Rugby World Cup
The Rugby World Cup is a men's rugby union tournament contested every four years between the top international teams. The tournament was first held in 1987, when the tournament was co-hosted by New Zealand and Australia; the winners are awarded the Webb Ellis Cup, named after William Webb Ellis, the Rugby School pupil who, according to a popular legend, invented rugby by picking up the ball during a football game. Four countries have won the trophy. New Zealand are the current champions, having defeated Australia in the final of the 2015 tournament in England; the tournament is administered by the sport's international governing body. Sixteen teams were invited to participate in the inaugural tournament in 1987, however since 1999 twenty teams have taken part. Japan will host the 2019 Rugby World Cup and France will host in 2023. Qualifying tournaments were introduced for the second tournament, where eight of the sixteen places were contested in a twenty-four-nation tournament; the inaugural World Cup in 1987, did not involve any qualifying process.
In 2003 and 2007, the qualifying format allowed for eight of the twenty available positions to be filled by automatic qualification, as the eight quarter finalists of the previous tournament enter its successor. The remaining twelve positions were filled by continental qualifying tournaments. Positions were filled by three teams from the Americas, one from Asia, one from Africa, three from Europe and two from Oceania. Another two places were allocated for repechage; the first repechage place was determined by a match between the runners-up from the Africa and Europe qualifying tournaments, with that winner playing the Americas runner-up to determine the place. The second repechage position was determined between the runners-up from the Asia and Oceania qualifiers; the current format allows for 12 of the 20 available positions to be filled by automatic qualification, as the teams who finish third or better in the group stages of the previous tournament enter its successor. The qualification system for the remaining eight places is region-based, with a total eight teams allocated for Europe, five for Oceania, three for the Americas, two for Africa, one for Asia.
The last place is determined by an intercontinental play-off. The 2015 tournament involved twenty nations competing over six weeks. There were a pool and a knockout. Nations were divided into A through to D, of five nations each; the teams were seeded before the start of the tournament, with the seedings taken from the World Rankings in December 2012. The four highest-ranked teams were drawn into pools A to D; the next four highest-ranked teams were drawn into pools A to D, followed by the next four. The remaining positions in each pool were filled by the qualifiers. Nations play four pool games. A bonus points system is used during pool play. If two or more teams are level on points, a system of criteria is used to determine the higher ranked; the winner and runner-up of each pool enter the knockout stage. The knockout stage consists of quarter- and semi-finals, the final; the winner of each pool is placed against a runner-up of a different pool in a quarter-final. The winner of each quarter-final goes on to the semi-finals, the respective winners proceed to the final.
Losers of the semi-finals contest for third place, called the'Bronze Final'. If a match in the knockout stages ends in a draw, the winner is determined through extra time. If that fails, the match goes into the next team to score any points is the winner; as a last resort, a kicking competition is used. Prior to the Rugby World Cup, there was no global rugby union competition, but there were a number of other tournaments. One of the oldest is the annual Six Nations Championship, which started in 1883 as the Home Nations Championship, a tournament between England, Ireland and Wales, it expanded to the Five Nations in 1910. France did not participate from 1931 to 1939, during which period it reverted to a Home Nations championship. In 2000, Italy joined the competition. Rugby union was played at the Summer Olympic Games, first appearing at the 1900 Paris games and subsequently at London in 1908, Antwerp in 1920, Paris again in 1924. France won the first gold medal Australasia, with the last two being won by the United States.
However rugby union ceased to be on Olympic program after 1924. The idea of a Rugby World Cup had been suggested on numerous occasions going back to the 1950s, but met with opposition from most unions in the IRFB; the idea resurfaced several times in the early 1980s, with the Australian Rugby Union in 1983, the New Zealand Rugby Union in 1984 independently proposing the establishment of a world cup. A proposal was again put to the IRFB in 1985 and this time passed 10–6; the delegates from Australia, New Zealand and South Africa all voted for the proposal, the delegates from Ireland and Scotland against. The inaugural tournament, jointly hosted by Australia and New Zealand, was held in May and June 1987, with sixteen nations taking part. New Zealand became the first champions, defeating France 29–9 in the final; the subsequent 1991 tournament was hosted by England, with matches
Peru national rugby union team
The Peru national rugby team, nicknamed los Tumis, is an emerging team in the Americas and a member of the Confederación Sudamericana de Rugby. In 1958 Peru, together with Argentina and Chile participated in the first South American tournament, held in Santiago, Chile; because there was no IRB-sanctioned rugby union at the time, participation was not accepted by Peruvian sport authorities. It would be another 39 years. In September, 1999 Peru participated in its first official international tournament: the first under-21 South American tournament in Asuncion, Paraguay. In November, 2000 Peru participated in the first South American B Championship, in São Paulo, with Brazil and Venezuela. In 2001 they played in the qualifying rounds of the 2003 Rugby World Cup, against Brazil and Colombia, their home tie with Colombia was the first Peruvian victory on home soil in an official IRB match. In the 2007 South American B Championship, played in Peru, Los Tumis won second place. Brazil were champions, with Venezuela finishing third and fourth respectively.
In 2010 Peru won the South American B Championship played in Medellin, Colombia gaining their first international title. Squad to 2018 South American B Championship Rugby union in Peru Unión Peruana de Rugby
Uruguay national rugby union team
The Uruguay national rugby union team, nicknamed Los Teros, is governed by the Unión de Rugby del Uruguay. One of the older test sides in the world, Uruguay has qualified three times for the Rugby World Cup, in 1999, 2003 and most 2015; as of March 2018 they are ranked 18th in the world, are ranked 3rd in the Americas region, behind rivals Argentina and the United States. Uruguay has been one of the better fringe international sides in rugby union, having beaten Tier 2/3 competition from across the globe. Uruguay won the South American Rugby Championship in 1981, the only time that a team other than Argentina won the tournament, they came second on 19 occasions and third the remaining 9. As of 2012, Uruguay has been classified as a Tier 2 nation, which allows them to receive more funding from World Rugby, their home stadium holds up to 14,000 people. Estadio Domingo Burgueño has been used for some fixtures in the Americas Rugby Championship. Rugby union has been played on Uruguayan soil as as early as the 19th century, with reports of rugby football being played as early as 1865, though the origins of rugby in Uruguay remain controversial.
Regardless of whom played the first rugby match in Uruguay, it is clear that rugby was introduced in Uruguay by British immigrants in the 19th century, with the game being more popularized by the Congregation of Christian Brothers, who were of Irish origin. Because of this, Uruguay has one of the oldest rugby cultures outside the British Isles, one of the most established in the South America. Uruguay made their official international debut in 1948, in a game against Chile, which Uruguay lost 21–3. Following their debut match, they return to competition in the Pan American Games, first against the more experienced Argentina, resulting in a 0–62 loss. Uruguay faced Chile for the second time, defeating them by 8–3; the final match of the competition was a 17–10 win over Brazil. Uruguay thus became runners up in the first unofficial South American Rugby Championship. Uruguay, after a four years hiatus, played Chile in 1956, who defeated them by 6–3. In 1958, they played for the first official South American Rugby Championship, in a pool of three countries.
They first played Chile, this time losing by 9–34. The "Teros" met again Argentina, having another loss, this time by 3–50. Uruguay managed to defeat Peru in the last game. In 1960, Uruguay faced for the first time one of the powers of the Northern Hemisphere rugby, France XV, losing by 0–59 in Montevideo during a South American tour. Uruguay after this match entered their second South American Rugby Championship, they first won Brazil in a close game, losing to Chile and Argentina, in the closest result to between both countries. The 1970s started off with a win over Paraguay in 1971, followed by a win and loss against Chile and a win against Brazil, they played Argentina twice in the 1970s. However, they won all their matches except for those against Argentina, as well as losing one game against Chile and drawing another. However, the next game against Argentina, two years in 1979, Uruguay came close to defeating the Pumas, going down by just three points, the final score being 19 to 16; the 1980s started off with a 54 to 14 win over Paraguay, which resulted in a winning streak, stopped by Argentina in 1983.
In 1985, France visited Montevideo for a second time to play the Teros, beating the locals 34–6. Another short undefeated streak occurred over 1987/1989, broken by a 19 to 17 loss against Chile; this was followed by a sound loss to loss to a new opponent, the United States Eagles. The 1990s started off with wins against of Chile and Paraguay; this was followed by more wins over their traditional opponents, though Uruguay still lost to Argentina, they played Canada in a competitive 28–9 loss in 1995. Uruguay played some of the bigger nations such as Argentina and the United States, although the Canada and U. S. games were a lot closer than some of their previous encounters. A huge success for them was qualifying for the 1999 Rugby World Cup in Wales, they won their pool fixture against Spain, Uruguay finished third in their pool. Uruguay came within 10 points of Argentina in 2001, played nations such as Italy in the same year. Uruguay won most of their matches against their traditional Americas opponents in the early 2000s.
In 2002, Uruguay defeated Canada, winning 25–23. They followed this up with a 10–9 win over the United States, they again qualified for the 2003 World Cup. They won their pool fixture against Georgia 24–12. Uruguay's qualification for the 2007 World Cup started in Americas Round 3a, where they were grouped with Argentina and Chile. After losing their first match 26–0 to Argentina, they defeated Chile 43–15 in Montevideo, which saw them enter Round 4. In round 4 they faced the United States, Uruguay lost on aggregate, moved onto the repechage round as Americas 4. Uruguay played Portugal in the repechage over two legs — losing the first in Lisbon and winning the second in Montevideo — but lost on aggregate points and failed to qualify. Uruguay lost the 2011 Rugby World Cup qualification. Uruguay had won the 2009 South American Rugby Championship "A" by defeating Brazil and Chile at the Estadio Charrúa. Uruguay lost to the United States 22–27 and 6–27. In the repechage, Uruguay defeated Kazakhstan 44–7, but in the battle for the 20th and final spot at the 2011 Rugby World Cup, Uruguay tied Romania at home 21–21 and lost 12–32 in Bucharest.
During the 2015 Rugby World Cup qualifying, Uruguay won the 2013 South American Rugby Championship "A", getting wins at the Estadio Charrúa against Brazil and Chile. In March 2014, Urugua
Paraguay the Republic of Paraguay, is a country of South America. It is bordered by Argentina to the south and southwest, Brazil to the east and northeast, Bolivia to the northwest. Although it is one of the only two landlocked countries in South America, the country has coasts and ports on the Paraguay and Paraná rivers that give exit to the Atlantic Ocean through the Paraná-Paraguay Waterway. Due to its central location in South America, it is sometimes referred to as Corazón de Sudamérica. Spanish conquistadores arrived in 1524 after navigating northwards from the Río de la Plata to the Paraná River, up the Paraguay River. In 1537, they established the city of Asunción, the first capital of the Governorate of Paraguay and Río de la Plata. Paraguay was the epicenter of the Jesuit Missions, where the Guaraní people were educated and introduced to Christianity and European culture under the direction of the Society of Jesus in Jesuit reductions during the 17th century. However, after the expulsion of the Jesuits from Spanish territories in 1767, Paraguay became a peripheral colony, with few urban centers and settlers.
Following independence from Spain at the beginning of the 19th century, Paraguay was ruled by a series of authoritarian governments who implemented nationalist and protectionist policies. This period ended with the disastrous Paraguayan War, during which Paraguay lost at least 50% of its prewar population and around 25–33% of its territory to the Triple Alliance of Argentina and Uruguay. In the 20th century, Paraguay faced another major international conflict – the Chaco War – against Bolivia, from which the Paraguayans emerged victorious. Afterwards, the country entered a period of military dictatorships, ending with the 35 year regime of Alfredo Stroessner that lasted until he was toppled in 1989 by an internal military coup; this marked the beginning of the "democratic era" of Paraguay. With around 7 million inhabitants, Paraguay is a founding member of Mercosur, an original member of the United Nations, the Organization of American States, the Non-Aligned Movement and the Lima Group; the city of Luque, in Asuncion's Metropolitan Area, is the seat of the CONMEBOL.
The Guarani culture is influential and more than 90% of the people speak different forms of the Guarani language on top of Spanish. Paraguayans are known for being a happy and easy-living people and many times the country topped the "world's happiest place" charts because of the "positive experiences" lived and expressed by the population; the indigenous Guaraní had been living in eastern Paraguay for at least a millennium before the arrival of the Spanish. Western Paraguay, the Gran Chaco, was inhabited by nomads of whom the Guaycuru peoples were the most prominent; the Paraguay River was the dividing line between the agricultural Guarani people to the east and the nomadic and semi-nomadic people to the west in the Gran Chaco. The Guarcuru nomads were known for their warrior traditions and were not pacified until the late 19th century; these indigenous tribes belonged to five distinct language families, which were the bases of their major divisions. Differing language speaking groups were competitive over resources and territories.
They were further divided into tribes by speaking languages in branches of these families. Today 17 separate ethnolinguistic groups remain; the first Europeans in the area were Spanish explorers in 1516. The Spanish explorer Juan de Salazar de Espinosa founded the settlement of Asunción on 15 August 1537; the city became the center of a Spanish colonial province of Paraguay. An attempt to create an autonomous Christian Indian nation was undertaken by Jesuit missions and settlements in this part of South America in the eighteenth century, which included portions of Uruguay and Brazil, they developed Jesuit reductions to bring Guarani populations together at Spanish missions and protect them from virtual slavery by Spanish settlers and Portuguese slave raiders, the Bandeirantes. In addition to seeking their conversion to Christianity. Catholicism in Paraguay was influenced by the indigenous peoples; the reducciones flourished in eastern Paraguay for about 150 years, until the expulsion of the Jesuits by the Spanish Crown in 1767.
The ruins of two 18th-century Jesuit Missions of La Santísima Trinidad de Paraná and Jesús de Tavarangue have been designated as World Heritage Sites by UNESCO. In western Paraguay Spanish settlement and Christianity were resisted by the nomadic Guaycuru and other nomads from the 16th century onward. Most of these peoples were absorbed into the mestizo population in the 19th centuries. Paraguay overthrew the local Spanish administration on 14 May 1811. Paraguay's first dictator was José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia who ruled Paraguay from 1814 until his death in 1840, with little outside contact or influence, he intended to create a utopian society based on the French theorist Jean-Jacques Rousseau's Social Contract. Rodríguez de Francia established new laws that reduced the powers of the Catholic church and the cabinet, forbade colonial citizens from marrying one another and allowed them to marry only blacks, mulattoes or natives, in order to break the power of colonial-era elites and to create a mixed-race or mestizo society.
He cut off the rest of South America. Because of Francia's restrictions of freedom, Fulgencio Yegros and several other Independence-era
1951 Pan American Games
The 1951 Pan American Games were held in Buenos Aires, Argentina between February 25 and March 9, 1951. The Pan American Games' origins were at the Games of the X Olympiad in Los Angeles, United States, where officials representing the National Olympic Committees of the Americas discussed the staging of an Olympic-style regional athletic competition for the athletes of the Americas. During the Pan-American Exposition at Dallas in 1937, a limited sports program was staged; these included Athletics and Wrestling among others. This program was considered a success and a meeting of Olympic officials from the Americas was held. At the Pan American Sports Conference held in 1940, it was decided to hold the 1st Pan American Games at Buenos Aires, Argentina, in 1942; the Pan American Sports Committee was formed to govern the games. Avery Brundage was elected as the first President. However, the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor brought much of the Americas into World War II, thus forcing the cancellation of the 1942 games.
A second conference was held in 1948. Avery Brundage was re-elected as the President of the PASC, it was decided that Buenos Aires would still host the 1st Pan American Games, this time in 1951. River Plate Stadium - Athletics Luna Park Stadium - Basketball and Boxing Estadio Presidente Juan Domingo Perón - Football Club Universitario de Buenos Aires - Diving and Waterpolo Pista Nacional de Remo, Tigre - Rowing Velódromo Municipal - Cycling Campo de Mayo - Pan American Village The opening ceremony took place at the Racing Club Stadium; the Greek athlete Aristeidis Roubanis lit the pebble for the first time. The inauguration event was attended by the Argentine President Juan Perón and the member of the Pan-American Games Commission, Avery Brundage. To sort this table by nation, total medal count, or any other column, click on the icon next to the column title. Note^ The medal counts for Argentina, the United States and Chile are disputed
Rugby sevens, known as seven-a-side rugby, is a variant of rugby union in which teams are made up of seven players playing seven minute halves, instead of the usual 15 players playing 40 minute halves. Rugby sevens is administered by the body responsible for rugby union worldwide; the game is popular at all levels, with amateur and club tournaments held in the summer months. Sevens is one of the most well distributed forms of rugby, is popular in parts of Africa, Asia and the Americas, in the South Pacific. Rugby sevens originated in Scotland in the 1880s; the popularity of rugby sevens increased further with the development of the Hong Kong Sevens in the 1970s and was followed by the inclusion of the sport into the Commonwealth Games for the first time in 1998 and the establishment of the annual World Rugby Sevens Series in 1999 and the World Rugby Women's Sevens Series in 2012. In 2016, rugby sevens was contested in the Summer Olympics for the first time, it has been played in regional events such as the Pan American Games and the Asian Games, in 2018 a women's tournament was played for the first time at the Commonwealth Games.
Rugby sevens is sanctioned by World Rugby, is played under similar laws and on a field of the same dimensions as the 15 player game. While a regular rugby union match lasts at least 80 minutes, a normal sevens match consists of two halves of seven minutes with a two-minute half-time break; the final of a competition can be played over two halves of ten minutes each. Sevens scores are comparable to regular rugby scores, but scoring occurs much more in sevens, since the defenders are more spaced out; the scoring system is the same as regular rugby union, namely five points for a try, three points for a drop goal and two points for a post-try conversion. The shorter match length allows rugby sevens tournaments to be completed in a weekend. Many sevens tournaments have a competition for a cup, a plate, a bowl, a shield, allowing many teams of different standards to avoid leaving empty-handed. Sevens tournaments are traditionally known for having more of a relaxed atmosphere than fifteen-a-side games, are known as "festivals".
Sevens tournaments gained their "popularity as an end of season diversion from the dourer and sterner stuff that provides the bulk of a normal season's watching." Fans attend in fancy dress, entertainment is put on for them. The Hong Kong Sevens tournament has been important in popularising the game in Asia, rugby sevens has been important as a form of international rugby "evangelism", hence is the most played form of the game, with tournaments in places as far apart as Bogota and Bangkok, Kuala Lumpur and Kenya and Scandinavia, as well as the countries in which rugby union is well known. Sevens is played on a standard rugby union playing field; the field measures up to 100 metres long and 70 metres wide. On each goal line are H-shaped goal posts; the goal posts are on the goal line. This is unlike American football. Teams are composed of seven players -- four backs. Scrums are made up of three players from each team; because of the faster nature of the game, sevens players are backs or loose forwards in fifteens rugby.
Substitutes are with only five substitutes on the bench. A typical defensive formation in open play involves a line of six defenders, with one sweeper behind the line. Rugby sevens tends to be played at a faster pace than rugby fifteens; the differences are most notable on game restarts. Because scrums in sevens involve three players forming one row instead of eight players forming three rows, scrums tend to assemble more require fewer restarts, the ball exits the scrum more quickly. Penalties in sevens are taken with a quick tap, instead of a kick for touch and a line out, resulting in the ball being put back in play more quickly. There are several variations in laws which apply to rugby sevens to speed up the game and to account for the reduced number of players; the main changes can be summarised. Five substitutes, with five interchanges. Seven minute halves. Maximum of two minutes half-time. Matches drawn after regulation are continued into sudden-death extra time, in multiple 5-minute periods.
All conversion attempts must be drop-kicked. Conversions must be taken within 30 seconds of scoring a try. Prior to 2016, the limit had been 40 seconds. Three player scrums. Kick-offs: in sevens, the team which has just scored kicks off, rather than the conceding team, as in fifteen-a-side. Yellow cards net a 2-minute suspension to the offender. Referees decide on advantage quickly. In major competitions, there are additional officials present to judge success of kicks at goals, which means the game is not delayed waiting for touch judges to move into position to judge conversion attempts. Rugby sevens was conceived in 1883 by Ned Haig and David Sanderson, who were butch
Brazil the Federative Republic of Brazil, is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers and with over 208 million people, Brazil is the world's fifth-largest country by area and the fifth most populous. Its capital is Brasília, its most populated city is São Paulo; the federation is composed of the union of the 26 states, the Federal District, the 5,570 municipalities. It is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language and the only one in the Americas. Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Brazil has a coastline of 7,491 kilometers, it borders all other South American countries except Ecuador and Chile and covers 47.3% of the continent's land area. Its Amazon River basin includes a vast tropical forest, home to diverse wildlife, a variety of ecological systems, extensive natural resources spanning numerous protected habitats; this unique environmental heritage makes Brazil one of 17 megadiverse countries, is the subject of significant global interest and debate regarding deforestation and environmental protection.
Brazil was inhabited by numerous tribal nations prior to the landing in 1500 of explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral, who claimed the area for the Portuguese Empire. Brazil remained a Portuguese colony until 1808, when the capital of the empire was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro. In 1815, the colony was elevated to the rank of kingdom upon the formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves. Independence was achieved in 1822 with the creation of the Empire of Brazil, a unitary state governed under a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary system; the ratification of the first constitution in 1824 led to the formation of a bicameral legislature, now called the National Congress. The country became a presidential republic in 1889 following a military coup d'état. An authoritarian military junta came to power in 1964 and ruled until 1985, after which civilian governance resumed. Brazil's current constitution, formulated in 1988, defines it as a democratic federal republic. Due to its rich culture and history, the country ranks thirteenth in the world by number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
Brazil is considered an advanced emerging economy. It has the ninth largest GDP in the world by nominal, eight and PPP measures, it is one of the world's major breadbaskets, being the largest producer of coffee for the last 150 years. It is classified as an upper-middle income economy by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country, with the largest share of global wealth in Latin America. Brazil is a regional power and sometimes considered a great or a middle power in international affairs. On account of its international recognition and influence, the country is subsequently classified as an emerging power and a potential superpower by several analysts. Brazil is a founding member of the United Nations, the G20, BRICS, Union of South American Nations, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States and the Community of Portuguese Language Countries, it is that the word "Brazil" comes from the Portuguese word for brazilwood, a tree that once grew plentifully along the Brazilian coast.
In Portuguese, brazilwood is called pau-brasil, with the word brasil given the etymology "red like an ember", formed from brasa and the suffix -il. As brazilwood produces a deep red dye, it was valued by the European textile industry and was the earliest commercially exploited product from Brazil. Throughout the 16th century, massive amounts of brazilwood were harvested by indigenous peoples along the Brazilian coast, who sold the timber to European traders in return for assorted European consumer goods; the official Portuguese name of the land, in original Portuguese records, was the "Land of the Holy Cross", but European sailors and merchants called it the "Land of Brazil" because of the brazilwood trade. The popular appellation eclipsed and supplanted the official Portuguese name; some early sailors called it the "Land of Parrots". In the Guarani language, an official language of Paraguay, Brazil is called "Pindorama"; this was the name the indigenous population gave to the region, meaning "land of the palm trees".
Some of the earliest human remains found in the Americas, Luzia Woman, were found in the area of Pedro Leopoldo, Minas Gerais and provide evidence of human habitation going back at least 11,000 years. The earliest pottery found in the Western Hemisphere was excavated in the Amazon basin of Brazil and radiocarbon dated to 8,000 years ago; the pottery was found near Santarém and provides evidence that the tropical forest region supported a complex prehistoric culture. The Marajoara culture flourished on Marajó in the Amazon delta from 800 CE to 1400 CE, developing sophisticated pottery, social stratification, large populations, mound building, complex social formations such as chiefdoms. Around the time of the Portuguese arrival, the territory of current day Brazil had an estimated indigenous population of 7 million people semi-nomadic who subsisted on hunting, fishing and migrant agriculture; the indigenous population of Brazil comprised several large indigenous ethnic groups. The Tupí people were subdivided into the Tupiniquins and Tupinambás, there were many subdivisions of the other gro