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South American Plate

The South American Plate is a major tectonic plate which includes the continent of South America as well as a sizable region of the Atlantic Ocean seabed extending eastward to the African Plate, with which it forms the southern part of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The easterly edge is a divergent boundary with the African Plate. At the Chile Triple Junction, near the west coast of the Taitao–Tres Montes Peninsula, an oceanic ridge known as the Chile Rise is subducting under the South American Plate. Geological research suggests that the South American Plate is moving westward away from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge: "Parts of the plate boundaries consisting of alternations of short transform fault and spreading ridge segments are represented by a boundary following the general trend." As a result, the eastward-moving and more dense Nazca Plate is subducting under the western edge of the South American Plate, along the continent's Pacific coast, at a rate of 77 mm per year. The collision of these two plates is responsible for lifting the massive Andes Mountains and for creating the numerous volcanoes which are strewn throughout them.

Fifteen-Twenty Fracture Zone

National Intelligence Academy

The National Intelligence Academy is a Romanian university run by the Romanian Intelligence Service intended to train intelligence officers. In its 20 years of existence, it had trained over 4000 intelligence officers. For the class starting in 2014, the admission was based on an exam and it had 30 places for undergraduate studies, as well as 35 places for Master's degree. In order to become an intelligence officer, a student must complete at least a master's degree; the university's origin can be found in the Psychosociology Faculty of the Alexandru Ioan Cuza Police Academy, created by a governmental order in 1991. The following year, a separate institution was created for training intelligence officers, the "High Institute of Intelligence". In 1996, it was reorganized as the "National Institute of Intelligence" and in 2000, it came to have the current form; the fact that many government ministers and magistrates were alumni of this university, was noticed by journalists. Sidonia Bogdan noted in România Liberă that in no other European country so many magistrates were pursuing PhD under the guidance of top politicians such as Gabriel Oprea and that the Superior Council of Magistracy should explain why this is happening.

Gabriel Oprea Mihai Tudose George Scutaru Csaba Ferenc Asztalos Ramona Mănescu Horia Georgescu Marius Nica Sorin Mihai Grindeanu Sorin Mihai Câmpeanu Angel Tîlvăr Neculai Onțanu Florian Coldea Academia Națională de Informații - Official site

Can't Back Down

Can't Back Down is the seventh studio album released by country music artist Collin Raye. It was his last album for Epic Records, the first album of his career not to produce any Top 40 country hits. "Ain't Nobody Gonna Take That from Me", the first single, reached #43 on the Hot Country Songs charts. "What I Need", the second single, failed to chart. Maria Konicki Dinoia of Allmusic rated the album three stars out of five, she considered it "in much the same vein" as his previous albums, saying that "fans will come to love and appreciate" it. "Gypsy Honeymoon" – 3:49 "It Could Be That Easy" – 3:27 "Ain't Nobody Gonna Take That from Me" – 4:13 "What I Need" – 3:34 "Dancing with No Music Playing" – 3:51 "You Always Get to Me" – 4:13 "End of the World" – 3:40 "One Desire" – 5:12 "Young as We're Ever Gonna Be" – 3:49 "Dear Life" – 4:34 "What I Did for Love" – 3:09 "I Can Let Go Now" – 2:42 As listed in liner notes. Strings on "I Can Let Go Now" conducted and arranged by Steve Dorff

Ted Swales

Edwin Essery Swales VC DFC was a South African pilot and Second World War hero. He was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross and posthumously the Victoria Cross. Edwin Essery Swales was one of four children born in Inanda, South Africa to Harry Evelyn Swales, a farmer in the Heatonville district, Olive Miriam Essery. Following the death of her husband in the influenza epidemic of 1918-19, Mrs Swales and her children moved to the Berea, Durban. Here, Edwin Swales attended Durban High School; as a young lad, Edwin had been a Boy Scout, at the 4th Durban Scout Troop. After leaving school, prior to the Second World War, Edwin Swales worked for Barclays Bank in Durban. Swales had joined the Natal Mounted Rifles before the War. With the N. M. R. in the early part of the War, he saw action in North Africa. He transferred to the South African Air Force on 17 January 1942. Swales was very keen on sport and enjoyed rugby, he played for both various military teams. After playing for the DHS 2nd XV, he played rugby for a number of South African and Dominion teams, whilst he was in the United Kingdom, during the War years.

He played for Griquas. He was a reserve for the Natal rugby team, without actually playing for the province, he received his wings at Kimberley on 26 June 1943. On 22 August 1943, he was seconded to the Royal Air Force while retaining his South African Air Force uniform and rank. Following successful period of training on heavy bombers, Swales was posted, in June 1944, to the elite RAF Pathfinder Force, part of No. 8 Pathfinder Group, at Little Staughton, in Huntingdonshire. It was normal for the Pathfinders to accept only experienced pilots who had completed a full tour on bombers. Although Swales had never spent any time as a bomber pilot in a standard heavy bomber squadron, Swales went straight into the Squadron. Swales' first operational flight for 582 Squadron was on 12 July 1944. Newly promoted to Captain on 4 November 1944, he took part in a daring daylight bombing raid on 23 December, on the Gremberg railway yards, Germany; the Squadron Leader for the raid on Cologne was his close friend, Robert Palmer, D.

F. C. who flew Mosquitos with 109 Squadron based at Little Staughton. Swales was the number two Pathfinder, leading the main flight and following Palmer as he marked the target. Palmer, who had completed 110 bombing raids, was killed as his Lancaster was damaged by German fighter and crashed. Six of the 30 aircraft on this operation were lost. Palmer was awarded a posthumous Victoria Cross - becoming the 2nd Pathfinder pilot to be so honoured. For his actions on the Cologne raid, Edwin Swales was subsequently awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross; the citation reads: In 1945, while with the RAF Pathfinders, Swales was the Master Bomber and captain of Avro Lancaster III PB538. On 23 February 1945, the day as his D. F. C. Award was gazetted, Swales led the bombing raid on Pforzheim, where 17,600 civilians were killed in 22 minutes. The'sortie', his 43rd operational flight, consisted of 367 Lancasters supported by 13 Mosquitos; the marking and bombing, from a low 8,000 feet, were accurate and severe damage was inflicted on Pforzheim: 1,825 tons of bombs were dropped in 22 minutes.

The post-war British Bombing Survey Unit estimated that 83% of the town's built-up area was destroyed the greatest proportion of a city destroyed in any one raid during the war. Ten Lancasters two more crashed in France. Swales' aircraft was holed the fuel tanks, they were attacked again by the same fighter. Swales decided to make it to friendly territory; the weather closed in and he ordered the crew to bail out. He attempted to put his Lancaster down but it stalled and crashed near Valenciennes, west of Prouvy, 3 km SSE of Denain in northern France killing him, he was posthumously awarded the Victoria Cross – the 3rd and last Pathfinder pilot to be so honoured. All had been posthumous. Swales' VC citation reads: Originally buried at Fosse’s USA Cemetery, his remains now lie at the War Cemetery at Leopoldsburg, near Limburg, Plot No.8, Row C, Grave No.5.51°6′44.17″N 5°16′6.47″E Air Chief Marshal Sir Arthur'Bomber' Harris, KCB, OBE, AFC, of RAF Bomber Command, wrote a letter to Swales' mother, inter-alia: Although referred to as being a "Captain" at the time of his last flight, Swales was in fact an'Acting' Major.

The S. A. A. F. was using the army ranking system, hence the ranks of'Captain' and of'Major'. At the time of his death on 23 February 1945, Swales was aged 29 years. In 1958, the British Air Ministry wrote to the Commonwealth War Graves Commission informing them that the South African Air Force authorities had confirmed that at the time of his death, Swales had in fact held the rank of Major; the front page of the program for the opening of the S. A. A. F. Memorial in Pretoria on 31 May 1950, described Mrs. Olive Swales as being the "mother of the Late Major Edwin Swales, DFC, VC". Swales was the only S. A. A. F. Pilot during 1939-45 to be appointed a Pathfinder Master Bomber and to have been posthumously awarded the Victoria Cross; the full list of the medals awarded to Swales follows: The Victoria Cross The Distinguished Flying Cross The 1939–45 Star The Africa Star The France and Germany Star The Defence Medal, 1939–1945 The 1939

Chrys Ingraham

Chrys Ingraham is Professor and Chair of Sociology at Purchase College of the State University of New York. Ingraham is a native of New York State, graduated from Syracuse University's Maxwell School with a Masters in Public Administration, Graduate Certification in Women's Studies and a Ph. D. in Sociology. Her dissertation research addressed how the Comstock Law allowed for the censorship and suppression of feminist thought in 19th century U. S, she has taught at a variety of colleges and universities, including Syracuse University, Ithaca College, Skidmore College, Smith College, Russell Sage College, SUNY Albany, is Professor and Chair of Sociology at the State University of New York at Purchase. She lives in Syracuse, NY. Ingraham served as visiting professor at Ithaca College prior to receiving tenure and promotion to full professor at Russell Sage College where she directed the Helen M. Upton Center for Women's Studies and co-founded the Allies Center for the Study of Difference and Conflict.

She co-founded their Management and Social Responsibility program. In 2007 she moved to SUNY Purchase to rebuild the Sociology program and assisted in the creation of a Latin American Studies major. Ingraham serves as Chair of Sociology at Purchase College. Ingraham has written, edited, or co-edited, several books 1997 Materialist Feminism: A Reader in Class and Women's Live's,ed. by Chrys Ingraham and Rosemary Hennessy, Routledge, 1997. According to WorldCat, the book is held in 347 libraries. 1999 White Weddings: Romancing Heterosexuality in Popular Culture, 1st edition, Routledge, 1999 2008 White Weddings: Romancing Heterosexuality in Popular Culture, 2nd edition, Routledge, 2008. 2016 White Weddings: Romancing Heterosexuality in Popular Culture, 3rd edition, Routledge, 2016. According to WorldCat, the editions of this book are held in 820 libraries. 2005 Thinking Straight: The Power, the Promise, the Paradox of Heterosexuality, Chrys Ingraham. Routledge, 2005. ISBN 9780415932738. According to WorldCat, the book is held in 1116 libraries.

Ingraham has published several book chapters including: "Heterosexuality: It's Just Not Natural!," in Handbook of Lesbian and Gay Studies, edited by Diane Richardson and Steven Seidman, London: Sage. 2002 According to WorldCat, the book is held in 613 libraries. "Thinking Straight, Acting Bent: Heteronormativity and Homosexuality," in Handbook of Gender and Women's Studies, edited by Kathy Davis, Mary Evans, Judith Lorber, London: Sage. 2006. "Straightening Up: The Marriage of Conformity and Resistance in Wedding Art," in Wedded Bliss: The Marriage of Art and Ceremony, edited by Paula Bradstreet Richter, Peabody Essex Museum: 2008. Ingraham has published academic journal articles that include: "The Heterosexual Imaginary: Feminist Sociology and Theories of Gender","Sociological Theory", Vol. 12, No. 2, pp. 203–219 "Systemic Pedagogy: Activating Sociological Thinking Inside and Outside the Classroom","International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy", 1996 "Situational Shifts in Sex Role Orientation: Correlates of Work Satisfaction and Burnout Among Women in Special Education","Sex Roles", Vol. 25.

Nos. 7/8 1991She has written several encyclopedia entries: "Weddings,"in Routledge International Encyclopedia of Women, edited by Cherie Kramarae and Dale Spender, London: Sage, 2000 "Heterosexual Imaginary," with Casey Saunders, in The Wiley-Blackwell Encyclopedia of Gender and Sexuality Studies, edited by Nancy Naples. Boston: Wiley-Blackwell, 2015Ingraham was a guest speaker for the film Wedding Advice by Karen Sosnoski and Fred Zeytoojian, 2002. Google Scholar. Citations


Grizedale is a hamlet in the Lake District of North West England, in the middle of the Grizedale Forest, located north of Satterthwaite and south of Hawkshead. It is part of the civil parish of Satterthwaite. There is a large visitors' centre Attractions include extensive mountain bike trails and one of the Go Ape company's tree-top adventure courses, it used to be the home of a contemporary arts residency and commissioning agency. The forest is still notable for its sculptures. Grizedale is the location of the former Grizedale Hall – a forty-room mansion, demolished in 1957. Before and after World War II, it was owned by the Forestry Commission. During the war, it was commandeered by the War Office and became known as No 1 POW Camp Grizedale Hall, to hold German officer prisoners of war; as many of these were rescued survivors from sunken U-boats, it became known as the "U-Boat Hotel". The fighter pilot Franz von Werra was held there, made one of the many escape attempts for which he is known.

Another well-known prisoner was Otto Kretschmer, Germany's most successful U-boat captain until his capture. An interactive woodland nature trail themed around the children's book Zog was installed at Grizedale in 2019. Grizedale College Grisedale Tarn Satterthwaite Parish Community Website