Brookings, South Dakota
Brookings is a city in Brookings County, South Dakota, United States. Brookings is the fourth largest city in South Dakota, with a population of 22,056 at the 2010 census, it is the county seat of Brookings County, home to South Dakota State University, the largest institution of higher education in the state. Found in Brookings are the South Dakota Art Museum, the Children's Museum of South Dakota, the annual Brookings Summer Arts Festival, the headquarters of a number of manufacturing companies and agricultural operations; the county and city were both named after one of Wilmot Brookings. Brookings set out for the Dakota Territory in June 1857, he arrived at Sioux Falls on August 27, 1857, became one of the first settlers there. He and his group represented the Western Town Company. After a time in Sioux Falls, Brookings and a companion set out for the Yankton area to locate a town in an area, soon to be ceded by the Native Americans; this trip was begun in January 1858, the two soon encountered a blizzard that froze Brookings' feet which both had to be amputated.
He rose to a high position in the Territory, once being a member of the Squatter Territorial Legislature and being elected Squatter Governor. Brookings became appointed superintendent of a road, to be built from the Minnesota state line west to the Missouri River about 30 miles north of Ft. Pierre, it was during the construction of this road that Brookings came into contact with land, part of this county at the time. Because of his drive to settle the Dakota Territory, Brookings County and city were named for a spirited pioneer promoter. Wilmot W. Brookings made settlement of this area a real possibility for many people; the first real town, organized in Brookings County was Medary in 1857. Up to this point, the area had been traveled and utilized by only Native Americans, with a few indistinct traces left showing the penetration of the area by explorers, missionaries and traders. Along with Sioux Falls and Flandreau, Medary was one of the first three European settlements to be established in South Dakota.
The first actual site of Medary was located by the Dakota Land Company out of Minnesota, led by Alpheus G. Fuller and Major Franklin J. DeWitt and accompanied by engineer Samuel A. Medary, Jr. In 1857, the men put up quarters in preparation to live out the winter in Medary. Many other settlers moved into the area in 1858, but in the spring of that year, a large group of Yankton and Yanktonnia Indians drove the settlers from the area, Medary remained nearly abandoned for the next 11 years. In 1869, a group of 10 Norwegian pioneers moved west into the Dakota Territory and resettled the area of Medary, located about four and one half miles south of present-day Brookings; the county of Brookings was formally organized in Medary in the cabin of Martin Trygstad on July 3, 1871. The original boundaries of the county extended to two miles south of Flandreau, until the territorial legislature relocated the boundaries of the county to the current location on January 8, 1873. Two other small settlements and Fountain, appeared in the Brookings County area around this time.
All three settlements hoped that they would be the lucky town by which the railroad would decide to lay tracks through as it moved westward but it didn't go through Medary so it became a ghost town. As it turned out, none of the three towns were chosen to be passed through by the railroad; when the businessmen of Medary and Fountain found out that the railroad had no plans of laying tracks through the two towns, they began a push to find a central location. In a sense, their attitude was'if you can't beat'em, join'em!' Many private meetings and much effort on the part of the men of Medary and Fountain led to the railroad deciding to lay its tracks through what would become the city of Brookings. In a letter sent to Chicago on September 30, 1879, Land Commissioner Charles E. Simmons communicated the layout of the series of towns in Brookings County to be passed through by the railroad; these towns were to be Aurora and Volga. Many merchants of Medary and Fountain packed up their businesses and belongings and moved to Brookings, surveyed and platted on October 3 and 4, 1879.
Fountain ceased to exist after this turn of events, while Medary and Oakwood continued to exist for a while but faded away. A monument still stands at the site of the old Medary as a reminder of the people who once lived there; the railroad crossed the Minnesota state line and into Brookings County on October 2, 1879. With tracks being built at about one mile per day, the track and first train reached Brookings' Main Street on October 18, 1879; the railroad station was opened a month later. Brookings was laid out in 1880. According to the City's 2016 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the largest employers in the city are: The unemployment rate in Brookings is 2.7 percent, well below the national average of 4.7 percent. Bel Brands USA, Inc. a subsidiary of Paris-based multinational Fromageries BEL or Bel Group, began commercial construction of a 170,000-square-foot Babybel cheese production plant in July 2014 in the city's Foster Addition north of the Swiftel Center. The project added 250 new jobs in Brookings by the end of 2014.
Brookings is located at 44°18′23″N 96°47′17″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 13.04 square miles, of which, 12.94 square miles is land and 0.10 square miles is water. Brookings has been assigned ZIP codes 57006 and 57007 as well as the FIPS place code 07580. Brookings experiences a humid continental climate, characterized by warm humid summers and
NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament
The NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament known and branded as NCAA March Madness, is a single-elimination tournament played each spring in the United States featuring 68 college basketball teams from the Division I level of the National Collegiate Athletic Association, to determine the national championship. The tournament was created in 1939 by the National Association of Basketball Coaches, was the idea of Ohio State coach Harold Olsen. Played during March, it has become one of the most famous annual sporting events in the United States; the tournament teams include champions from 32 Division I conferences, 36 teams which are awarded at-large berths. These "at-large" teams are chosen by an NCAA selection committee announced in a nationally televised event on the Sunday preceding the "First Four" play-in games held in Dayton and dubbed Selection Sunday; the 68 teams are divided into four regions and organized into a single-elimination "bracket", which pre-determines, when a team wins a game, which team it will face next.
Each team is "seeded", or ranked, within its region from 1 to 16. After the First Four, the tournament occurs during the course of three weekends, at pre-selected neutral sites across the United States. Teams, seeded by rank, proceed through a single-game elimination bracket beginning with a "first four" consisting of 8 low-seeded teams playing in 4 games for a position in the first round the Tuesday and Wednesday before the first round begins, a first round consisting of 64 teams playing in 32 games over the course of a week, the "Sweet Sixteen" and "Elite Eight" rounds the next week and weekend and – for the last weekend of the tournament – the "Final Four" round; the Final Four is played during the first weekend of April. These four teams, one from each region, compete in a preselected location for the national championship; the tournament has been at least televised since 1969. The games are broadcast by CBS, TBS, TNT, truTV under the trade-name NCAA March Madness. Since 2011, all games are available for viewing nationwide and internationally.
As television coverage has grown, so too has the tournament's popularity. Millions of Americans fill out a bracket, attempting to predict the outcome of 63 games of the tournament. With 11 national titles, UCLA has the record for the most NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Championships; the University of Kentucky is second, with eight national titles. The University of North Carolina is third, with six national titles, Duke University and Indiana University are tied for fourth with five national titles; the University of Connecticut is sixth with four national titles. The University of Kansas & Villanova are tied for 7th with three national titles. Since 1985, when the tournament expanded to 64 teams, Duke has won five championships; the NCAA has changed the tournament format several times since its inception, most being an increase of the number of teams. This section describes the tournament as it has operated since 2011. A total of 68 teams qualify for the tournament played during April. Thirty-two teams earn automatic bids as their respective conference champions.
Of the 32 Division I "all-sports" conferences, all 32 hold championship tournaments to determine which team receives the automatic qualification. The Ivy League was the last Division I conference. If two or more Ivies shared a regular-season championship, a one-game playoff was used to decide the tournament participant. Since 2017, the league conducts their own postseason tournament; the remaining 36 tournament slots are granted to at-large bids, which are determined by the Selection Committee in a nationally televised event on the Sunday preceding the First Four play-in tournament and dubbed Selection Sunday by the media and fans, by a group of conference commissioners and school athletic directors who are appointed into service by the NCAA. The committee determines where all sixty-eight teams are seeded and placed in the bracket; the tournament is divided into four regions and each region has at least sixteen teams, but four additional teams are added per the decision of the Selection Committee.
The committee is charged with making each of the four regions as close as possible in overall quality of teams from wherever they come from. The names of the regions vary from year to year, are broadly geographic. From 1957 to 1984, the "Mideast" corresponding to the Southeastern region of the United States, designation was used. From 1985 to 1997, the Mideast region was known as "Southeast" and again changed to "South" starting from 1998; the selected names correspond to the location of the four cities hosting the regional finals. From 2004 to 2006, the regions were named after their host cities, e.g. the Phoenix Regional in 2004, the Chicago Regional in 2005, the Minneapolis Regional in 2006, but reverted to the traditional geographic designations beginning in 2007. For example, during 2012, the regions were named South, Midwest (St. Louis, Mis
Missouri is a state in the Midwestern United States. With over six million residents, it is the 18th-most populous state of the Union; the largest urban areas are St. Louis, Kansas City and Columbia; the state is the 21st-most extensive in area. In the South are the Ozarks, a forested highland, providing timber and recreation; the Missouri River, after which the state is named, flows through the center of the state into the Mississippi River, which makes up Missouri's eastern border. Humans have inhabited the land now known as Missouri for at least 12,000 years; the Mississippian culture built mounds, before declining in the 14th century. When European explorers arrived in the 17th century they encountered the Osage and Missouria nations; the French established Louisiana, a part of New France, founded Ste. Genevieve in 1735 and St. Louis in 1764. After a brief period of Spanish rule, the United States acquired the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. Americans from the Upland South, including enslaved African Americans, rushed into the new Missouri Territory.
Missouri was admitted as a slave state as part of the Missouri Compromise. Many from Virginia and Tennessee settled in the Boonslick area of Mid-Missouri. Soon after, heavy German immigration formed the Missouri Rhineland. Missouri played a central role in the westward expansion of the United States, as memorialized by the Gateway Arch; the Pony Express, Oregon Trail, Santa Fe Trail, California Trail all began in Missouri. As a border state, Missouri's role in the American Civil War was complex and there were many conflicts within. After the war, both Greater St. Louis and the Kansas City metropolitan area became centers of industrialization and business. Today, the state is divided into the independent city of St. Louis. Missouri's culture blends elements from Southern United States; the musical styles of ragtime, Kansas City jazz, St. Louis Blues developed in Missouri; the well-known Kansas City-style barbecue, lesser-known St. Louis-style barbecue, can be found across the state and beyond. Missouri is a major center of beer brewing.
Missouri wine is produced in Ozarks. Missouri's alcohol laws are among the most permissive in the United States. Outside of the state's major cities, popular tourist destinations include the Lake of the Ozarks, Table Rock Lake, Branson. Well-known Missourians include U. S. President Harry S. Truman, Mark Twain, Walt Disney, Chuck Berry, Nelly; some of the largest companies based in the state include Cerner, Express Scripts, Emerson Electric, Edward Jones, H&R Block, Wells Fargo Advisors, O'Reilly Auto Parts. Missouri has been called the "Mother of the West" and the "Cave State"; the state is named for the Missouri River, named after the indigenous Missouri Indians, a Siouan-language tribe. It is said that they were called the ouemessourita, meaning "those who have dugout canoes", by the Miami-Illinois language speakers; this appears to be folk etymology—the Illinois spoke an Algonquian language and the closest approximation that can be made in that of their close neighbors, the Ojibwe, is "You Ought to Go Downriver & Visit Those People."
This would be an odd occurrence, as the French who first explored and attempted to settle the Mississippi River got their translations during that time accurate giving things French names that were exact translations of the native tongue. Assuming Missouri were deriving from the Siouan language, it would translate as "It connects to the side of it," in reference to the river itself; this is not likely either, as this would be coming out as "Maya Sunni" Most though, the name Missouri comes from Chiwere, a Siouan language spoken by people who resided in the modern day states of Wisconsin, South Dakota, Missouri & Nebraska. The name "Missouri" has several different pronunciations among its present-day natives, the two most common being and. Further pronunciations exist in Missouri or elsewhere in the United States, involving the realization of the first syllable as either or. Any combination of these phonetic realizations may be observed coming from speakers of American English; the linguistic history was treated definitively by Donald M. Lance, who acknowledged that the question is sociologically complex, but that no pronunciation could be declared "correct", nor could any be defined as native or outsider, rural or urban, southern or northern, educated or otherwise.
Politicians employ multiple pronunciations during a single speech, to appeal to a greater number of listeners. Informal respellings of the state's name, such as "Missour-ee" or "Missour-uh", are used informally to phonetically distinguish pronunciations. There is no official state nickname. However, Missouri's unofficial nickname is the "Show Me State"; this phrase has several origins. One is popularly ascribed to a speech by Congressman Willard Vandiver in 1899, who declared that "I come from a state that raises corn and cotton and Democrats, frothy eloquence neither convinces nor satisfies me. I'm from Missouri, you have got to show me." This is in keeping with the saying "I'm from Missouri" which means "I'm skeptical of the matter and not convinced." However, according to researchers, the phrase "show me" was in use
The Summit League, or The Summit, is an NCAA Division I intercollegiate athletic conference with its membership located in the Midwestern United States from Indiana and Illinois on the East of the Mississippi River to the Dakotas and Nebraska on the West, with additional members in the Western state of Colorado and the Southern state of Oklahoma. Dubbed the Association of Mid-Continent Universities in 1982, on June 1, 2007, the conference changed its name from the Mid-Continent Conference. League headquarters are in South Dakota. With the 2018 arrival of the University of North Dakota as the league's newest full member, the Summit has nine full members plus four associate members. A total of 31 schools have been full members, but the only charter member remaining in the league today is Western Illinois University. Notes The Summit League has 22 former members. - The then-Mid-Continent Conference did not sponsor women's sports until the 1992–93 school year. Cleveland State, UIC, Northern Illinois, Green Bay, Wright State were all members of the women's-only North Star Conference until the Mid-Con began sponsoring women's sports absorbing the NSC.
- As noted before, the Mid-Con did not sponsor women's sports until 1992–93. Before that time, Eastern Illinois had been a member of the Gateway Collegiate Athletic Conference, which began as a women's-only conference and added football in 1985; when the Gateway merged its women's side into the Missouri Valley Conference, EIU moved its women's sports into the Mid-Con, but kept its football team in the Gateway until it moved its entire athletic program into the Ohio Valley Conference in 1996. Notes The association was created on June 18, 1982 at the O'Hare Hilton Hotel in Chicago, Illinois as the Association of Mid-Continent Universities, which it was known as until 1989; the conference sponsored football from 1982 until 1984 at the Division I-AA level, current members North Dakota State, South Dakota, South Dakota State, Western Illinois plus future member North Dakota have FCS football programs. In the early 1990s, the conference saw its first changes. Southwest Missouri State departed for membership in the Missouri Valley Conference as the University of Akron and Northern Illinois University joined in 1990.
Wright State University joined in 1991 as Northern Iowa followed Southwest Missouri State to the MVC. Major changes came to the conference in 1992. First, Akron left for the Mid-American Conference and was replaced by another Ohio school, Youngstown State University. More the Mid-Continent added women's sports by absorbing the North Star Conference, a women's-only league whose final seven members had all been in the Mid-Continent. All of the final NSC members except for Akron moved their women's sports into the Mid-Continent. At the same time, Eastern Illinois and Western Illinois moved their women's sports into the Mid-Continent when their former women's sports home, the Gateway Conference, merged into the Missouri Valley Conference. A year the University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee joined the Mid-Continent. In 1994, charter members Cleveland State University, the University of Illinois at Chicago, the University of Wisconsin–Green Bay, as well as newer members Wisconsin–Milwaukee, Northern Illinois, Wright State left the conference to join the Midwestern Collegiate Conference, now known as the Horizon League.
In response, the Mid-Continent absorbed Central Connecticut State University, Chicago State University, the University at Buffalo, Troy State University, Northeastern Illinois University from the collapsed East Coast Conference. None of these institutions remain in the league. Missouri-Kansas City an independent joined the Mid-Continent Conference in 1994. Eastern Illinois moved to the Ohio Valley Conference in 1996. Troy State departed for the Trans America Athletic Conference while Central Connecticut went to the Northeast Conference in 1997. Buffalo joined the MAC in 1998 while Northeastern Illinois ceased intercollegiate athletics at that time. Oral Roberts University and Southern Utah University replaced the former pair while Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis and Oakland University moved into the latter duo's spots a year later. Youngstown State switched to the Horizon League in 2001, was replaced by Centenary College in 2003. Chicago State University announced in the spring of 2006 that it would withdraw from the conference to compete as an independent starting in the 2006-07 school year.
Charter member Valparaiso University moved to the Horizon in 2007. At the Mid-Continent Conference annual Presidents Council meeting in 2006, conference expansion was discussed at length, Indiana University-Purdue University Fort Wayne, North Dakota State, South Dakota State were approved for site visits. On August 30, 2006, IPFW accepted an invitation to join the Mid-Continent Conference as a full member starting July 1, 2007; the following day, North Dakota State and South Dakota State accepted invitations to join the conference. The Summit League continued its renewed expansion push with the admission of the University of South Dakota; the Coyotes began conference play in the 2011–12 academic year and become eligible for all championships the following season. Centenary College subsequently announced that it would leave the Summit League following the 2010–2011 campaign; the University of North Dakota had been rumored to have been courted by the Summit League, but controversy over the Fighting Sioux nickname in all likelihood prevented UND's admission
South Dakota State University
South Dakota State University is a public research university in Brookings, South Dakota, United States. Founded in 1881, it is the state's largest and most comprehensive university and is the oldest continually-operating university in South Dakota; the university is governed by the South Dakota Board of Regents, which governs the state's six public universities and two special schools. South Dakota State University is a land grant, space grant, sun grant university, it was founded under the provisions of the 1862 Morrill Act. This land-grant heritage and mission has led the university to place a special focus on academic programs in agriculture, engineering and pharmacy, as well as liberal arts; the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching classifies South Dakota State University as a Research University with high research activity. The graduate program is classified as Doctoral, Technology, Math dominant; the university was founded in the Dakota Territory on February 21, 1881, as Dakota Agriculture College.
The first building, with funding from the territorial legislature, was built in 1883, six years before the State of South Dakota was formed. Numerous expansions were funded in early 20th century; the name was changed in 1904 to South Dakota State College of Mechanic Arts. In 1964, the name was changed to South Dakota State University; the name change was promoted by the Alumni Association. Initiated in 1962, this name change reflected the more comprehensive education offered at the university. In 1923, SDSU's instructional program was organized under five divisions: Agriculture, General Science, Home Economics, Pharmacy. In 1956, a Nursing program was established, in 1957 a formal graduate school was formed; when the University changed its name in 1964, the colleges were renamed Agriculture and Biological Sciences and Sciences, Home Economics, Nursing and the Graduate School. In 1974, the College of General Registration was formed. In 1975, the Division of Education was created. An Honors College was formed in 1999.
Two colleges and seven departments combined in 2009 to create the College of Education and Human Sciences. In 2017, the colleges which make up the university were revised and in some cases renamed to the following: College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences. Fishback Honors College. On May 23, 2016, Barry H. Dunn became the 20th President of South Dakota State University. Dunn and his wife are alumni of SDSU, prior to becoming president, Dunn was the Dean of SDSU's College of Agriculture and Biological Sciences; the Hilton M. Briggs Library consists of more than 635,000 bound volumes, 315,000 government documents, 79,000 maps, 1,800 journal titles. Within the Briggs Library is the Daschle Research Library dedicated to former U. S. Senate Majority Leader Tom Daschle, which houses his Congressional papers; the University Student Union is at the center of campus and houses many amenities for both students and the public. The Union is the home to numerous meeting rooms, a ballroom, The Hobo Day Committee the University Program Council, Greek life the Students' Association, The Collegian student newspaper, Student Legal Services, KSDJ 90.7 FM, Dining Services, four eating facilities, the University Bookstore, Card Services, International Student Affairs.
The 73,000-square-foot SDSU Wellness Center opened in the fall of 2008. The building lightens up space in the HPER Center, allowing that to be used by athletes, while the Wellness Center is used only by students and the public. Student memberships are free and Brookings community members may purchase memberships. Numerous group exercise programs and classes are offered, along with personal training; the building houses a rock climbing wall, a track, three basketball courts, a competition size swimming pool, numerous weights and cardiovascular equipment. It is the home of Student Health, which includes a full pharmacy for students; the Coughlin Campanile used as the campus bell tower, is a familiar sight around campus. The campus has two museums, the South Dakota Art Museum, the South Dakota Agricultural Heritage Museum; the art museum is home to over 7,000 works of art, while the agricultural museum is home to over 100,000 objects. Both museums are open free to the public; the university operates its own dairy plant, processing 10,000 lb of milk weekly into cheese and ice cream, operates a cattle and sheep breeding operation, has an on-campus meat processing facility, has a student-operated pharmacy.
Close to campus are the McCrory Gardens and South Dakota Arboretum. These gardens include a 45-acre arboretum; the gardens are open daily to the public. SDSU is home to State University Theatre and Prairie Repertory Theatre, which produce numerous plays and musicals during the school year and summer breaks. SDSU awards associate degrees, bachelor's degrees, master's degrees, doctoral degrees; the university provides 175 fields of study. The university's colleges and schools include College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences.
2016 NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament
The 2016 NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament involved 68 teams playing in a single-elimination tournament to determine the men's National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I college basketball national champion for the 2015–16 season. The 78th edition of the Tournament began on March 15, 2016, concluded with the championship game on April 4 at NRG Stadium in Houston, Texas. Upsets were the story of the first round of the Tournament. At least one 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15 seed won a first-round game for the third time and the first time since 2013. In the Final Four, Villanova defeated Oklahoma. Villanova defeated North Carolina to win the championship on a three-point buzzer beater by Kris Jenkins. Pundits called the game one of the best in tournament history, going on to say this was one of the most competitive finals ever; the Round of 64 was known as the Second Round since the 2011 edition, but it was reverted to the moniker First Round for this coming tournament. The First Four was named the First Round.
First Four March 15 and 16 University of Dayton Arena, Ohio First and Second Rounds March 17 and 19 Dunkin' Donuts Center, Rhode Island Wells Fargo Arena, Des Moines, Iowa, PNC Arena, North Carolina, Pepsi Center, Colorado, March 18 and 20 Barclays Center, New York, Scottrade Center, St. Louis, Chesapeake Energy Arena, Oklahoma City, Spokane Veterans Memorial Arena, Washington, Regional Semifinals and Finals March 24 and 26 South Regional, KFC Yum! Center, Kentucky, West Regional, Honda Center, California, March 25 and 27 East Regional, Wells Fargo Center, Pennsylvania, Midwest Regional, United Center, National Semifinals and Championship April 2 and 4 NRG Stadium, Texas NRG Stadium in Houston hosted the Final Four for the second time in 2016, Houston's third Final Four overall; the 2016 tournament was the first tournament since 1995 where no domed stadiums were used in the regional rounds. The tournament featured two new venues. For the second time in three years, the tournament came to New York City, with games played at Brooklyn's Barclays Center, the home of the Brooklyn Nets.
The tournament came to the state of Iowa for the first time since 1972, the first time in the city of Des Moines, when it came to the Wells Fargo Arena, home to the Iowa Wolves of the NBA G League and the Iowa Wild of the American Hockey League. Of the 14 venues used in the tournament, only the NRG Stadium and the Chesapeake Energy Arena do not have future tournament games planned as of 2018. America East Conference champion Stony Brook and WAC champion Cal State Bakersfield made their first NCAA Tournament appearances in school history. Yale made its first NCAA appearance since 1962 as winners of the Ivy League, for the final time, did not stage a conference tournament. Of those that do hold a tournament, Horizon League champion Green Bay made its first appearance since 1996 and Oregon State made its first appearance since 1990. Yale earned its first Tournament win in school history with a 79–75 win over Baylor. Hawaii earned its first NCAA Tournament win by defeating California 77–66. Arkansas-Little Rock won its first Tournament game in 30 years and Middle Tennessee won its first Tournament game in 27 years.
In the Midwest Region, No. 15 seed Middle Tennessee upset No. 2 seed Michigan State for just the eighth win for a No. 15 seed over a No. 2. More than one-third of ESPN Tournament Challenge brackets predicted Michigan State to make the Final Four. In the East Region, No. 14 seed Stephen F. Austin upset No. 3 seed West Virginia, marking the fourth straight tournament in which a No. 14 seed upset a No. 3 seed. By winning the Midwest Regional final, Syracuse became the first No. 10 seed in history to advance to the Final Four. However, three lower seeds, all No. 11, have advanced to that stage. Kansas extended its streak of consecutive tournament appearances to 27 in a row, making every NCAA Tournament dating back to 1990; this tied the record for most consecutive NCAA Tournament appearances held by North Carolina. This Tournament marked the first championship for Villanova in 31 years, it was the first championship by a school without a Division I FBS football team since Connecticut in 1999. Villanova fields a Division I FCS football team, as did UConn before 2002.
Out of 336 eligible Division I teams, 68 participate in the tournament. Of the total, 15 Division I teams were ineligible due to failing to meet APR requirements, self-imposed postseason bans, or reclassification from a lower division. Of the 32 automatic bids, 31 were given to programs. For the final time, the Ivy League awarded its NCAA Tournament bid to the team with the best regular-season record and did not hold a tournament; the Ivy League will hold a postseason tournament for the first time after the 2016–17 Ivy League season. The rema
National Invitation Tournament
The National Invitation Tournament is a men's college basketball tournament operated by the National Collegiate Athletic Association. Played at regional sites and at Madison Square Garden in New York City each March and April, it was founded in 1938 and was the most prestigious post-season showcase for college basketball. Over time it became eclipsed by the NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament – known today informally as "March Madness"; the NIT has since been regarded more as a "consolation" tournament for teams that did not receive a berth in the NCAA tournament. A second, much more recent "NIT" tournament is played in November and known as the NIT Season Tip-Off; the "Preseason NIT", it was founded in 1985. Like the postseason NIT, its final rounds are played at Madison Square Garden. Both tournaments were operated by the Metropolitan Intercollegiate Basketball Association until 2005, when they were purchased by the NCAA, the MIBA disbanded. Unless otherwise qualified, the terms "NIT" or "National Invitation Tournament" refer to the post-season tournament in both common and official use.
The post-season National Invitation Tournament was founded in 1938 by the Metropolitan Basketball Writers Association, one year after the NAIA Tournament was created by basketball's inventor Dr. James Naismith, one year before the NCAA Tournament; the first NIT was won by the Temple University Owls over the Colorado Buffaloes. Responsibility for the NIT's administration was transferred in 1940 to the Metropolitan Intercollegiate Basketball Committee, a body of local New York colleges: Fordham University, Manhattan College, New York University, St. John's University, Wagner College; this became the Metropolitan Intercollegiate Basketball Association in 1948. The tournament invited a field of 6 teams, with all games played at Madison Square Garden in downtown Manhattan; the field was expanded to 8 teams in 1941, 12 in 1949, 14 in 1965, 16 in 1968, 24 in 1979, 32 in 1980, 40 from 2002 through 2006. In 2007, the tournament reverted to the current 32-team format. In its early years, the NIT offered some advantages over the NCAA tournament: There was limited national media coverage of college basketball in the 1930s and'40s, playing in New York City provided teams greater media exposure, both with the general public and among high school prospects in its rich recruiting territory.
The NCAA tournament selection committee invited only one team each from eight national regions leaving better quality selections and natural rivals out of its field, which would opt for the NIT. From its onset and at least into the mid-1950s, the NIT was regarded as the most prestigious showcase for college basketball. All-American at Princeton and NBA champion with the New York Knicks and United States Senator Bill Bradley stated: In the 1940's, when the NCAA tournament was less than 10 years old, the National Invitation Tournament, a saturnalia held in New York at Madison Square Garden by the Metropolitan Intercollegiate Basketball Association, was the most glamorous of the post-season tournaments and had the better teams; the winner of the National Invitation Tournament was regarded as more of a national champion than the actual, national champion, or winner of the NCAA tournament. Several teams played in both the NIT and NCAA tournaments in the same year, beginning with Colorado and Duquesne in 1940.
Colorado subsequently finished fourth in the NCAA West Region. In 1944, Utah lost its first game in the NIT but proceeded to win not only the NCAA tournament, but the subsequent Red Cross War Charities benefit game in which they defeated NIT champion St. John's at Madison Square Garden. In 1949, some Kentucky players were bribed by gamblers to lose their first round game in the NIT; this same Kentucky team went on to win the NCAA. In 1950, City College of New York won both the NIT and the NCAA tournaments in the same season, coincidentally defeating Bradley University in the championship game of both tournaments, remains the only school to accomplish that feat because of an NCAA committee change in the early 1950s prohibiting a team from competing in both tournaments; the champions of both the NCAA and NIT tournaments played each other for a few years during World War II. From 1943 to 1945, the American Red Cross sponsored a postseason charity game between each year's tournament champions to raise money for the war effort.
The series was described by Ray Meyer as not just benefit games, but as "really the games for the national championship". The NCAA champion prevailed in all three games; the Helms Athletic Foundation retroactively selected the NIT champion as its national champion for 1938, chose the NIT champion over the NCAA champion once, in 1939. More the mathematically based Premo-Porretta Power Poll published in the ESPN College Basketball Encyclopedia retroactively ranked teams for each season prior to 1949, with the NIT champion finishing ahead of the NCAA champion in 1939 and 1941. Premo-Porretta ranks four NCAA champions as the best for each season, the rest being non-championship winning teams. Between 1939 and 1970, when teams could compete in either tournament, only DePaul, San Francisco and Holy Cross claim or celebrate national championships for their teams based on an NIT championship, although Long Island recognizes its selection as the 1939 national champion by the Helms Athletic Foundation, made in 1943.
In 1943 the NCAA tournament moved to share Madison Square Garden with the NIT in an effort to increase the credibility of the NCAA Tournament. In 1945, The New York Times indicated that many teams could get bids to enter either tournament, not unco