotated C++ Reference Manual was published; this work became the basis for the future standard. Feature additions included templates, namespaces, new casts, a boolean type. After the 2.0 update, C++ evolved slowly until, in 2011, the C++11 standard was released, adding numerous new features, enlarging the standard library further, providing more facilities to C++ programmers. After a minor C++14 update released in December 2014, various new additions were introduced in C++17, further changes planned for 2020; as of 2017, C++ remains the third most popular programming language, behind Java and C. On January 3, 2018, Stroustrup was announced as the 2018 winner of the Charles Stark Draper Prize for Engineering, "for conceptualizing and developing the C++ programming language".
According to Stroustrup: "the name signifies the evolutionary nature of the changes from C". This name is credited to Rick Mascitti and was first used in December 1983; when Mascitti was questioned informally in 1992 about the naming, he indicated that it was given in a tongue-in-cheek spirit. The name comes from C's ++ operator and a common naming convention of using "+" to indicate an enhanced computer program. During C++'s development period, the language had been referred to as "new C" and "C with Classes" before acquiring its final name. Throughout C++'s life, its development and evolution has been guided by a set of principles: It must be driven by actual problems and its features should be useful in real world programs; every feature should be implementable. Programmers should be free to pick their own programming style, that style should be supported by C++. Allowing a useful feature is more important than preventing every possible misuse of C++, it should provide facilities for organising programs into separate, well-defined parts, provide facilities for combining separately developed parts.
No implicit violations of the type system (but allow explicit violations.
The Western Cape is a province of South Africa, situated on the south-western coast of the country. It is the fourth largest of the nine provinces with an area of 129,449 square kilometres, the third most populous, with an estimated 6.6 million inhabitants in 2018. About two-thirds of these inhabitants live in the metropolitan area of Cape Town, the provincial capital; the Western Cape was created in 1994 from part of the former Cape Province. The Western Cape Province is L-shaped, extending north and east from the Cape of Good Hope, in the southwestern corner of South Africa, it stretches about 400 kilometres northwards along the Atlantic coast and about 500 kilometres eastwards along the South African south coast. It is bordered on the north on the east by the Eastern Cape; the total land area of the province is 129,462 square kilometres, about 10.6% of the country's total. It is the size of England or the State of Louisiana, its capital city and largest city is Cape Town, some other major cities include Stellenbosch, Worcester and George.
The Garden Route and the Overberg are popular coastal tourism areas. The Western Cape is the southernmost region of the African continent with Cape Agulhas as its southernmost point, only 3800 km from the Antarctic coastline; the coastline varies from sandy between capes, to rocky to mountainous in places. The only natural harbour is Saldanha Bay on the west coast, about 140 km north of Cape Town; however a lack of fresh water in the region meant that it has only been used as a harbour. The province's main harbour was built in Table Bay, which in its natural state was exposed to the northwesterly storms that bring rain to the province in winter, as well as the uninterrupted dry southeasterly winds in summer, but fresh water coming off Table Mountain and Devil's Peak allowed the early European settlers to build Cape Town on the shores of this less than satisfactory anchorage. The province is topographically exceptionally diverse. Most of the province falls within the Cape Fold Belt, a set of nearly parallel ranges of sandstone folded mountains of Cambrian-Ordovician age.
The height of the mountain peaks in the different ranges vary from 1000m to 2300m. The valleys between ranges are very fertile as they contain the weathered loamy soils of the Bokkeveld mudstones; the far interior forms part of the Karoo. This region of the Province is arid and hilly with a prominent escarpment that runs close to the Province's most inland boundary; the Escarpment marks the southwestern edge of South Africa's central plateau. It runs parallel to the entire South African coastline except in the far northeast, where it is interrupted by the Limpopo River valley, the far northwest, where it is interrupted by the Orange River valley; the 1000 km-long northeastern stretch of the escarpment is called the Drakensberg, geographically and geologically quite distinct from the Cape Fold Mountains, which originated much earlier and independently of the origin of the escarpment. The principal rivers of the province are the Berg and Olifants which drain into the Atlantic Ocean, the Breede and Gourits which drain into the Indian Ocean.
The vegetation is extremely diverse, with one of the world's seven floral kingdoms exclusively endemic to the province, namely the Cape Floral Kingdom, most of, covered by Fynbos. These evergreen heathlands are rich in species diversity, with at least as many plant species occurring on Table Mountain as in the entire United Kingdom, it is characterised by various types of shrubs, thousands of flowering plant species and some grasses. With the exception of the Silver tree, Leucadendron argenteum, which only grows on the granite and clay soils of the Cape Peninsula, open fynbos is treeless except in the wetter mountain ravines where patches of Afromontane forest persist; the arid interior is dominated by Karoo drought-resistant shrubbery. The West Coast and Little Karoo are semi-arid regions and are typified by many species of succulents and drought-resistant shrubs and acacia trees; the Garden Route on the south coast is lush, with temperate rainforest covering many areas adjacent to the coast, in the deep river valleys and along the southern slopes of the Outeniqua mountain range.
Typical species are hardwoods of exceptional height, such as Yellowwood and Ironwood trees. The Western Cape is climatologically diverse, with many distinct micro- and macroclimates created by the varied topography and the influence of the surrounding ocean currents; these are the warm Agulhas Current which flows southwards along South Africa's east coast, the cold Benguela Current, an upwelling current from the depths of the South Atlantic Ocean along South Africa's west coast. Thus climatic statistics can vary over short distances. Most of the province is considered to have a Mediterranean climate with cool, wet winters and warm, dry summers. Both the Great Karoo and Little Karoo, in the interior, have an arid to semi-arid climate with cold, frosty winters and hot summers with occasional thunderstorms; the Garden Route and the Overberg on the south coast have a maritime climate with cool
International Olympiad in Informatics
The International Olympiad in Informatics is an annual competitive programming competition for secondary school students. It is the second largest olympiad, after International Mathematical Olympiad, in terms of number of participating countries; the first IOI was held in 1989 in Bulgaria. The contest consists of problem-solving of algorithmic nature. To deal with problems involving large amounts of data, it is necessary to have not only programmers, "but creative coders, who can dream up what it is that the programmers need to tell the computer to do; the hard part isn't the programming, but the mathematics underneath it." Students at the IOI compete on an individual basis, with up to four students competing from each participating country. Students in the national teams are selected through national computing contests, such as the Australian Informatics Olympiad, British Informatics Olympiad, Indian Computing Olympiad or Bundeswettbewerb Informatik; the International Olympiad in Informatics is one of the most prestigious computer science competitions in the world.
UNESCO and IFIP are patrons. On each of the two competition days, the students are given three problems which they have to solve in five hours; each student works on his/her own, with only a computer and no other help allowed no communication with other contestants, books etc. To solve a task the contestant has to write a computer program and submit it before the five-hour competition time ends; the program is graded by being run with secret test data. From IOI 2010, tasks are divided into subtasks with graduated difficulty, points are awarded only when all tests for a particular subtask yield correct results, within specific time and memory limits. In some cases, the contestant's program has to interact with a secret computer library, which allows problems where the input is not fixed, but depends on the program's actions – for example in game problems. Another type of problem has known inputs which are publicly available during the five hours of the contest. For these, the contestants have to submit an output file instead of a program, it is up to them whether they obtain the output files by writing a program, or by hand, or by a combination of these means.
Pascal will have been removed as an available programming language by 2019.:11IOI 2010 for the first time had a live web scoreboard with real-time provisional results. Submissions will be scored as soon as possible during the contest, the results posted. Contestants will be aware of their scores, but not others', may resubmit to improve their scores. Starting from 2012, IOI has been using the Contest Management System for developing and monitoring the contest; the scores from the two competition days and all problems are summed up separately for each contestant. At the awarding ceremony, contestants are awarded medals depending on their relative total score; the top 50% of the contestants are awarded medals, such that the relative number of gold: silver: bronze: no medal is 1:2:3:6. Prior to IOI 2010, students who did not receive medals did not have their scores published, making it impossible for a country to be ranked by adding together scores of its competitors unless each wins a medal. From IOI 2010, although the scores of students who did not receive medals are still not available in the official results, they are known from the live web scoreboard.
In IOI 2012 the top 3 nations ranked by aggregate score were subsequently awarded during the closing ceremony. Analysis of female performance shows 77.9 % of women obtain no medal, while 49.2 % of men obtain no medal. "The average female participation was 4.4% in 1989–1994 and 2.2% in 1996–2014." It suggests women participate much more on the national level, claiming sometimes a double-digit percentage of women participate on the first stage. President of the IOI, Richard Forster, says the competition has difficulty attracting women and that in spite of trying to solve it, "none of us have hit on quite what the problem is, let alone the solution."In IOI 2017 held in Iran, due to not being able to participate in Iran, the Israeli students participated in an offsite competition organized by IOI in Russia.:11 Due to visa issues, the full USA team was unable to attend, although one contestant Zhezheng Luo was able to attend by traveling with the Chinese team and winning gold medal and 3rd place in standings.
The following is a list of the top performers in the history of the IOI. The P sign indicates a rare achievement in IOI history; the U sign indicates an unofficial participation, where a contestant participated in a host's second team. First and third places among gold medalists are indicated where appropriate; this list includes only those countries where the national selection contest allows the same participant to go multiple times to the IOI. Most participating countries use feeder competitions to select their team. A number of these are listed below: International Science Olympiad ACM International Collegiate Programming Contest Central European Olympiad in Informatics Online judge International Mathematical Olympiad International Olympiad in Informatics community Facebook Group for the International Olympiad in Informatics IOI International Committee Website IOI Statistics IOI Secretariat Website
Free State (province)
The Free State is a province of South Africa. Its capital is Bloemfontein, South Africa's judicial capital, its historical origins lie in the Boer republic called Orange Free State and Orange Free State Province. The current borders of the province date from 1994 when the Bantustans were abolished and reincorporated into South Africa, it is the only one of the four original provinces of South Africa not to undergo border changes, excluding the reincorporation of Bantustans. The provincial government consists of a premier, an executive council of ten ministers, a legislature; the provincial assembly and premier are elected for five-year terms, or until the next national election. Political parties are awarded assembly seats based on the percentage of votes each party receives in the province during the national elections; the assembly elects a premier, who appoints the members of the executive council. The premier of Free State as of 2009 was Ace Magashule of the African National Congress. In 2018, Sisi Ntombela was appointed premier.
The Free State is situated on a succession of flat grassy plains sprinkled with pastureland, resting on a general elevation of 3,800 feet only broken by the occasional hill or kopje. The rich soil and pleasant climate allow for a thriving agricultural industry. With more than 30,000 farms, which produce over 70% of the country's grain, it is known locally as South Africa's breadbasket; the province is high-lying, with all land being 1,000 metres above sea level. The Drakensberg and Maluti Mountains foothills raise the terrain to over 2,000 m in the east; the Free State lies in the heart of the Karoo Sequence of rocks, containing shales, mudstones and the Drakensberg Basalt forming the youngest capping rocks. Mineral deposits are plentiful, with gold and diamonds being of particular importance found in the north and west of the province; the flats in the south of the reserve provides ideal conditions for large herds of plain game such as black wildebeest and springbok. The ridges and plains typical of the northern section are home to kudu, red hartebeest, southern white rhinoceros and buffalo.
The Southern African wildcat, black wildebeest, eland, white rhinoceros and wild dog can be seen at the Soetdoring Nature Reserve near Bloemfontein. The South African cheetahs has been reintroduced in the Free State for the first time in June 2013 after a hundred years of regional extinction, at Laohu Valley Reserve near Philippolis. Following the reintroduction of an adult female South African cheetah in early 2016, three wild cheetah cubs has been born for the first time in Laohu Valley Reserve in February 2017, making the three new cubs the first cheetahs born in the wild since their disappearance from the Free State province in over a century; the Free State experiences a continental climate, characterised by warm to hot summers and cool to cold winters. Areas in the east experience frequent snowfalls on the higher ranges, whilst the west can be hot in summer. All precipitation falls in the summer months as brief afternoon thunderstorms, with aridity increasing towards the west. Areas in the east around Harrismith and Ficksburg are well watered.
The capital, experiences hot, moist summers and cold, dry winters frequented by severe frost. Bloemfontein averages: January maximum: 31 °C, July maximum: 17 °C, annual precipitation: 559 mm Bethlehem averages: 27 °C, July maximum: 16 °C, annual precipitation: 680 mm In the southeast, the Free State borders seven districts of Lesotho: Mokhotlong – farthest to the east Butha-Buthe – northwest of Mokhotlong and northeast of Leribe Leribe – southwest of Butha-Buthe and northeast of Berea Berea – southwest of Leribe and north of Maseru Maseru – south of Berea and northeast of Mafeteng Mafeteng – southwest of Maseru and northwest of Mohale's Hoek Mohale's Hoek – southeast of MafetengDomestically, it borders the following provinces: KwaZulu-Natal – east Eastern Cape – south Northern Cape – west North West – northwest Gauteng – north Mpumalanga – northeastThe Free State borders more districts of Lesotho and more provinces of South Africa than any other province, it is traversed by the northwesterly line of equal longitude.
The Free State Province is divided into one metropolitan municipality and four district municipalities. The district municipalities are in turn divided into 19 local municipalities: See List of cities and towns in the Free State The Free State's major towns include: Bloemfontein & Botshabelo in Mangaung Metropolitan Municipality Welkom and Virginia in Lejweleputswa Bethlehem and Phuthaditjhaba in Thabo Mofutsanyana Kroonstad and Parys in Fezile Dabi The Free State is the only province in South Africa that operates a free 24-hour dedicated rotorwing aeromedical service from a public hospital, they are able to deliver a high level of care on scene. On 31 October 2018 Free State Emergency Medical Service launched an additional 65 road ambulances to augment the fleet. Free state has many private hospitals; some of them are: Bloemfontein Medi-clinic Bethlehem Medi-clinic Welkom Medi-clinic Mofumahadi Mmanapo Regional Hospital in Phuthaditjhaba. The province is the granary of South Africa, with agriculture central to its economy, while mining on the rich goldfields reef is its largest employer.
Agriculture dominates the Free State landscape, with cultivated land covering 32,000 square kilometres, natural veld and grazing a further 87,000 square kilometres of the province. It is South A
University of Cape Town
The University of Cape Town is a public research university located in Cape Town in the Western Cape province of South Africa. UCT was founded in 1829 as the South African College making it the oldest higher education institute in South Africa, it is jointly the oldest university in South Africa and the oldest extant university in Sub-Saharan Africa alongside Stellenbosch University which received full university status on the same day in 1918. UCT is the highest-ranked African university in the QS World University Rankings, the Times Higher Education World University Rankings, the Academic Ranking of World Universities, its Law and Commerce Faculties are placed among the hundred best internationally, it is the only African member of the Global University Leaders Forum, within the World Economic Forum, made up of 26 of the world's top universities. The language of instruction is English; the University of Cape Town was founded in 1829 as the South African College, a high school for boys. The College had a small tertiary-education facility that grew after 1880, when the discovery of gold and diamonds in the north - and the resulting demand for skills in mining - gave it the financial boost it needed to grow.
The College developed into a fledged university during the period 1880 to 1900, thanks to increased funding from private sources and the government. During these years, the College built its first dedicated science laboratories, started the departments of mineralogy and geology to meet the need for skilled personnel in the country's emerging diamond and gold-mining industries. Another key development during this period was the admission of women. In 1886 the Professor of Chemistry, Paul Daniel Hahn, convinced the Council to admit four women into his chemistry class on a trial basis. Owing to the exceptional standard of work by the women students, the College decided to admit women students permanently in honour of Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee in 1887; the years 1902 to 1918 saw the establishment of the Medical School, the introduction of engineering courses and a Department of Education. UCT was formally established as a university in 1918, on the basis of the Alfred Beit bequest and additional substantial gifts from mining magnates Julius Wernher and Otto Beit.
The new university attracted substantial support from well-wishers in the Cape Town area and, for the first time, a significant state grant. Ten years in 1928, the university was able to move the bulk of its facilities to the magnificent site at Groote Schuur on the slopes of Devil's Peak on land bequeathed to the nation by Cecil John Rhodes as the site for a national university, where it celebrated its centenary the following year. Apart from establishing itself as a leading research and teaching university in the decades that followed, UCT earned itself this nickname during the period 1960 to 1990 for its sustained opposition to apartheid in higher education; the university admitted its first small group of black students in the 1920s. The number of black students remained low until the 1980s and 90s, when the institution and welcoming the signs of change in the country, committed itself to a deliberate and planned process of internal transformation. From the 1980s to the early 1990s, the number of black students admitted to the university rose by 35 percent.
By 2004, nearly half of UCT's 20,000 students were black and just under half of the student body was female. Today the university boasts having one of the most diverse campuses in South Africa; the UCT crest was designed in 1859 by Charles Davidson Bell, Surveyor-General of the Cape Colony at the time. Bell was an accomplished artist who designed medals and the triangular Cape stamp; the main teaching campus, known as Upper Campus, is located on the Rhodes Estate on the slopes of Devil's Peak. This campus contains, in a compact site, the faculties of Science, Engineering and Humanities, as well as Smuts Hall and Fuller Hall residences. Upper Campus is centered on Memorial Hall, the location for graduation and other ceremonial events, as well as many examinations; the original buildings and layout of Upper Campus were designed by JM Solomon and built between 1928 and 1930. Since that time, many more buildings have been added. Upper Campus is home to the main library, The Chancellor Oppenheimer library which holds the majority of the University's 1.3 million volume collection.
Contiguous with Upper Campus, but separated from it by university sports fields and the M3 expressway, are the Middle and Lower Campuses. These campuses, which are spread through the suburbs of Rondebosch and Mowbray, contain the Law faculty, the South African College of Music, the School of Economics, most of the student residences, most of the university administrative offices, various sporting facilities; the state of the art artificial grass soccer field has been approved by FIFA for training for World Cup teams. The Upper and Lower Campuses together are referred to as the "main campus"; the Faculty of Health Sciences is located on the Medical School campus next to the Groote Schuur Hospital in Observatory. The Fine Arts and Drama departments are located on the Hiddingh Campus in central Cape Town; the University's original building, now known as the Egyptian Building, on the Hiddingh campus, was built in the Egyptian Revival style. The only other campus built in this style was the Medical College of Virginia in Richmond, Virginia in the United States.
The UCT Graduate School of Business is located on the Breakwater Lodge Campus at the Victoria & Alfred Waterfront. For his contribution of the tract of land which the campus was founded on, a bronze statue of Cec
A robot is a machine—especially one programmable by a computer— capable of carrying out a complex series of actions automatically. Robots can be guided by an external control device or the control may be embedded within. Robots may be constructed on the lines of human form, but most robots are machines designed to perform a task with no regard to how they look. Robots can be autonomous or semi-autonomous and range from humanoids such as Honda's Advanced Step in Innovative Mobility and TOSY's TOSY Ping Pong Playing Robot to industrial robots, medical operating robots, patient assist robots, dog therapy robots, collectively programmed swarm robots, UAV drones such as General Atomics MQ-1 Predator, microscopic nano robots. By mimicking a lifelike appearance or automating movements, a robot may convey a sense of intelligence or thought of its own. Autonomous things are expected to proliferate in the coming decade, with home robotics and the autonomous car as some of the main drivers; the branch of technology that deals with the design, construction and application of robots, as well as computer systems for their control, sensory feedback, information processing is robotics.
These technologies deal with automated machines that can take the place of humans in dangerous environments or manufacturing processes, or resemble humans in appearance, behavior, or cognition. Many of today's robots are inspired by nature contributing to the field of bio-inspired robotics; these robots have created a newer branch of robotics: soft robotics. From the time of ancient civilization there have been many accounts of user-configurable automated devices and automata resembling animals and humans, designed as entertainment; as mechanical techniques developed through the Industrial age, there appeared more practical applications such as automated machines, remote-control and wireless remote-control. The term comes from a Czech word, meaning "forced labor". U. R. by the Czech writer, Karel Čapek but it was Karel's brother Josef Čapek, the word's true inventor. Electronics evolved into the driving force of development with the advent of the first electronic autonomous robots created by William Grey Walter in Bristol, England in 1948, as well as Computer Numerical Control machine tools in the late 1940s by John T. Parsons and Frank L. Stulen.
The first commercial and programmable robot was built by George Devol in 1954 and was named the Unimate. It was sold to General Motors in 1961 where it was used to lift pieces of hot metal from die casting machines at the Inland Fisher Guide Plant in the West Trenton section of Ewing Township, New Jersey. Robots have replaced humans in performing repetitive and dangerous tasks which humans prefer not to do, or are unable to do because of size limitations, or which take place in extreme environments such as outer space or the bottom of the sea. There are concerns about the increasing use of their role in society. Robots are blamed for rising technological unemployment as they replace workers in increasing numbers of functions; the use of robots in military combat raises ethical concerns. The possibilities of robot autonomy and potential repercussions have been addressed in fiction and may be a realistic concern in the future; the word robot can refer to both physical robots and virtual software agents, but the latter are referred to as bots.
There is no consensus on which machines qualify as robots but there is general agreement among experts, the public, that robots tend to possess some or all of the following abilities and functions: accept electronic programming, process data or physical perceptions electronically, operate autonomously to some degree, move around, operate physical parts of itself or physical processes and manipulate their environment, exhibit intelligent behavior behavior which mimics humans or other animals. Related to the concept of a robot is the field of Synthetic Biology, which studies entities whose nature is more comparable to beings than to machines; the idea of automata originates in the mythologies of many cultures around the world. Engineers and inventors from ancient civilizations, including Ancient China, Ancient Greece, Ptolemaic Egypt, attempted to build self-operating machines, some resembling animals and humans. Early descriptions of automata include the artificial doves of Archytas, the artificial birds of Mozi and Lu Ban, a "speaking" automaton by Hero of Alexandria, a washstand automaton by Philo of Byzantium, a human automaton described in the Lie Zi.
Many ancient mythologies, most modern religions include artificial people, such as the mechanical servants built by the Greek god Hephaestus, the clay golems of Jewish legend and clay giants of Norse legend, Galatea, the mythical statue of Pygmalion that came to life. Since circa 400 BC, myths of Crete include Talos, a man of bronze who guarded the island from pirates. In ancient Greece, the Greek engineer Ctesibius "applied a knowledge of pneumatics and hydraulics to produce the first organ and water clocks with moving figures." In the 4th century BC, the Greek mathematician Archytas of Tarentum postulated a mechanical steam-operated bird he called "The Pigeon". Hero of Alexandria, a Greek mathematician and inventor, created numerous user-configurable automated devices, described machines powered by air pressure and water; the 11th century Lokapannatti tells of how the Buddha's relics were protected by mechanical robots, from the kingdom of Roma visaya. In ancient China, the