The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States. It is located on a peninsula, bordered on the north and east by the state of New York along the extent of the length of New York City on its western edge. New Jersey is the fourth-smallest state by area but the 11th-most populous, with 9 million residents as of 2017, the most densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. New Jersey lies within the combined statistical areas of New York City and Philadelphia. New Jersey was the second-wealthiest U. S. state by median household income as of 2017. New Jersey was inhabited by Native Americans for more than 2,800 years, with historical tribes such as the Lenape along the coast. In the early 17th century, the Dutch and the Swedes founded the first European settlements in the state; the English seized control of the region, naming it the Province of New Jersey after the largest of the Channel Islands and granting it as a colony to Sir George Carteret and John Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley of Stratton.
New Jersey was the site of several decisive battles during the American Revolutionary War in the 18th century. In the 19th century, factories in cities, Paterson, Trenton, Jersey City, Elizabeth helped to drive the Industrial Revolution. New Jersey's geographic location at the center of the Northeast megalopolis, between Boston and New York City to the northeast, Philadelphia and Washington, D. C. to the southwest, fueled its rapid growth through the process of suburbanization in the second half of the 20th century. In the first decades of the 21st century, this suburbanization began reverting with the consolidation of New Jersey's culturally diverse populace toward more urban settings within the state, with towns home to commuter rail stations outpacing the population growth of more automobile-oriented suburbs since 2008. Around 180 million years ago, during the Jurassic Period, New Jersey bordered North Africa; the pressure of the collision between North America and Africa gave rise to the Appalachian Mountains.
Around 18,000 years ago, the Ice Age resulted in glaciers. As the glaciers retreated, they left behind Lake Passaic, as well as many rivers and gorges. New Jersey was settled by Native Americans, with the Lenni-Lenape being dominant at the time of contact. Scheyichbi is the Lenape name for the land, now New Jersey; the Lenape were several autonomous groups that practiced maize agriculture in order to supplement their hunting and gathering in the region surrounding the Delaware River, the lower Hudson River, western Long Island Sound. The Lenape society was divided into matrilinear clans; these clans were organized into three distinct phratries identified by their animal sign: Turtle and Wolf. They first encountered the Dutch in the early 17th century, their primary relationship with the Europeans was through fur trade; the Dutch became the first Europeans to lay claim to lands in New Jersey. The Dutch colony of New Netherland consisted of parts of modern Middle Atlantic states. Although the European principle of land ownership was not recognized by the Lenape, Dutch West India Company policy required its colonists to purchase the land that they settled.
The first to do so was Michiel Pauw who established a patronship called Pavonia in 1630 along the North River which became the Bergen. Peter Minuit's purchase of lands along the Delaware River established the colony of New Sweden; the entire region became a territory of England on June 24, 1664, after an English fleet under the command of Colonel Richard Nicolls sailed into what is now New York Harbor and took control of Fort Amsterdam, annexing the entire province. During the English Civil War, the Channel Island of Jersey remained loyal to the British Crown and gave sanctuary to the King, it was from the Royal Square in Saint Helier that Charles II of England was proclaimed King in 1649, following the execution of his father, Charles I. The North American lands were divided by Charles II, who gave his brother, the Duke of York, the region between New England and Maryland as a proprietary colony. James granted the land between the Hudson River and the Delaware River to two friends who had remained loyal through the English Civil War: Sir George Carteret and Lord Berkeley of Stratton.
The area was named the Province of New Jersey. Since the state's inception, New Jersey has been characterized by religious diversity. New England Congregationalists settled alongside Scots Presbyterians and Dutch Reformed migrants. While the majority of residents lived in towns with individual landholdings of 100 acres, a few rich proprietors owned vast estates. English Quakers and Anglicans owned large landholdings. Unlike Plymouth Colony and other colonies, New Jersey was populated by a secondary wave of immigrants who came from other colonies instead of those who migrated directly from Europe. New Jersey remained agrarian and rural throughout the colonial era, commercial farming developed sporadically; some townships, such as Burlington on the Delaware River and Perth Amboy, emerged as important ports for shipping to New York City and Philadelphia. The colony's fertile lands and tolerant religious policy drew more settlers, New Jersey's population had increased to 120,000 by 1775. Settlement for the first 10 years of English rule took place along Hackensack River and Arthur Kill –
A tributary or affluent is a stream or river that flows into a larger stream or main stem river or a lake. A tributary does not flow directly into a ocean. Tributaries and the main stem river drain the surrounding drainage basin of its surface water and groundwater, leading the water out into an ocean. A confluence, where two or more bodies of water meet together refers to the joining of tributaries; the opposite to a tributary is a distributary, a river or stream that branches off from and flows away from the main stream. Distributaries are most found in river deltas. "Right tributary" and "left tributary" are terms stating the orientation of the tributary relative to the flow of the main stem river. These terms are defined from the perspective of looking downstream. In the United States, where tributaries sometimes have the same name as the river into which they feed, they are called forks; these are designated by compass direction. For example, the American River receives flow from its North and South forks.
The Chicago River's North Branch has the East and Middle Fork. Forks are sometimes left. Here, the "handedness" is from the point of view of an observer facing upstream. For instance, Steer Creek has a left tributary, called Right Fork Steer Creek. Tributaries are sometimes listed starting with those nearest to the source of the river and ending with those nearest to the mouth of the river; the Strahler Stream Order examines the arrangement of tributaries in a hierarchy of first, second and higher orders, with the first-order tributary being the least in size. For example, a second-order tributary would be the result of two or more first-order tributaries combining to form the second-order tributary. Another method is to list tributaries from mouth to source, in the form of a tree structure, stored as a tree data structure. A gallery of major river basins with tributaries Estuary
Burlington County, New Jersey
Burlington County is a county located in the U. S. state of New Jersey. The county is the second largest in New Jersey by total area behind Ocean County which has a total area of 915.40 sq mi and its county seat is Mount Holly. As of the 2017 Census Bureau estimate, the county's population was 448,596, making it the 11th-largest of the state's 21 counties, representing a 0.1% decrease from the 2010 United States Census, when the population was enumerated at 448,734, in turn an increase of 25,340 from the 423,394 enumerated in the 2000 Census. The most-populous place was Evesham Township, with 45,538 residents at the time of the 2010 Census, while Washington Township covered 102.71 square miles, the largest total area of any municipality in Burlington County. In 2015, the county had a per capita personal income of $55,227, the tenth-highest in New Jersey and ranked 228th of 3,113 counties in the United States; the Bureau of Economic Analysis ranked the county as having the 158th-highest per capita income of all 3,113 counties in the United States as of 2009.
Burlington County is part of the Delaware Valley area, located east of the Delaware River. However, the county stretches across the state, its southeast corner reaches tidal estuaries leading to southern New Jersey's Great Bay, which separates the county from the Atlantic Ocean. Anglo-European records of Burlington County date to 1681, when its court was established in the Province of West Jersey; the county was formed on May 17, 1694, "by the union of the first and second Tenths." The county was named for a town in England. Burlington County was the seat of government for the Province of West Jersey until its amalgamation with East Jersey in 1702, forming the Province of New Jersey; the county was much larger and was partitioned to form additional counties as the population increased. In 1714 one partition to the north became Hunterdon County, which itself was partitioned to form three additional counties; the county seat had been in Burlington but, as the population increased in the interior, away from the Delaware River, a more central location was needed, the seat of government was moved to Mount Holly in 1793.
Increasing industrialization led to improvements in transportation which increased to profitability of agriculture in the county. Population increases in the coastal communities due to successful international trade and ship repair led to road improvements throughout the county. According to the 2010 Census, the county had a total area of 819.84 square miles, including 798.58 square miles of land and 21.26 square miles of water. Most of the land in the county is alluvial plain with little relief. There are a few anomalous hills, such as Apple Pie Hill and Arney's Mount, the highest of not only the entire county but among the highest in South Jersey at 240 feet above sea level; the low point is sea level along the Mullica rivers. The majority of the land is dotted with rivers and wetlands; some of the largest and most important rivers in Burlington County include Rancocas Creek, Assiscunk Creek, Pennsauken Creek, Mullica River, Batsto River and Wading River. The county borders Atlantic County, Camden County, Mercer County, Monmouth County and Ocean County in New Jersey.
Average temperatures in the county seat of Mount Holly have ranged from a low of 22 °F in January to a high of 87 °F in July, although a record low of −25 °F was recorded in February 1934 and a record high of 104 °F was recorded in July 1936. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 2.92 inches in February to 4.87 inches in August. Burlington County has a humid-subtropical / humid continental transition climate, with cold winters and hot summers. Severe weather is common in the warm months. Hurricanes have been known to strike Burlington County on occasion. Tornadoes are uncommon in the county. Severe thunderstorms, are quite common during the warm season. Snowfall is typical in the winter, with the snowfall averages in the county ranging from about 18 to 22 inches; the climate and weather of Burlington county is moderated by the nearby Atlantic Ocean, rain is common year-round. The county seat receives about 41 inches of rain per year. Another interesting weather phenomena that occurs in Burlington County is radiative cooling in the Pine Barrens, a large pine forest and reserve that takes up a good portion of Southern and Eastern Burlington County.
Due to sandy soil, on clear and dry nights these areas might be 10 to 15 °F colder than the surrounding areas, there is a shorter frost-free season in these places. The sandy soil of the Pinelands loses heat much faster than the other soils or urban surfaces in the region, so achieves a much lower temperature at night than the rest of the county; this effect is far less pronounced on moist, cloudy, or windy nights, as these three factors reduce the radiative cooling of the sandy soil. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 448,734 people, 166,318 households, 117,254.190 families residing in the county. The population density was 561.9 per square mile. There were 175,615 housing units at an average density of 219.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 73.84% White, 16.60% Black or African American, 0.22% Native American, 4.32% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 2.05% from other races, 2.92% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6.42% of the population.
There were 166,31
Rancocas Creek is a tributary of the Delaware River in southwestern New Jersey in the United States. The creek's main stem is 8.3 miles long, with a North Branch of 28.3 miles and a South Branch flowing 21.7 miles. The creek system drains a rural agricultural and forested area on the western edge of the Pinelands north and northeast of Camden and the New Jersey suburbs of Philadelphia. Rancocas Creek rises as two main branches in the Pinelands National Reserve; the North Branch rises in Mirror Lake, just south of Fort Dix. It flows west-northwest past Mount Holly; the South Branch rises in central Burlington County near Chatsworth and flows northwest. It receives the 13.8-mile-long Southwest Branch from the south 5 miles south of Mount Holly. The North and South branches join near Rancocas State Park 3 miles west of Mount Holly, near the crossing of the New Jersey Turnpike and Interstate 295. A few hundred yards downstream of the Interstate 295 and New Jersey Turnpike bridges, Burlington County Route 635 passes over the Creek on a bridge built less than 4 feet over the average water level.
This bridge has the capability for the center section of the bridge to swivel from the perpendicular to the river to parallel, to allow small boat traffic through. After rehabilitation of the bridge in the 1980s, the powered mechanism was removed due to the near-lack of creek barge traffic and expense of maintenance; the bridge requires manual labor to be swiveled open. It is navigable for 10 miles upstream from its mouth on the Delaware. However, the CR 635 bridge places a barrier to boat traffic 7.6 miles upstream from the Delaware. North Branch Rancocas Creek South Branch Rancocas Creek Southwest Branch Rancocas Creek On April 23, 1853, the engineer of Camden & Amboy's 2 p.m. train out of Philadelphia missed stop signals and ran his train off an open drawspan between modern-day Riverside and Delanco on Rancocas Creek. There were no fatalities. List of New Jersey rivers Lists of rail accidents Rancocas, New Jersey Rancocas Woods, New Jersey