Rolling Hills, California
Rolling Hills is a city on the Palos Verdes Peninsula, in Los Angeles County, United States. Rolling Hills is 24 hour guard-gated community with private roads with three entry gates. Homes are single-story 19th century California ranch or Spanish haciendas exemplified by architect Wallace Neff. Incorporated in 1957, Rolling Hills maintains a rural and equestrian character, with no traffic lights, multi-acre lots with ample space between homes, wide equestrian paths along streets and property lines. Rolling Hills has the third highest median house value in the United States. Homes are required to have white exterior paint. Homeowners are required to maintain horse property on their lots, or at minimum keep land where stalls could be built; the community was developed by A. E. Hanson, who developed Hidden Hills. Residents work, attend school, obtain other services in the other towns on the Palos Verdes Peninsula as the only commercially zoned land within the city is occupied by the Rolling Hills City Hall and Rolling Hills Community Association.
As of the 2010 census, the city population was 1,860, down from 1,871 at the 2000 census. The city borders Rancho Palos Verdes on all other sides. Rolling Hills is located at 33°45′34″N 118°20′30″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 3.0 square miles, all land. At the 2000 census, Rolling Hills was the 21st richest place in the United States, 4th richest for places with a population of at least 1,000; the 2010 United States Census reported that Rolling Hills had a population of 1,860. The population density was 622.0 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Rolling Hills was 1,437 White, 29 African American, 5 Native American, 303 Asian, 2 Pacific Islander, 24 from other races, 60 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 102 persons; the Census reported that 1,860 people lived in households, 0 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 0 were institutionalized. There were 663 households, out of which 199 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 491 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 27 had a female householder with no husband present, 21 had a male householder with no wife present.
There were 11 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 9 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 98 households were made up of individuals and 66 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.81. There were 539 families; the population was spread out with 404 people under the age of 18, 109 people aged 18 to 24, 191 people aged 25 to 44, 643 people aged 45 to 64, 513 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 51.7 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.1 males. There were 663 occupied housing units at an average density of 239.4 per square mile, of which 635 were owner-occupied, 28 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 1.4%. 1,778 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 82 people lived in rental housing units. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,871 people, 645 households, 554 families residing in the city; the population density was 607.7 inhabitants per square mile.
There were 682 housing units at an average density of 221.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 79.8% White, 2.0% African American, 14.0% Asian, 0.5% Pacific Islander, 1.2% from other races, 2.5% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.5% of the population. There were 645 households out of which 33.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 80.6% were married couples living together, 3.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 14.1% were non-families. 12.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.90 and the average family size was 3.11. In the city, the population was spread out with 25.9% under the age of 18, 4.1% from 18 to 24, 15.1% from 25 to 44, 32.8% from 45 to 64, 22.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 48 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.5 males.
The median income for a household in the city was in excess of $200,000, as is the median income for a family. Males have a median income in excess of $100,000 versus $52,500 for females; the per capita income for the city was $111,031. None of the families and 1.3% of the population were below the poverty line. No one under 18 or older than 65 was living below the poverty line; the city is served by Palos Verdes Peninsula Unified School District. PVPUSD schools have ranked among the best in California and the nation. Since 2013, the Washington Post has recognized Palos Verdes Peninsula High School in the publication's list of "America's Most Challenging Schools" and once listed it as the 8th best public or private high school in the nation. School data website, niche.com ranked Palos Verdes Peninsula High School #9 of California's best public high schools of 2016. The prestigious Chadwick School is an independent 45 acre, K-12 private school that serves the area. According to Business Insi
Government of Los Angeles County
The Government of Los Angeles County is defined and authorized under the California Constitution, California law, the Charter of the County of Los Angeles. Much of the Government of California is in practice the responsibility of county governments, such as the Government of Los Angeles County; the County government provides countywide services such as elections and voter registration, law enforcement, vital records, property records, tax collection, public health, health care, social services. In addition the County serves as the local government for all unincorporated areas, it is composed of the elected five-member Board of Supervisors, several other elected offices including the Sheriff, District Attorney, Assessor, numerous county departments and entities under the supervision of the chief executive officer. Some chartered cities such as Los Angeles and Inglewood provide municipal services such as police, libraries and recreation, zoning. Other cities arrange to have the County provide all of these services under contract.
In addition, several entities of the government of California have jurisdiction coterminous with Los Angeles County, such as the Los Angeles Superior Court Los Angeles County is the most populous county in the United States, the largest municipal government in the nation. If the County were a state, it would be the 9th most populous state in the United States, in between Georgia and North Carolina; the County has an annual budget of over $28.2 billion, equal to combined budgets of Indiana and Delaware. The county government employs over 100,000 people, making it larger than the government workforces of most US states. Under its foundational Charter, the five-member elected Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors is the county legislature; the board operates in a legislative and quasi-judicial capacity. As a legislative authority, it can pass ordinances for the unincorporated areas; as an executive body, it can tell the county departments what to do, how to do it. As a quasi-judicial body, the Board is the final venue of appeal in the local planning process, holds public hearings on various agenda items.
These were the board members as of 5 December 2016: Hilda Solis, district 1 Mark Ridley-Thomas, district 2 Sheila Kuehl, district 3 Janice Hahn, district 4 Kathryn Barger, district 5A local nickname sometimes used for the board is the "five little kings." In addition to the board of supervisors, there are several elected officers that form the Government of Los Angeles County that are required by the California Constitution and California law and authorized under the Charter. The Los Angeles County Sheriff provides general-service law enforcement to unincorporated areas of Los Angeles County, serving as the equivalent of the county police for unincorporated areas of the county as well as incorporated cities within the county that have contracted with the agency for law enforcement. Of the 88 cities in Los Angeles County, 40 are just such "contract cities," in an arrangement pioneered in 1954 by the city of Lakewood and known as the Lakewood Plan; the Los Angeles County District Attorney prosecutes all felony crimes that occur anywhere within Los Angeles County, any misdemeanor crimes that occur within the unincorporated areas of the county, for any city that has abdicated this responsibility to the county.
The City of Los Angeles, for example, has its own city attorney to handle most misdemeanor crimes and infractions the occurred within the City of Los Angeles. The Los Angeles County Assessor is the assessor responsible for discovering all taxable property in Los Angeles County except for state-assessed property and inventorying and listing all the taxable property, valuing the property, enrolling the property on the local assessment roll; the Chief Executive Officer known the chief administrative officer, assists the board of supervisors in handling the mounting administrative details of the county and coordinating between departments. From 2007 to 2015, the CEO had direct supervision over 31 of the 37 departments while the other departments did not report to the CEO. Prior to 2007 and from 2015 and following, the CEO provides an strategic coordination and support role. Departments submit recommendations and action items directly to the Board offices without CEO input required, are fired and hired directly by the board, with the CEO providing administrative support in negotiating department head salaries and facilitating communications between departments when necessary.
Board offices felt that the CEO added bureaucracy and that the additional deputy and assistant CEOs added little value. Other tasks given to the CEO include preparation and control of the annual budget in consultation with departments, providing leadership and direction for Board-sponsored initiatives and priorities and advocacy of state and federal legislation; the CEO's office administers the risk management and insurance programs, facilitates departments addressing unincorporated area issues and international protocol issues, manages the County's employee relations program and compensation/classification systems, represents the board in labor negotiations, monitors cable television com
Rolling Hills Estates, California
Rolling Hills Estates is a city in Los Angeles County, United States. On the northern side of the Palos Verdes Peninsula, facing Torrance, Rolling Hills Estates is residential. Incorporated in 1957, Rolling Hills Estates has a large number of horse paths; the population was 8,067 at the 2010 census, up from 7,676 at the 2000 census. In 2017 the population rose to 8,226, it was Los Angeles County’s 60th municipality, incorporated on September 18, 1957. Rolling Hills Estates is located on the Palos Verdes Peninsula. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 9.359 square kilometers, 0.115 km2 of it is water. The 2010 US Census reported that Rolling Hills Estates had a population of 8,067; the population density was 2,232.4 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Rolling Hills Estates was 5,463 White, 109 African American, 19 Native American, 2,007 Asian, 8 Pacific Islander, 120 from other races, 341 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 499 persons.
The Census reported that 8,067 people lived in households, 0 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 0 were institutionalized. There were 2,965 households, out of which 1,023 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 2,100 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 192 had a female householder with no husband present, 83 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 45 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 23 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 512 households were made up of individuals and 353 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.72. There were 2,375 families; the population was spread out with 1,890 people under the age of 18, 417 people aged 18 to 24, 1,211 people aged 25 to 44, 2,680 people aged 45 to 64, 1,869 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 48.5 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.2 males. There were 3,100 housing units at an average density of 857.9 per square mile, of which 2,714 were owner-occupied, 251 were occupied by renters.
The homeowner vacancy rate was 1.8%. 7,302 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 765 people lived in rental housing units. According to the 2010 United States Census, Rolling Hills Estates had a median household income of $143,958, with 3.5% of the population living below the federal poverty line. As of the census of 2000, there were 7,676 people, 2,806 households, 2,334 families residing in the city; the population density was 2,139.1 inhabitants per square mile. There were 2,880 housing units at an average density of 802.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 73.9% White, 20.3% Asian, 1.2% African American, 0.3% Native American, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 1.0% from other races, 3.3% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.8% of the population. There were 2,806 households out of which 33.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 74.6% were married couples living together, 6.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 16.8% were non-families.
15.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.73 and the average family size was 3.02. In the city, the population was spread out with 24.3% under the age of 18, 4.7% from 18 to 24, 21.2% from 25 to 44, 30.9% from 45 to 64, 18.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 45 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.3 males. The median income for a household in the city was $109,010, the median income for a family was $119,974. Males had a median income of $100,000+ versus $52,295 for females; the per capita income for the city was $51,849. About 1.1% of families and 1.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 2.6% of those under age 18 and none of those age 65 or over. By 1992 many wealthier Korean Americans moved to the Palos Verdes Peninsula. Rolling Hills Estates was among five cities in the South Bay that had the largest increases in ethnic Koreans from 1980 to 1990.
In 1990, 200 ethnic Koreans lived in Rolling Hills Estates, a 160% increase from the 1980 figure of 77 ethnic Koreans. The city is served by Palos Verdes Peninsula Unified School District. PVPUSD schools have ranked among the best in California and the nation; the Washington Post once ranked Palos Verdes Peninsula High School as the 8th best public or private high school in the nation.. Rolling Hills Country Day School is a private school that serves grades K–8. Chadwick School, a well-known K–12 private school, is located on Academy Hill, an unincorporated neighborhood administered by the county, but is just blocks away from the Rolling Hills Estates city hall and serves the entire Palos Verdes Peninsula area, including Rolling Hills Estates; the Palos Verdes Library District operates the Peninsula Center Library in Rolling Hills Estates. Nishiyamato Academy of California opened in April 1993, it was located in the former Dapplegray School building in Rolling Hills Estates. It was founded by Ryotaro Tanose, a Japanese Diet member, as a sister school of the Nishiyamato Gakuen Junior High School and High School in Kawai, Nara Prefecture, Japan.
It is located in Lomita
Kathryn Ann Barger-Leibrich is an American politician and a member of the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors, representing the 5th District. Barger served as Chief Deputy Supervisor and Chief of Staff to her predecessor Michael D. Antonovich. Barger was raised in the 5th District, she is married to a retired Sheriff’s deputy and lives in the San Gabriel Valley. Barger began her career in government in 1988 when she interned in the office of Los Angeles County Supervisor Michael D. Antonovich. By 2001 she had risen up the ranks to Antonovich's chief of staff. In her role as a county supervisor, Barger has co-authored bills furthering the county’s support for veterans and foster children. Barger co-authored motions to address homelessness in LA County, which notably includes a bill passed by the California State Assembly in May 2018 amending the state’s definition of “gravely disabled”, allowing more state-sponsored medical care to be provided to those who may be suffering from a serious mental illness.
Barger coauthored a motion creating the Blue Ribbon Commission on Public Safety, intended to explore the impact that Assembly Bill 109, California Proposition 47, California Proposition 57, which were collectively aimed at converting many nonviolent drug offenses into misdemeanors and allowing for the early release of some inmates, has had inside of Los Angeles County. The formation of the commission was a reaction to the murder of police Officer Keith Boyer, passed on a 3-0 vote with abstentions; the commission membership at its inception was controversial, with critics citing that many of the 27 members drafted to the commission were directly affected by Proposition 47, coming from roles within the county’s judicial system. Other critics noted that linking the murder of Officer Boyer to the passage of criminal reform efforts was misguided because the error that led to the release of Officer Boyer’s murderer was committed at the county level. In 2017, Barger was the only opposition in a 4-1 vote to eliminate the "registration fee" that the Los Angeles County Public Defender's office and other court-appointed counsel charge defendants before providing them with legal services.
In 2017, Barger was the only opposition in a 4-1 vote to establish the Business Registration program, which would levy a fee on businesses to create a registry and connect them with county resources. The Fifth District is the largest Supervisorial district of Los Angeles County, spanning 2800 square miles, includes 22 cities and 70 unincorporated communities in the San Gabriel, San Fernando, Santa Clarita and Antelope Valleys
Sequoia sempervirens is the sole living species of the genus Sequoia in the cypress family Cupressaceae. Common names include coastal redwood and California redwood, it is an evergreen, long-lived, monoecious tree living 1,200 -- more. This species includes the tallest living trees on Earth, reaching up to 379 feet in height and up to 29.2 feet in diameter at breast height. These trees are among the oldest living things on Earth. Before commercial logging and clearing began by the 1850s, this massive tree occurred in an estimated 2,100,000 acres along much of coastal California and the southwestern corner of coastal Oregon within the United States; the name sequoia sometimes refers to the subfamily Sequoioideae, which includes S. sempervirens along with Sequoiadendron and Metasequoia. Here, the term redwood on its own refers to the species covered in this article, not to the other two species. Scottish botanist David Don described the redwood as the evergreen taxodium in his colleague Aylmer Bourke Lambert's 1824 work A description of the genus Pinus.
Austrian botanist Stephan Endlicher erected the genus Sequoia in his 1847 work Synopsis coniferarum, giving the redwood its current binomial name of Sequoia sempervirens. Endlicher derived the name Sequoia from the Cherokee name of George Gist spelled Sequoyah, who developed the still-used Cherokee syllabary; the redwood is one of each in its own genus, in the subfamily Sequoioideae. Molecular studies have shown that the three are each other's closest relatives with the redwood and giant sequoia as each other's closest relatives; however and colleagues in 2010 queried the polyploid state of the redwood and speculate that it may have arisen as an ancient hybrid between ancestors of the giant sequoia and dawn redwood. Using two different single copy nuclear genes, LFY and NLY, to generate phylogenetic trees, they found that Sequoia was clustered with Metasequoia in the tree generated using the LFY gene, but with Sequoiadendron in the tree generated with the NLY gene. Further analysis supported the hypothesis that Sequoia was the result of a hybridization event involving Metasequoia and Sequoiadendron.
Thus and colleagues hypothesize that the inconsistent relationships among Metasequoia and Sequoiadendron could be a sign of reticulate evolution among the three genera. However, the long evolutionary history of the three genera make resolving the specifics of when and how Sequoia originated once and for all a difficult matter—especially since it in part depends on an incomplete fossil record; the coast redwood can reach 115 m tall with a trunk diameter of 9 m. It has a conical crown, with horizontal to drooping branches; the bark can be thick, up to 1-foot, quite soft and fibrous, with a bright red-brown color when freshly exposed, weathering darker. The root system is composed of wide-spreading lateral roots; the leaves are variable, being 15–25 mm long and flat on young trees and shaded shoots in the lower crown of old trees. On the other hand, they are scale-like, 5–10 mm long on shoots in full sun in the upper crown of older trees, with a full range of transition between the two extremes.
They have two blue-white stomatal bands below. Leaf arrangement is spiral, but the larger shade leaves are twisted at the base to lie in a flat plane for maximum light capture; the species is monoecious, with seed cones on the same plant. The seed cones are ovoid, 15–32 mm long, with 15–25 spirally arranged scales; each cone scale bears three to seven seeds, each seed 3–4 mm long and 0.5 mm broad, with two wings 1 mm wide. The seeds are open at maturity; the pollen cones are 4 -- 6 mm long. Its genetic makeup is unusual among conifers, being a hexaploid and allopolyploid. Both the mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes of the redwood are paternally inherited. Coast redwoods occupy a narrow strip of land 750 km in length and 5–47 mi in width along the Pacific coast of North America; the prevailing elevation range is 98–2,460 ft above sea level down to 0 and up to 3,000 ft. They grow in the mountains where precipitation from the incoming moisture off the ocean is greater; the tallest and oldest trees are found in deep valleys and gullies, where year-round streams can flow, fog drip is regular.
The trees above the fog layer, above about 2,296 ft, are shorter and smaller due to the drier and colder conditions. In addition, Douglas fir and tanoak crowd out redwoods at these elevations. Few redwoods grow close to the ocean, due to intense salt spray and wind. Coalescence of coastal fog accounts for a considerable part of the trees' water needs; the northern boundary of its range is marked by groves on the Chetco River on the western fringe of the Klamath Mountains, near the California-Oregon border. The largest populations are in Redwood National and State Parks (Del Norte and Humbo
Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors
The Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors is the five-member governing body of Los Angeles County, United States. The people of Los Angeles County on April 1, 1850 asserted their newly won right of self-government and elected a three-man Court of Sessions as their first governing body. A total of 377 votes were cast in this election. In 1852, the Legislature dissolved the Court of Sessions and created a five-member Board of Supervisors. In 1913 the citizens of Los Angeles County approved a charter recommended by a board of freeholders which gave the County greater freedom to govern itself within the framework of state law; as the population expanded throughout the twentieth century, Los Angeles County did not subdivide into separate counties or increase the number of supervisors as its population soared. As a result, the concentration of local administrative power in each county supervisor is high with the population of the county at ten million residents; each supervisor represents more than two million people.
A local nickname some use for the Board is the "five little kings." Supervisors are elected to four-year terms by a vote of Los Angeles County citizens who reside in the supervisorial district. Supervisors must be voters in the district they represent. Elections for the 1st and 3rd districts coincide with California's gubernatorial elections, while those for the 2nd, 4th and 5th districts coincide with the United States presidential election. Supervisorial terms begin the first Monday in December after the election. Unseating an incumbent supervisor is extraordinarily difficult, due to the prohibitive cost of mounting a successful challenge in districts of such enormous geographical and population size. To curb the powers of the five supervisors, Los Angeles County voters passed Measure B in March 2002 with a majority of 64%, to limit the supervisors to three consecutive four-year terms. If a supervisor fills a vacancy, the unexpired term counts towards the term limit if there are more than two years left to serve.
The provisions of the measure were not retroactive, meaning that the term limit clock for supervisors who were serving at the time the measure passed would start with the next election. Don Knabe, Mike Antonovich, Yvonne Brathwaite Burke could continue to serve until 2016, while Gloria Molina and Zev Yaroslavsky could continue to serve until 2014; the chair of the Board of Supervisors has the option of calling herself mayor. The title has drawn criticism. However, those who support the use of the title say that all five members of the Board of Supervisors act as "mayors" or chief executives for the millions of people who live in unincorporated areas. Only Mike Antonovich used the "mayor" title when chairing the Board to represent and promote Los Angeles County when dealing with international diplomacy and trade. Otherwise, all other chairs have used the title chair, chairman, or chairwoman, depending on their preference; until the chief executive officer was the appointed individual heading the county but had little power as supervisors retained the right to fire and hire department heads and directly admonished department heads in public.
Based on an ordinance authored by Supervisors Knabe and Yaroslavsky that took effect in April 2007, the CEO directly oversees departments on behalf of the supervisors, although the Los Angeles County Fire Department, Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department, District Attorney, Auditor-Controller, Executive Office of the Board of Supervisors continue to be under the direct purview of the Board of Supervisors. The change was made in response to several candidates either dropping out or declining to accept the position to replace former Chief Administrative Officer David Janssen. Antonovich was the lone supervisor to oppose the change, stating that such a move would lead to a more autocratic form of government and disenfranchise the 1.3 million who live in unincorporated areas. However, this was rescinded in 2015 and the CEO has returned to a facilitation and coordination role between departments. Departments continue to submit recommendations and agenda items to the Board to be adopted and ratified, the Board directly manages relations with the department heads instead of going through the CEO, as would be the case in a council-manager system prevalent in most of the county's cities.
In 2016, the CEO further recommended, the Board approved, transferring positions considered "transactional" and focusing the CEO on "strategic" initiatives and long-term, structural issues. The Board meets every Tuesday at 9:30 a.m. at the Board Hearing Room at the Kenneth Hahn Hall of Administration in Downtown Los Angeles. On Tuesdays following a Monday holiday, Board meetings begin after lunch, at 1:00 p.m. Board meetings are conducted in accordance with Robert's Rules of Order, the Brown Act, the Rules of the Board; the Chief Executive Officer, the County Counsel and the Executive Officer, or their deputies, attend each Board meeting. The regular agendas for the first, second and fifth Tuesdays of the month are a consent calendar, that is, all items are automatically approved without discussion, unless a Supervisor or member of the public requests discussion of a specific item; the fourth Tuesday of the month is reserved for the purpose of conducting required public hearings, Board of Supervisors motions and department items continued from a previous meeting, have time constraints, or are critical in nature.
Since Board meetings are considered Brown Act bodies, a Board agenda is published 72 hours before the Board meeting is convened
Coots are small water birds that are members of the rail family, Rallidae. They constitute the genus Fulica, the name being the Latin for "coot". Coots have predominantly black plumage, and—unlike many rails—they are easy to see swimming in open water, they are close relatives of the moorhen. A group of coots may cover. Fulica newtonii Milne-Edwards, 1867 – Mascarene coot Fulica chathamensis Forbes, 1892 – Chatham Island coot Fulica prisca Hamilton, 1893 – New Zealand coot Fulica infelix Brodkorb, 1961 – Fulica shufeldti – a subspecies of Fulica americana. Many, but not all, have white on the under tail; the featherless shield gave rise to the expression "as bald as a coot," which the Oxford English Dictionary cites in use as early as 1430. Like other rails, they have lobed toes that are well adapted to soft, uneven surfaces. Coots can walk and run vigorously, they tend to have short, rounded wings and are weak fliers, though northern species can cover long distances. The greatest species variety occurs in South America, the genus originated there.
They are common in North America. Coot species that migrate do so at night; the American coot has been observed in Britain and Ireland, while the Eurasian coot is found across Asia and parts of Africa. In southern Louisiana, the coot is referred to by the French name "poule d'eau", which translates into English as "water hen" or "moorhen". Coots are omnivorous, eating plant material, but small animals and eggs, they are aggressively territorial during the breeding season, but are otherwise found in sizeable flocks on the shallow vegetated lakes they prefer. Chick mortality occurs due to starvation rather than predation as coots have difficulty feeding a large family of hatchlings on the tiny shrimp and insects that they collect. Most chicks die in the first 10 days after hatching, when they are most dependent on adults for food. Coots can be brutal to their own young under pressure such as the lack of food, after about three days they start attacking their own chicks when they beg for food. After a short while, these attacks concentrate on the weaker chicks, who give up begging and die.
The coot may raise only two or three out of nine hatchlings. In this attacking behaviour, the parents are said to "tousle" their young; this can result in the death of the chick. Coot videos on the Internet Bird Collection Beach, Chandler B. ed.. "Coot". The New Student's Reference Work. Chicago: F. E. Compton and Co