Traditional Chinese characters
Traditional Chinese characters are Chinese characters in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946. They are most the characters in the standardized character sets of Taiwan, of Hong Kong and Macau, in the Kangxi Dictionary; the modern shapes of traditional Chinese characters first appeared with the emergence of the clerical script during the Han Dynasty, have been more or less stable since the 5th century. The retronym "traditional Chinese" is used to contrast traditional characters with Simplified Chinese characters, a standardized character set introduced by the government of the People's Republic of China on Mainland China in the 1950s. Traditional Chinese characters are used in Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macau. In contrast, Simplified Chinese characters are used in mainland China and Malaysia in official publications. However, several countries – such as Australia, the US and Canada – are increasing their number of printed materials in Simplified Chinese, to better accommodate citizens from mainland China.
The debate on traditional and simplified Chinese characters has been a long-running issue among Chinese communities. A large number of overseas Chinese online newspapers allow users to switch between both character sets. Although simplified characters are taught and endorsed by the government of China, there is no prohibition against the use of traditional characters. Traditional characters are used informally in regions in China in handwriting and used for inscriptions and religious text, they are retained in logos or graphics to evoke yesteryear. Nonetheless, the vast majority of media and communications in China is dominated by simplified characters. In Hong Kong and Macau, Traditional Chinese has been the legal written form since colonial times. In recent years, simplified Chinese characters in Hong Kong and Macau has appeared to accommodate Mainland Chinese tourists and immigrants; this has led to concerns by many residents to protect their local heritage. Taiwan has never adopted simplified characters.
The use of simplified characters in official documents is prohibited by the government of Taiwan. Simplified characters are understood to a certain extent by any educated Taiwanese, learning to read them takes little effort; some stroke simplifications that have been incorporated into Simplified Chinese are in common use in handwriting. For example, while the name of Taiwan is written as 臺灣, the semi-simplified name 台灣 is acceptable to write in official documents. In Southeast Asia, the Chinese Filipino community continues to be one of the most conservative regarding simplification. While major public universities are teaching simplified characters, many well-established Chinese schools still use traditional characters. Publications like the Chinese Commercial News, World News, United Daily News still use traditional characters. On the other hand, the Philippine Chinese Daily uses simplified. Aside from local newspapers, magazines from Hong Kong, such as the Yazhou Zhoukan, are found in some bookstores.
In case of film or television subtitles on DVD, the Chinese dub, used in Philippines is the same as the one used in Taiwan. This is because the DVDs belongs to DVD Region Code 3. Hence, most of the subtitles are in Traditional Characters. Overseas Chinese in the United States have long used traditional characters. A major influx of Chinese immigrants to the United States occurred during the latter half of the 19th century, before the standardization of simplified characters. Therefore, United States public notices and signage in Chinese are in Traditional Chinese. Traditional Chinese characters are called several different names within the Chinese-speaking world; the government of Taiwan calls traditional Chinese characters standard characters or orthodox characters. However, the same term is used outside Taiwan to distinguish standard and traditional characters from variant and idiomatic characters. In contrast, users of traditional characters outside Taiwan, such as those in Hong Kong and overseas Chinese communities, users of simplified Chinese characters, call them complex characters.
An informal name sometimes used by users of simplified characters is "old characters". Users of traditional characters sometimes refer them as "Full Chinese characters" to distinguish them from simplified Chinese characters; some traditional character users argue that traditional characters are the original form of the Chinese characters and cannot be called "complex". Simplified characters cannot be "standard" because they are not used in all Chinese-speaking regions. Conversely, supporters of simplified Chinese characters object to the description of traditional characters as "standard," since they view the new simplified characters as the contemporary standard used by the vast majority of Chinese speakers, they point out that traditional characters are not traditional as many Chinese characters have been made more elaborate over time. Some people refer to traditional characters as "proper characters" and modernized characters as "simplified-stroke characters" (sim
Hanyu Pinyin abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan. It is used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, written using Chinese characters; the system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters; the pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang, based on earlier forms of romanizations of Chinese. It was published by revised several times; the International Organization for Standardization adopted pinyin as an international standard in 1982, was followed by the United Nations in 1986. The system was adopted as the official standard in Taiwan in 2009, where it is used for international events rather than for educational or computer-input purposes, but "some cities and organizations, notably in the south of Taiwan, did not accept this", so it remains one of several rival romanization systems in use.
The word Hànyǔ means'the spoken language of the Han people', while Pīnyīn means'spelled sounds'. In 1605, the Jesuit missionary Matteo Ricci published Xizi Qiji in Beijing; this was the first book to use the Roman alphabet to write the Chinese language. Twenty years another Jesuit in China, Nicolas Trigault, issued his Xi Ru Ermu Zi at Hangzhou. Neither book had much immediate impact on the way in which Chinese thought about their writing system, the romanizations they described were intended more for Westerners than for the Chinese. One of the earliest Chinese thinkers to relate Western alphabets to Chinese was late Ming to early Qing dynasty scholar-official, Fang Yizhi; the first late Qing reformer to propose that China adopt a system of spelling was Song Shu. A student of the great scholars Yu Yue and Zhang Taiyan, Song had been to Japan and observed the stunning effect of the kana syllabaries and Western learning there; this galvanized him into activity on a number of fronts, one of the most important being reform of the script.
While Song did not himself create a system for spelling Sinitic languages, his discussion proved fertile and led to a proliferation of schemes for phonetic scripts. The Wade–Giles system was produced by Thomas Wade in 1859, further improved by Herbert Giles in the Chinese–English Dictionary of 1892, it was popular and used in English-language publications outside China until 1979. In the early 1930s, Communist Party of China leaders trained in Moscow introduced a phonetic alphabet using Roman letters, developed in the Soviet Oriental Institute of Leningrad and was intended to improve literacy in the Russian Far East; this Sin Wenz or "New Writing" was much more linguistically sophisticated than earlier alphabets, but with the major exception that it did not indicate tones of Chinese. In 1940, several thousand members attended a Border Region Sin Wenz Society convention. Mao Zedong and Zhu De, head of the army, both contributed their calligraphy for the masthead of the Sin Wenz Society's new journal.
Outside the CCP, other prominent supporters included Sun Fo. Over thirty journals soon appeared written in Sin Wenz, plus large numbers of translations, some contemporary Chinese literature, a spectrum of textbooks. In 1940, the movement reached an apex when Mao's Border Region Government declared that the Sin Wenz had the same legal status as traditional characters in government and public documents. Many educators and political leaders looked forward to the day when they would be universally accepted and replace Chinese characters. Opposition arose, because the system was less well adapted to writing regional languages, therefore would require learning Mandarin. Sin Wenz fell into relative disuse during the following years. In 1943, the U. S. military engaged Yale University to develop a romanization of Mandarin Chinese for its pilots flying over China. The resulting system is close to pinyin, but does not use English letters in unfamiliar ways. Medial semivowels are written with y and w, apical vowels with r or z.
Accent marks are used to indicate tone. Pinyin was created by Chinese linguists, including Zhou Youguang, as part of a Chinese government project in the 1950s. Zhou is called "the father of pinyin," Zhou worked as a banker in New York when he decided to return to China to help rebuild the country after the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949, he became an economics professor in Shanghai, in 1955, when China's Ministry of Education created a Committee for the Reform of the Chinese Written Language, Premier Zhou Enlai assigned Zhou Youguang the task of developing a new romanization system, despite the fact that he was not a professional linguist. Hanyu Pinyin was based on several existing systems: Gwoyeu Romatzyh of 1928, Latinxua Sin Wenz of 1931, the diacritic markings from zhuyin. "I'm not the father of pinyin," Zhou said years later. It's a lo
Foshan romanized as Fatshan, is a prefecture-level city in central Guangdong Province, China. The entire prefecture covers 3,848.49 km2 and has an urban population around 7.2 million in 2012. It forms part of the western side of the Pearl River Delta Economic Zone, which includes Guangzhou to the east and northeast and Zhongshan to the southeast. Foshan is regarded as the home of the Cantonese versions of kung fu and lion dance. Fóshān is the pinyin romanization of the city's Chinese name 佛山, based on its Mandarin pronunciation; the Postal Map spelling "Fatshan" derives from the same name's local Cantonese pronunciation. Other romanizations include Fat-shun. Foshan means "Buddha Mountain" and, despite the more famous present-day statue of Guanyin or Kwanyin on Mount Xiqiao, who isn't a Buddha, it refers to a smaller hill near the centre of town where three bronze sculptures of Buddha were discovered in AD 628; the town grew up around a monastery founded nearby, destroyed in 1391. Foshan remained a minor settlement on the Fen River for most of China's history.
It developed around a Tang-era Buddhist monastery, destroyed in 1391. The Foshan Ancestral Temple, a Taoist temple to the Northern God, rebuilt in 1372, became the new focus of the community by the 15th century. By the early Ming, Foshan had grown into one of the four great markets in China on the strength of its local ceramics but on account of its metalwork. Under the Qing, its harbor on the Fen River was limited to ships of a thousand tons' burden but it remained well connected with Guangdong's other ports. By the 19th century, it was considered the "Birmingham of China", with its steel industry responsible for the consumption of the majority of the province's iron production, it was connected to Sanshui by rail in the early 20th century. The Ancestral Temple was converted into the Foshan Municipal Museum upon the victory of the Communists in the Chinese Civil War in 1949. Foshan remained focused on ceramic and steel production until the 1950s, when it became an urbanizing political center.
On 26 June 1951 it left Nanhai County to become a separate county-level city and, in 1954, it was made the seat of the prefectural government. Its economy stagnated through the Cultural Revolution—traditional ceramic ware was forbidden and its workshops were turned to producing Maoist and Revolutionary folderol — but it continued to grow, reaching 300,000 people by the 1970s, making it the province's second city after Guangzhou; as early as 1973, its agriculture and consumer industries were permitted to become an export production base and a modern highway linked it to Guangzhou soon after. In 1983, Foshan was promoted to a prefecture-level city with its former core becoming the new Chancheng District, but lost the southwestern half of its former territory to Jiangmen. On 8 December 2002, Nanhai joined its urban core as a full district. Shunde has gone on to obtain an unusual autonomous status in 2009, placing its oversight in the hands of the provincial government rather than the prefectural one.
Foshan lies on the Fen River in the estuaries making up the west side of the Pearl River Delta. Guangzhou lies 25 kilometers to the northeast, Zhongshan to the southeast, Jiangmen to the south, Qingyuan to the west, Zhaoqing to the west. Foshan experiences a humid subtropical climate; the prefecture-level city of Foshan administers five county-level divisions, all of which are districts. The five districts are Chancheng, Sanshui and Shunde; these are further divided including 11 subdistricts and 21 towns. Foshan is close to Guangzhou and considers its link with Guangzhou to be important; as such, it is part of the Pearl River Delta and Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macau Greater Bay Area metropolis, centered on Guangzhou. Foshan has been well known for its ceramics since the Ming, although it was forced to shutter its production during the Cultural Revolution. Foshan had a ¥8.01 trillion gross domestic product in 2015, raising its per capita GDP past ¥10,000. Shunde District in particular has a high standard of living, with its 3,000+ electronical appliance factories responsible for more than half of the world's air conditioners and refrigerators.
Foshan now has more than 30 towns specialized in particular industries, including furniture and beverages. Foshan Hi-Tech Development Zone was founded in 1992, its total planned area is 7.55 km2. The zone is close to the national highway G325 as well as Guangzhou Baiyun International Airport; the major industries in the zone including automobile assembly and chemicals processing. A dialect from the Samyap branch of the Cantonese language is being used by the city natives. Besides that, Mandarin is used in business and education, although the city natives don't use much of it in their daily lives. In 2013 to 2014, Foshan planned to improve public transportation by putting forward six measures: The first line of FMetro opened in 2010, another two lines are under construction and due to be completed in 2015 and 2020; the existing line of FMetro network: Line 1: From Xinchengdong Station to Yangang Station Foshan is a main interchange for railway routes linking Guangzhou, Hong Kong and western Guangdong Province.
It is connected with Hong Kong via the KCRC Guangdong Through Train service from Foshan Rail
Guangzhou known as Canton, is the capital and most populous city of the province of Guangdong in southern China. On the Pearl River about 120 km north-northwest of Hong Kong and 145 km north of Macau, Guangzhou has a history of over 2,200 years and was a major terminus of the maritime Silk Road, continues to serve as a major port and transportation hub, as well as one of China's three largest cities. Guangzhou is at the heart of the most-populous built-up metropolitan area in mainland China that extends into the neighboring cities of Foshan, Dongguan and Shenzhen, forming one of the largest urban agglomerations on the planet. Administratively, the city holds sub-provincial status and is one of China's nine National Central Cities. In 2018 year end, the city's expansive administrative area is estimated at 14,904,400 by city authorities, up 3.8% year on year. Guangzhou is ranked as an Alpha global city. There is a increasing number of foreign temporary residents and immigrants from Southeast Asia, the Middle East, Eastern Europe and Africa.
This has led to it being dubbed the "Capital of the Third World". The domestic migrant population from other provinces of China in Guangzhou was 40% of the city's total population in 2008. Together with Shanghai and Shenzhen, Guangzhou has one of the most expensive real estate markets in China. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, nationals of sub-Saharan Africa who had settled in the Middle East and other parts of Southeast Asia moved in unprecedented numbers to Guangzhou, China in response to the 1997/98 Asian financial crisis. Long the only Chinese port accessible to most foreign traders, Guangzhou fell to the British during the First Opium War. No longer enjoying a monopoly after the war, it lost trade to other ports such as Hong Kong and Shanghai, but continued to serve as a major entrepôt. In modern commerce, Guangzhou is best known for its annual Canton Fair, the oldest and largest trade fair in China. For three consecutive years, Forbes ranked Guangzhou as the best commercial city in mainland China.
Guǎngzhōu is the pinyin romanisation of the Chinese name 廣州, simplified in mainland China to 广州 in the 1950s. The name of the city is taken from the ancient Guang Province, after it had become the prefecture's seat of government, how some other Chinese cities, including Hangzhou and Fuzhou got their names; the character 廣 or 广—which appears in the names of the provinces Guangdong and Guangxi, together called the Liangguang—means "broad" or "expansive" and refers to the intention to dispense imperial grace broadly in the region with the founding of county of Guangxin in Han Dynasty. Before acquiring its current name, the town was known as Panyu, a name still borne by one of Guangzhou's districts not far from the main city; the origin of the name is still uncertain, with 11 various explanations being offered, including that it may have referred to two local mountains. The city has sometimes been known as Guangzhou Fu or Guangfu after its status as the capital of a prefecture. From this latter name, Guangzhou was known to medieval Persians such as Al-Masudi and Ibn Khordadbeh as Khanfu.
Under the Southern Han, the city was renamed Xingwang. The Chinese abbreviation for Guangzhou is "穗", after its nickname "Rice City"; the city has long borne the nickname City of Rams or City of the Five Rams from the five stones at the old Temple of the Five Immortals said to have been the sheep or goats ridden by the Taoist culture heroes credited with introducing rice cultivation to the area around the time of the city's foundation. The former name "City of the Immortals" came from the same story; the more recent City of Flowers is taken as a simple reference to the area's fine greenery. The English name "Canton" derived from Portuguese Cantão or Cidade de Cantão, a muddling of dialectical pronunciations of "Guangdong". Although it and chiefly applied to the walled city, it was conflated with Guangdong by some authors, it was adopted as the Postal Map Romanization of Guangzhou and remained in common use until the gradual adoption of pinyin. As an adjective, it is still used in describing the people, language and culture of Guangzhou and the surrounding Liangguang region.
The 19th-century name "Kwang-chow foo" derived from Nanjing dialect of Mandarin and the town's status as a prefectural capital. A settlement now known as Nanwucheng was present in the area by 1100 BC; some traditional Chinese histories placed Nanwucheng's founding during the reign of Ji Yan, king of Zhou from 314–256 BC. It was said to have consisted of little more than a stockade of mud. Panyu was established on the east bank of the Pearl River in 214 BC to serve as a base for the Qin Empire's first failed invasion of the Baiyue lands in southern China. Legendary accounts claimed the soldiers at Panyu were so vigilant that they did not remove their armor for three years. Upon the fall of the Qin, General Zhao Tuo established his own kingdom of Nanyue and made Panyu its capital in 204 BC, it remained independent through the Chu-Han Contention, although Zhao negotiated recognition of his independence in exchange for his nominal submission to the Han in 196 BC. Archaeological evidence shows that Panyu was an expansive commercial centre: in addition to items from central China, archaeologists have found remains originating from Southeast Asia and Africa.
Zhao Tuo was succeeded by Zhao Mo and Zhao Yingqi. Upon Zhao Yingqi's death in
The Xinhai Revolution known as the Chinese Revolution or the Revolution of 1911, was a revolution that overthrew China's last imperial dynasty and established the Republic of China. The revolution was named Xinhai because it occurred in 1911, the year of the Xinhai stem-branch in the sexagenary cycle of the Chinese calendar; the revolution consisted of many uprisings. The turning point was the Wuchang uprising on 10 October 1911, the result of the mishandling of the Railway Protection Movement; the revolution ended with the abdication of the six-year-old Last Emperor, Puyi, on 12 February 1912, that marked the end of 2,000 years of imperial rule and the beginning of China's early republican era. The revolution arose in response to the decline of the Qing state, which had proven ineffective in its efforts to modernize China and confront foreign aggression. Many underground anti-Qing groups, with the support of Chinese revolutionaries in exile, tried to overthrow the Qing; the brief civil war that ensued was ended through a political compromise between Yuan Shikai, the late Qing military strongman, Sun Yat-sen, the leader of the Tongmenghui.
After the Qing court transferred power to the newly founded republic, a provisional coalition government was created along with the National Assembly. However, political power of the new national government in Beijing was soon thereafter monopolized by Yuan and led to decades of political division and warlordism, including several attempts at imperial restoration; the Republic of China in Taiwan and the People's Republic of China on the mainland both consider themselves the legitimate successors to the Xinhai Revolution and honor the ideals of the revolution including nationalism, modernization of China and national unity. 10 October is commemorated in Taiwan as Double Ten Day, the National Day of the ROC. In mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, the day is celebrated as the Anniversary of the Xinhai Revolution. After suffering its first defeat to the West in the First Opium War in 1842, the Qing imperial court struggled to contain foreign intrusions into China. Efforts to adjust and reform the traditional methods of governance were constrained by a conservative court culture that did not want to give away too much authority to reform.
Following defeat in the Second Opium War in 1860, the Qing tried to modernize by adopting certain Western technologies through the Self-Strengthening Movement from 1861. In the wars against the Taiping, the Muslims of Yunnan and the Northwest, the traditional imperial troops proved themselves incompetent and the court came to rely on local armies. In 1895, China suffered another defeat during the First Sino-Japanese War; this demonstrated that traditional Chinese feudal society needed to be modernized if the technological and commercial advancements were to succeed. In 1898 the Guangxu Emperor was guided by reformers like Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao for a drastic reform in education and economy under the Hundred Days' Reform; the reform was abruptly cancelled by a conservative coup led by Empress Dowager Cixi. The Guangxu Emperor, who had always been a puppet dependent on Cixi, was put under house arrest in June 1898. Reformers Kang and Liang would be exiled. While in Canada, in June 1899, they tried to form the Emperor Protection Society in an attempt to restore the emperor.
Empress Dowager Cixi controlled the Qing dynasty from this point on. The Boxer Rebellion prompted another foreign invasion of Beijing in 1900 and the imposition of unequal treaty terms, which carved away territories, created extraterritorial concessions and gave away trade privileges. Under internal and external pressure, the Qing court began to adopt some of the reforms; the Qing managed to maintain its monopoly on political power by suppressing with great brutality, all domestic rebellions. Dissidents could operate only in secret societies and underground organizations, in foreign concessions or in exile overseas. There were many revolutionaries and groups that wanted to overthrow the Qing government to re-establish Han led government; the earliest revolutionary organizations were founded outside of China, such as Yeung Ku-wan's Furen Literary Society, created in Hong Kong in 1890. There were 15 members, including Tse Tsan-tai, who did political satire such as "The Situation in the Far East", one of the first Chinese manhua, who became one of the core founders of the South China Morning Post.
Sun Yat-sen's Xingzhonghui was established in Honolulu in 1894 with the main purpose of raising funds for revolutions. The two organizations were merged in 1894; the Huaxinghui was founded in 1904 with notables like Huang Xing, Zhang Shizhao, Chen Tianhua and Song Jiaoren, along with 100 others. Their motto was "Take one province by force, inspire the other provinces to rise up"; the Guangfuhui was founded in 1904, in Shanghai with Cai Yuanpei. Other notable members include Tao Chengzhang. Despite professing the anti-Qing cause, the Guangfuhui was critical of Sun Yat-sen. One of the most famous female revolutionaries was Qiu Jin, who fought for women's rights and was from Guangfuhui. There were many other minor revolutionary organizations, such as Lizhi Xuehui in Jiangsu, Gongqianghui in Sichuan and Hanzudulihui in Fujian, Yizhishe in Jiangxi, Yuewanghui in Anhui and Qunzhihui in Guangzhou. There were criminal organizations that were anti-Manchu, including the Green Gang and Hongmen Zhigongtang.
Sun Yat-sen himself came in cont
Jiangmen romanized in Cantonese as Kongmoon, is a prefecture-level city in Guangdong Province in southern China. Its 3 urban districts are now part of the Guangzhou–Shenzhen conurbation and the entire prefecture had a population of about 4.45 million in 2010. Jiangmen is the pinyin romanization of the Chinese name 江門 or 江门, based on its pronunciation in the Mandarin dialect, its former Wade-Giles spelling was Chiang-men. The Postal Map spelling "Kongmoon" was based upon the same name's Cantonese pronunciation Gong¹-mun⁴. Other forms of the name include Kong Moon and Kiangmoon. Jiangmen is known as Pengjiang, its rural hinterland is known to the Chinese diaspora as the "Four Counties", although the addition of Heshan to Jiangmen has prompted the remaining locals to begin calling it the "Five Counties" instead. Jiangmen was a community under the administration of nearby Xinhui County. Jiangmen, was forced to open to western trade in 1902. A legacy of this period is a historic waterfront district lined with western-style buildings.
The city has an ongoing renewal project, restoring many of these buildings. Jiangmen was proclaimed a city in 1951 and became the prefectural seat for the Sze Yup region including Taishan, Xinhui, Enping. In 2011, the city banned pet dogs in public after rabies killed 42 people over the preceding 3 years; the city reserved a 13-acre site to allow rural Chinese to adopt the 30,000 dogs, but public outcry led to a softer implementation where violators would be told to leave rather than have the dog confiscated. The city is located on the lower reaches of the Xijiang or West River, in the west of the Pearl River Delta in the middle of southern Guangdong Province, it faces the South China Sea in the south and is 100 kilometres away from Guangzhou and Zhuhai by highway. Jiangmen city has an area of 9,260 square kilometres, about one quarter the size of the Pearl River Delta; the climate is subtropical with monsoonal influences. The annual average temperature is 22.36 °C. Jiangmen was selected by the Chinese state as a pilot city for a nationwide information programme.
It was chosen by the Pacific Economic Cooperation Council as a trial city for the Regional Integration for Sustainable Economics project. According to the "Report on Investment Environment in China 2003" by the World Bank, Jiangmen ranked the fourth after Shanghai and Dalian of 23 cities under evaluation in China. Among various indicators, Jiangmen excelled in infrastructure, labour redundancy, proportion of joint ventures in all firms, informal payments to government, taxation and the investment rate; the economic development strategies within Jiangmen focus on the three urban districts, the south and north lines. It is planned to develop four main economic areas: the central urban district of the city, the Yinzhou Lake economic area, two economic areas along the various transport axes. Similar to other cities in the western Pearl River Delta, the manufacturing sector plays a significant role in Jiangmen's economy; the chief industries include manufacturing of motorcycles, household appliances, paper, food processing, synthetic fibers and garments, as well as textiles and stainless steel products.
Some worldwide brand names have factories in Jiangmen such as Asia Pacific Resources International Holdings, ABB Group and Lee Kum Kee foods. The city was the proposed site of a $6.5 billion, 40 billion renminbi, uranium processing plant which would have supplied about half of the enriched uranium needed by China's nuclear power plants. Announcement of the plant in July 2013 was met by public protests; the proposal was withdrawn out of "respect for public opinion" shortly thereafter. Jiangmen Port is the second largest river port in Guangdong province; the local government plans to develop a harbour industrial zone with heavy industries to include petrochemical and machinery plants, as well as an ocean-based economy. Jiangmen is the homeland of 3.68 million overseas Chinese, who live in 107 countries and regions throughout the world. Strong oversea connections are found in the villages. A significant amount of historical heritage survives from the period of mass emigration prior to World War II.
The most significant are the fortified multi-story towers found in Kaiping. These are known as "Gold Mountain Towers" or diaolou. A number of natural hotspring resorts has been developed by using its wealthy natural heated ground water resources such as Gudou Hotspring Resort. Guifeng Mountain, a mountain visited by many tourists, is the peak of Jiangmen with an elevation of 545 meters above sea level; the local government's economic development strategies emphasize the development of tourism and protection of the environment. Wuyi University is the main university in Jiangmen; the only international school in Jiangmen is Boren Sino-Canadian School, while bilingual schools include WuYi Country Garden Bilingual School and China-Hong Kong English School. Jiangmen Polytechnic College, located at Chaolian Island, enrolls about 13,000 students in various technical and humanities programs. Jiangmen No. 1 Middle School is claimed to be the top middle school in the district. It used to be one of the best middle schools in Guangdong Province in the 1990s.
However, the quality of its education has been dropping in recent years and within the district of Jiangmen, its status is being challenged by schools such as Xinhui No. 1 Middle School in Xinhui, Kaiqiao Middle School in Kiaping and Heshan No.1 Middle School in Heshan
Central China is a geographical and a loosely defined cultural region that covers the central area of China. This region includes the provinces of Henan and Hunan, as Jiangxi is sometimes regarded to be part of this region. Central China is now part of South Central China governed by the People's Republic of China. In the context of the Rise of Central China Plan by the State Council of the People's Republic of China in 2004, surrounding provinces including Shanxi, are defined as regions of Central China development zones. Provincial capitals in bold. Regions of China East China and Western China Northern and southern China South Central China