South African Standard Time

South African Standard Time is the time zone used by all of South Africa as well as Eswatini and Lesotho. The zone is the same as Central Africa Time. Daylight saving time is not observed in either time zone. Solar noon in this time zone occurs at 30° E in SAST making Pietermaritzburg at the correct solar noon point, with Johannesburg and Pretoria west at 28° E and Durban east at 31° E. Thus, most of South Africa's population experience true solar noon at 12:00 daily; the western Northern Cape and Western Cape differ, however. Everywhere on land west of 22°30′ E experiences year-round daylight saving time because of its location in true UTC+01:00 but still being in South African Standard Time. Sunrise and sunset are thus late in Cape Town, compared to the rest of the country. To illustrate, daylight hours for South Africa's western and eastern-most major cities: The South African National Time Standard, or'SA Time' Master Clock, is maintained at the Time and Frequency Laboratory of the National Metrology Institute of South Africa at Pretoria and is distributed publicly by an NTP Internet Time service.

Before 8 February 1892, there was no uniformity of time in South Africa and local mean time was in use at the various towns. In 1892, a railway conference was held in Bloemfontein and discussed difficulty of working a railway system, in the absence of a uniform time system; the governments of the Orange Free State and the Cape Colony adopted a uniform standard time of UTC+01:30, defined as mean time 22.5° east of Greenwich. On 1 March 1903 GMT+02:00 was adopted, which became the current UTC+02:00 when UTC replaced GMT for most purposes. Prior to 1 March 1903, the Colony of Natal was using a uniform time supplied by the Natal Observatory; the observatory's local mean time was. South Africa observed a daylight saving time of GMT+03:00 between 20 September 1942 to 21 March 1943 and 19 September 1943 to 19 March 1944. South African Standard Time is defined as "Coordinated Universal Time plus two hours" as defined in South African National Government Gazette No. 40125 of 8 July 2016. Noon Gun


KDXX, is a Spanish CHR radio station serving the Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex in Texas. The station is licensed to Lewisville and owned and operated by Uforia Audio Network, a division of Univision Communications; the station's studios are located along the John W. Carpenter Freeway in the Stemmons Corridor of Northwest Dallas, the transmitter is located north of Denton; the current version of 107.9 was made possible when Marcos A. Rodriguez obtained a new class C2 licensed to Gainesville and purchased 107.9, a Class C licensed to Corsicana, Texas. After Rodriguez sold to Heftel Broadcasting and Mac Tichenor gained control of HBC, Tichenor moved the Corsicana signal south to the Waco market and allowed the Gainesville signal to upgrade and move into Dallas as a class C1 in Lewisville, TX; the upgrade project had been started under the Cecil Heftel version of HBC, completed by the engineers at Tichenor Media/HBC working under David Stewart. The call letters changed a few times through KDXX and KESS-FM.

On February 19, 2009, the Regional Mexican station branded as "La Que Buena" was moved from KESS-FM to 107.1 FM and 99.1 FM. The reggaeton-formatted station and the "La Kalle" branding were moved to KESS-FM and shortly after, the format was retooled to Latin Pop; the KESS call letters were first used in D/FW in the spring of 1976 when Marcos Rodriguez, Sr. father of Marcos A. Rodriguez gained control of a country station, KBUY-FM, on 93.9 FM. That station changed to 94.1 when it moved its transmitter to Cedar Hill, TX in order to avoid a spacing problem with another Dallas station. In late 2011, the "La Kalle" format has been dissolved and replaced with a simulcast of its sister station KDXX, reducing the number of formats by one in DFW's market. KESS-FM was broadcasting in HD Radio with its HD2 subchannel simulcasting San Antonio-based sister station KXTN-FM with a Tejano format. In the months following the format change, the HD broadcasts have been temporarily discontinued. However, they have been restored in the beginning of 2012.

It was in competition with CBS Radio's Spanish Rhythmic AC station KMVK Mega 107.5 prior to the recent format change. On June 28, 2012, KESS flipped to Bilingual Top 40/CHR, billed as "Radio H2O" with a English-language presentation with some Spanish Pop hits, targeting bilingual and younger Hispanics; the last song of the Recuerdo format was "El Sol No Regresa" by La 5ª Estación with the first song of the H20 station being "Hotel Room Service" by Pitbull. The station ran jockless. However, new DJ Stephanie Marie handled the midday drive from 10AM to 3PM. Texas-based Pop singer Austin Mahone became a guest DJ on October 22. DJ AK handles the club mix program at 9PM weeknights; the station did not hire any more DJs during this time. The H2O format competed head-on with Clear Channel-owned KHKS 106.1 Kiss FM & Cumulus Media's KLIF-FM i93.3, shared audience with CBS-owned station KMVK Mega 107.5. In November 2012, "Radio H20" leaned more of a rhythmic direction. Liberman-owned KTCY Baila 101.7 was one of its competitors until February 8, 2013, when Educational Media Foundation took over ownership and preparing to launch satellite-fed Christian Rock format Air1.

On May 9, 2013, Univision announced that KESS would rebrand to "Hot 107.9" as it shifts directions to a more conventional Rhythmic Top 40 presentation, in part due to an increase in the ratings since phasing out the Spanish music and content. On May 17, at Noon, the station rebranded as "Hot 107.9" and made the evolution to a Rhythmic direction, putting it in line with sister stations KBBT/San Antonio and KKSS/Albuquerque. On July 29, 2013, Univision pulled the plug on KESS' Rhythmic format after 2 months without a word of a format change announcement, making it not only the shortest-ran rhythmic station in the metroplex, but one of the shortest-ran format periods for both the Rhythmic format and radio history, leaving said metro area without such a format once again, it is replaced by KFZO's Regional Mexican format after KFZO became a simulcast of sister station Spanish Top 40 sister KDXX. The shuffling was done in response to KMVK's shift from Spanish Contemporary to Regional Mexican and to protect KLNO, whom KMVK will be competing against.

The Rhythmic CHR format continued on this station's HD2 subchannel, their official website through audio streaming and through iHeartRadio for over 2 weeks until Wednesday August 14 when "Hot 107.9 HD2" was replaced with a simulcast of KDXX/KESS On August 9, 2013 KESS-FM swapped call letters with KFZO. Sometime in early 2014, KFZO has dropped their "La Jefa" branding in favor of using its frequency as its ident. However, it has brought back the previous branding in late 2015. On February 17, 2016, Univision has swapped callsigns and formats on this station and 99.1 once again, marking the return of the KDXX call letters on this particular frequency after 13 years. A day 107.9 simulcasts from KESS-FM "Latino Mix". 107.9 - official website Query the FCC's FM station database for KDXX Radio-Locator information on KDXX Query Nielsen Audio's FM station database for KDXXDFW Radio Archives DFW Radio/TV History


Chumped was an American pop punk band based in Brooklyn, New York. The band formed in 2012, released two extended plays before releasing their sole LP, Teenage Retirement, in 2014 on Anchorless Records; the band announced an "indefinite hiatus" in 2015 and performed their final show in February 2016. Pyle and Frelly moved to New York City from Monument, where Pyle met New Jersey resident Doug McKeever while working at the Fort Greene farmers market; the band released their debut, self-titled EP in October 2013 on Anchorless Records. Dan Ozzi wrote in Vice that it was "the best pop-punk debut you will hear all year," and Melissa Fossum dubbed it the best album of 2013 in her submission to the Pazz & Jop that year. During this time, Chumped shared the stage with bands such as Iron Chic, Lee Hartney Sex Drive, Benny The Jet Rodriguez, Modern Baseball, Saves the Day during a surprise late-night performance of Through Being Cool in September 2013 at Saint Vitus Bar in Brooklyn. That's the Thing is Like... was released in September 2014, which featured "Hot 97 Summer Jam", the first single from their forthcoming LP Teenage Retirement.

It coincided with a performance at the Riot Fest in Chicago alongside Weezer, Slayer, NOFX, The Get Up Kids and many more. Chumped released their debut full-length album Teenage Retirement on November 18, 2014, titled after the band some members played in prior to Chumped's formation; the album's sound has been compared to that of Superchunk and Slingshot Dakota. A music video for "December is the Longest Month" was released in December 2014. In November the band embarked on a month-long headlining tour, they have played support to bands such as Pup. In February 2015 Chumped toured Europe and the UK. In February 2015, Joel Tannenbaum and Mikey Erg formed a new project called The Rentiers which features Anika Pyle and Tyler Pursel, their debut EP Here Is A List Of Things That Exist will be released on March 24, 2015 via Square of Opposition and Death to False Hope, can be streamed in its entirety via SoundCloud. Chumped toured with Andrew Jackson Jihad, The Smith Street Band, Jeff Rosenstock on their full United States tour during Spring 2015, which will be followed by supporting The Menzingers for three weeks in June 2015.

Chumped announced its indefinite hiatus its social media accounts in October 2015 choosing to play one last show in Gainesville, Florida, on November 1. Andrew Unterberger at Spin considered the announcement "an unexpectedly abrupt end one of the most promising young careers in DIY punk." The band played their final show on February 6, 2016 in Brooklyn with Jeff Rosenstock, Adult Dude and Chris Gethard's Smiths tribute band. Former membersAnika Pyle – guitar, vocals Dan Frelly – drums Drew Johnson – guitar Doug McKeever – bass guitar Chumped at AllMusic