William J. Brennan Jr.
William Joseph Brennan Jr. was an American judge who served as an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court from 1956 to 1990. As the seventh longest-serving justice in Supreme Court history, he was known for being a leader of the Court's liberal wing. Born in Newark, New Jersey, Brennan graduated from Harvard Law School in 1931, he entered private practice in New Jersey and served in the United States Army during World War II. He was appointed in 1951 to the Supreme Court of New Jersey. Shortly before the 1956 presidential election, President Dwight D. Eisenhower used a recess appointment to place Brennan on the Supreme Court. Brennan won Senate confirmation the following year, he remained on the Court until his retirement in 1990, was succeeded by David Souter. On the Supreme Court, Brennan was known for his outspoken progressive views, including opposition to the death penalty and support for abortion rights, he authored several landmark case opinions, including Baker v. Carr, establishing that the apportionment of legislative districts is a justiciable issue, New York Times Co. v. Sullivan, which required "actual malice" in libel suits brought by public officials.
Due to his ability to shape a variety of wide opinions and "bargain" for votes in many cases, he was considered to be among the Court's most influential members. Justice Antonin Scalia called Brennan "probably the most influential Justice of the century." Brennan was born in the second of eight children. His parents and Agnes Brennan, were Irish immigrants, they met in the United States, although both were from County Roscommon in Ireland. His father had little education. However, he rose to a position of leadership, serving as the Commissioner of Public Safety for the city of Newark from 1927 to 1930. Brennan attended public schools in Newark, graduated from Barringer High School in 1924, he attended the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania, where he graduated cum laude with a degree in economics in 1928. While there, he joined Delta Tau Delta Fraternity. Brennan graduated from Harvard Law School near the top of his class in 1931 and was a member of the Harvard Legal Aid Bureau; when he was 21, Brennan married Marjorie Leonard.
They had three children: William III, Hugh. After graduating from Harvard Law School, Brennan entered private practice in his home state of New Jersey, where he practiced labor law at the firm of Pitney Hardin. During World War II, Brennan commissioned in the Army as a major in March 1942, left as a colonel in 1945, he did legal work for the ordnance division. In 1949, Brennan was appointed to the Superior Court by Governor of New Jersey Alfred E. Driscoll. In 1951, Driscoll appointed him to the Supreme Court of New Jersey. Brennan was named to the U. S. Supreme Court through a recess appointment by Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1956, shortly before the 1956 presidential election. Presidential advisers thought the appointment of a Roman Catholic Democrat from the Northeast would woo critical voters in the upcoming re-election campaign for Eisenhower, a Republican. Brennan gained the attention of Herbert Brownell, United States Attorney General and Eisenhower's chief legal affairs adviser, when Brennan had to give a speech at a conference.
To Brownell, Brennan's speech seemed to suggest a marked conservatism on criminal matters. His nomination faced a small amount of controversy from two angles; the National Liberal League opposed the nomination of a Catholic, thinking he would rely on his religious beliefs rather than the Constitution when ruling, Senator Joseph McCarthy had read transcripts of Brennan's speech where he decried overzealous anti-Communist investigations as "witch-hunts." After a confirmation hearing in 1957 in which Brennan defended himself against McCarthy's attacks and proclaimed that he would rule on the basis of the Constitution and not on Church law, he was confirmed by a near-unanimous vote, with only Senator McCarthy voting against him. Other factors playing into Brennan's appointment were his status as a state court judge – no state judge had been appointed to the High Court since Benjamin N. Cardozo in 1932 – and Eisenhower's desire to appear bipartisan after his appointments of two Republicans: Earl Warren and John Marshall Harlan II.
Brennan filled the seat vacated by Justice Sherman Minton. He held the post until his retirement on July 1990, for health reasons. Brennan taught at Georgetown University Law Center until 1994. With 1,360 opinions, he is second only to William O. Douglas in number of opinions written while a Supreme Court justice. An outspoken liberal throughout his career, he played a leading role in the Warren Court's expansion of individual rights. Brennan played a behind-the-scenes role during the Warren Court, coaxing more conservative colleagues to join the Court's decisions. Brennan's opinions with respect to voting, criminal proceedings, the free speech and establishment clauses of the First Amendment, civil rights were some of the most important opinions of the Warren Era. Brennan's role in expanding free speech rights under the First Amendment is notable, as he wrote the Court's opinion in 1964's New York Times Co. v. Sullivan, which created constitutional restrictions on the law of libel, it was Brennan who coined the phrase "chilling effect", in 1965's Dombrowski v. Pfister
Thurgood Marshall was an American lawyer, serving as Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from October 1967 until October 1991. Marshall was its first African-American justice. Prior to his judicial service, he argued several cases before the Supreme Court, including Brown v. Board of Education. Born in Baltimore, Marshall graduated from the Howard University School of Law in 1933, he established a private legal practice in Baltimore before founding the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund, where he served as executive director. In that position, he argued several cases before the Supreme Court, including Smith v. Allwright, Shelley v. Kraemer, Brown v. Board of Education, which held that racial segregation in public education is a violation of the Equal Protection Clause. In 1961, President John F. Kennedy appointed Marshall to the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit. Four years President Lyndon B. Johnson appointed Marshall as the United States Solicitor General.
In 1967, Johnson nominated Marshall to succeed retiring Associate Justice Tom C. Clark. Marshall retired during the administration of President George H. W. Bush, was succeeded by Clarence Thomas. Marshall was born in Baltimore, Maryland, on July 2, 1908, he was descended from enslaved peoples on both sides of his family. His original name was Thoroughgood, his father, William Canfield Marshall, worked as a railroad porter, his mother Norma Arica, as a teacher. Marshall first learned how to debate from his father, who took Marshall and his brother to watch court cases; the family debated current events after dinner. Marshall said, he did it by teaching me to argue, by challenging my logic on every point, by making me prove every statement I made."Marshall attended Frederick Douglass High School in Baltimore and was placed in the class with the best students. He graduated a year early in 1925 with a B-grade average, placed in the top third of the class, he went to Lincoln University, a black university in Pennsylvania.
It is reported that he intended to study medicine and become a dentist. But according to his application to Lincoln University, Marshall said his goal was to become a lawyer. Among his classmates were poet Langston Hughes and musician Cab Calloway, he did not take his studies and was suspended twice for hazing and pranks against fellow students. He was not politically active at first. In his first year Marshall opposed the integration of African-American professors at the university. Hughes described Marshall as "rough and ready and wrong". In his second year Marshall participated in a sit-in protest against segregation at a local movie theater; that year he was initiated as a member of Alpha Phi Alpha, the first fraternity founded by and for blacks. In September 1929 he married Vivien Buster Burey and began to take his studies graduating from Lincoln with honors Bachelor of Arts in Humanities, with a major in American literature and philosophy. Marshall wanted to study in his hometown law school, the University of Maryland School of Law, but did not apply because of the school's segregation policy.
Marshall attended Howard University School of Law. His views on discrimination were influenced by the dean, Charles Hamilton Houston. In 1933, Marshall graduated first in his law class at Howard. After graduating from law school, Marshall started a private law practice in Baltimore, he began his 25-year affiliation with the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People in 1934 by representing the organization in the law school discrimination suit Murray v. Pearson. In 1936, Marshall became part of the national staff of the NAACP. In Murray v. Pearson, Marshall represented Donald Gaines Murray, a black Amherst College graduate with excellent credentials, denied admission to the University of Maryland Law School because of its segregation policy. Black students in Maryland wanting to study law had to attend segregated establishments, Morgan College, the Princess Anne Academy, or out-of-state black institutions. Using the strategy developed by Nathan Margold, Marshall argued that Maryland's segregation policy violated the "separate but equal" doctrine of Plessy v. Ferguson because the state did not provide a comparable educational opportunity at a state-run black institution.
The Maryland Court of Appeals ruled against the state of Maryland and its Attorney General, who represented the University of Maryland, stating, "Compliance with the Constitution cannot be deferred at the will of the state. Whatever system is adopted for legal education must furnish equality of treatment now." At the age of 32, Marshall won U. S. Supreme Court case Chambers v. Florida, 309 U. S. 227. That same year, he founded and became the executive director of the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund; as the head of the Legal Defense Fund, he argued many other civil rights cases before the Supreme Court, most of them including Smith v. Allwright, 321 U. S. 649. S. 1. S. 629. S. 637. His most famous case as a lawyer was Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U. S. 483, the case in which the Supreme Court ruled that "separate but equal" public education, as established b
Low-alcohol beer is beer with little or no alcohol content and aims to reproduce the taste of beer without the inebriating effects of standard alcoholic brews. Most low-alcohol beers are lagers. Low-alcohol beer is known as light beer, non-alcoholic beer, small beer, small ale, or near-beer. In the United States, beverages containing less than 0.5% alcohol by volume were called non-alcoholic, according to the now-defunct Volstead Act. Because of its low alcohol content, non-alcoholic beer may be sold to minors in many American states. In the United Kingdom, the following definitions apply by law: No alcohol or alcohol-free: not more than 0.05% ABV Dealcoholized: over 0.05% but less than 0.5% ABV Low-alcohol: not more than 1.2% ABVIn some parts of the European Union, beer must contain no more than 0.5% ABV if it is labelled "alcohol-free". In Australia, the term "light beer" refers to any beer with less than 3.5% alcohol. Spain is the main producer of low-alcohol beer in the European Union. Low-alcoholic brews such as small beer date back at least to Medieval Europe, where they served as a less risky alternative to water and were less expensive than the full strength brews used at festivals.
More the temperance movements and the need to avoid alcohol while driving, operating machinery, etc. led to the development of non-intoxicating beers. In the United States, non-alcoholic brews were promoted during Prohibition, according to John Naleszkiewicz. In 1917, President Wilson proposed limiting the alcohol content of malt beverages to 2.75% to try to appease avid prohibitionists. In 1919, Congress approved the Volstead Act, which limited the alcohol content of all beverages to 0.5%. These low alcohol beverages became known as tonics, many breweries began brewing them in order to stay in business during Prohibition. Since removing the alcohol from the beer requires just one simple extra step, many breweries saw it as an easy change. In 1933, when Prohibition was repealed, breweries removed this extra step. By the 1980s and 1990s, growing concerns about alcoholism led to the growing popularity of "light" beers. In the 2010s, breweries have focused on marketing low-alcohol beers to counter the popularity of homebrew.
Declining consumption has led to the introduction of mass-market non-alcoholic beverages, dubbed as "near beer". At the start of the 21st century, alcohol-free beer has seen a rise in popularity in the Middle East. One reason for this is that Islamic scholars issued fatawa which permitted the consumption of beer as long as large quantities could be consumed without getting drunk. Positive features of non-alcoholic brews include the ability to drive after consuming several drinks, the reduction in alcohol-related illness, less severe hangover symptoms; some common complaints about non-alcoholic brews include a loss of flavor, addition of one step in the brewing process, sugary taste, a shorter shelf life. There are legal implications; some state governments, e.g. Pennsylvania, prohibit the sale of non-alcoholic brews to persons under the age of 21. A study conducted by the department of psychology at Indiana University said, "Because non-alcoholic beer provides sensory cues that simulate alcoholic beer, this beverage may be more effective than other placebos in contributing to a credible manipulation of expectancies to receive alcohol", making people feel "drunk" when physically they are not.
Light beer is beer with reduced alcohol content and/or calories compared to regular beer. The spelling "lite beer" is commonly used. Light beers may be chosen by drinkers who wish to manage their alcohol consumption or their calorie intake. However, these beers are sometimes criticized for being less flavorful than full-strength beers, being "watered down", thus advertising campaigns for light beers advertise their retention of flavor. In Australia, regular beers have 5% ABV. In Canada, a reduced-alcohol beer contains 2.6%–4.0% ABV, an “extra-light” beer contains less than 2.5%. In the United States, most reduced-alcohol beers, including Bud Light, Coors Light, Miller Lite, have 4.2% ABV, 16% less than beer with 5% ABV. In Sweden, low alcohol beer is either 2.2%, 2.8% or 3.5%, can be purchased in an ordinary supermarket whereas normal strength beers of above 3.5% must be purchased at Systembolaget. Beer containing 2.8-3.5% ABV may be sold in any convenience store to people over 18 years of age, whereas stronger beer may only be sold in state-run liquor stores to people older than 20.
In addition, businesses selling food for on-premises consumption do not need an alcohol license to serve 3.5% beer. All major Swedish brewers, several international ones, in addition to their full-strength beer, make 3.5% folköl versions as well. Beer below or equaling 2.25% ABV is not subject to age restrictions. Low-point beer, known in the United States as "three-two beer" or "3 point 2 brew", is beer that contains 3.2% alcohol by weight. The term "low-point beer" is unique to the United States, where some states limit the sale of beer, but beers of this type are available in countries that tax or otherwise regulate beer according to its alcohol content. In the United States, 3.2 beer was the highest alcohol content beer allowed to be produced for nine months in 1933. As part of his New Deal, President Franklin D. Roosev
Lewis F. Powell Jr.
Lewis Franklin Powell Jr. was an American lawyer and jurist who served as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, serving from 1971 to 1987. Powell compiled a conservative record on the Court and cultivated a reputation as a swing vote with a penchant for compromise. Born in Suffolk, Virginia, he graduated from both Washington and Lee Law School and Harvard Law School and served in the United States Army Air Forces during World War II, he worked for a large law firm in Richmond, focusing on corporate law and representing clients such as the Tobacco Institute. In 1971, President Richard Nixon appointed Powell to succeed Associate Justice Hugo Black, he retired from the Court during the administration of President Ronald Reagan, was succeeded by Anthony Kennedy. His tenure overlapped with that of Chief Justice Warren Burger, Powell was a key swing vote on the Burger Court, his majority opinions include First National Bank of Boston v. Bellotti and McCleskey v. Kemp, he wrote an influential opinion in Regents of the University of California v. Bakke.
He notably joined the majority in cases such as United States v. Nixon, Roe v. Wade, Plyler v. Doe, Bowers v. Hardwick. Powell was born in Suffolk, the son of Mary Lewis and Louis Franklin Powell Sr. Powell set out to attend Washington and Lee University where he became president of his fraternity, managing editor of the student newspaper, a member of the yearbook staff, his major was in commerce, but he studied law. Powell had always planned on becoming a lawyer, he graduated in 1929 with a B. A. magna cum laude. Powell would attend Washington and Lee Law School where he graduated first in his class in 1931, he received a Master of Laws degree from Harvard Law School in 1932. His LL. M. Thesis at Harvard was entitled "Relation between the Virginia Court of Appeals and the State Corporation Commission." Along with Sherman Minton, Powell is one of two U. S. Supreme Court justices to have earned an LL. M. degree. He was elected president of the student body as an undergraduate with the help of Mosby Perrow Jr. and the two served together on the Virginia State Board of Education in the 1960s.
Powell was a member of the Sigma Society. At a leadership conference, he met Edward R. Murrow, they became close friends. In 1936, he married Josephine Pierce Rucker with whom he had one son, she died in 1996. During World War II, he first tried to join the US Navy. After he was rejected because of poor eyesight, he joined the US Army Air Forces as an Intelligence officer. After receiving his commission as a First Lieutenant in 1942, he completed training at bases near Miami and Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, he was assigned to the 319th Bombardment Group, which moved to England that year. He served in North Africa during Operation Torch and was assigned to the Headquarters of the Northwest African Air Forces. There, Powell served in Sicily during the Allied invasion of Sicily. In August 1943, he was assigned to the Intelligence staff of the Army Air Forces in Washington, D. C. Slated for assignment as an instructor at the facility near Harrisburg, he worked instead on several special projects for the AAF headquarters until February 1944.
He was assigned to the Intelligence staff of the Department of War and the Intelligence staff of United States Strategic Air Forces in Europe. Powell was assigned to the Ultra project, as one of the officers designated to monitor the use of intercepted Axis communications, he worked in England and in the Mediterranean Theater and ensured that the use of Ultra information was in compliance with the laws and rules of war, that the use of such information did not reveal the source, which would have alerted that the code had been broken. He advanced through the ranks to Colonel, received the Legion of Merit, Bronze Star Medal, French Croix de Guerre with bronze palm, he was discharged in October 1945. In 1941, Powell served as Chairman of the American Bar Association's Young Lawyers Division. Powell was a partner for over a quarter of a century at Hunton, Gay and Gibson, a large Virginia law firm, with its primary office in Richmond. Powell practiced in the areas of corporate law and in railway litigation law.
He had been a board member of Philip Morris from 1964 until his court appointment in 1971 and had acted as a contact point for the tobacco industry with the Virginia Commonwealth University. Through his law firm, Powell represented the Tobacco Institute and various tobacco companies in numerous law cases. Powell served as Chair of the American Bar Association's Standing Committee on the Economics of Law Practice from 1961 to 1962, which evolved into the current ABA Law Practice Division. During his tenure as Chair of the Committee, The Lawyers Handbook was first published and distributed to all attorneys who joined the ABA that year. In its preface, Powell wrote, "The basic concept of freedom under law, which underlies our entire structure of government, can only be sustained by a strong and independent bar, it is plainly in the public interest that the economic health of the legal profession be safeguarded. One of the means toward this end is to improve the efficiency and productivity of lawyers."He was subsequently elected President of the ABA from 1964 to 1965.
Powell led the way in attempting to provide legal services to the poor, he made a key decision to cooperate with the federal government's Legal Services Program. Powell was involved in the development of Colonial Williamsburg, where he was bo
YouTube is an American video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California. Three former PayPal employees—Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, Jawed Karim—created the service in February 2005. Google bought the site in November 2006 for US$1.65 billion. YouTube allows users to upload, rate, add to playlists, comment on videos, subscribe to other users, it offers a wide variety of corporate media videos. Available content includes video clips, TV show clips, music videos and documentary films, audio recordings, movie trailers, live streams, other content such as video blogging, short original videos, educational videos. Most of the content on YouTube is uploaded by individuals, but media corporations including CBS, the BBC, Hulu offer some of their material via YouTube as part of the YouTube partnership program. Unregistered users can only watch videos on the site, while registered users are permitted to upload an unlimited number of videos and add comments to videos. Videos deemed inappropriate are available only to registered users affirming themselves to be at least 18 years old.
YouTube and its creators earn advertising revenue from Google AdSense, a program which targets ads according to site content and audience. The vast majority of its videos are free to view, but there are exceptions, including subscription-based premium channels, film rentals, as well as YouTube Music and YouTube Premium, subscription services offering premium and ad-free music streaming, ad-free access to all content, including exclusive content commissioned from notable personalities; as of February 2017, there were more than 400 hours of content uploaded to YouTube each minute, one billion hours of content being watched on YouTube every day. As of August 2018, the website is ranked as the second-most popular site in the world, according to Alexa Internet. YouTube has faced criticism over aspects of its operations, including its handling of copyrighted content contained within uploaded videos, its recommendation algorithms perpetuating videos that promote conspiracy theories and falsehoods, hosting videos ostensibly targeting children but containing violent and/or sexually suggestive content involving popular characters, videos of minors attracting pedophilic activities in their comment sections, fluctuating policies on the types of content, eligible to be monetized with advertising.
YouTube was founded by Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, Jawed Karim, who were all early employees of PayPal. Hurley had studied design at Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Chen and Karim studied computer science together at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign. According to a story, repeated in the media and Chen developed the idea for YouTube during the early months of 2005, after they had experienced difficulty sharing videos, shot at a dinner party at Chen's apartment in San Francisco. Karim did not attend the party and denied that it had occurred, but Chen commented that the idea that YouTube was founded after a dinner party "was very strengthened by marketing ideas around creating a story, digestible". Karim said the inspiration for YouTube first came from Janet Jackson's role in the 2004 Super Bowl incident, when her breast was exposed during her performance, from the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Karim could not find video clips of either event online, which led to the idea of a video sharing site.
Hurley and Chen said that the original idea for YouTube was a video version of an online dating service, had been influenced by the website Hot or Not. Difficulty in finding enough dating videos led to a change of plans, with the site's founders deciding to accept uploads of any type of video. YouTube began as a venture capital-funded technology startup from an $11.5 million investment by Sequoia Capital and an $8 million investment from Artis Capital Management between November 2005 and April 2006. YouTube's early headquarters were situated above a pizzeria and Japanese restaurant in San Mateo, California; the domain name www.youtube.com was activated on February 14, 2005, the website was developed over the subsequent months. The first YouTube video, titled Me at the zoo, shows co-founder Jawed Karim at the San Diego Zoo; the video was uploaded on April 23, 2005, can still be viewed on the site. YouTube offered the public a beta test of the site in May 2005; the first video to reach one million views was a Nike advertisement featuring Ronaldinho in November 2005.
Following a $3.5 million investment from Sequoia Capital in November, the site launched on December 15, 2005, by which time the site was receiving 8 million views a day. The site grew and, in July 2006, the company announced that more than 65,000 new videos were being uploaded every day, that the site was receiving 100 million video views per day. According to data published by market research company comScore, YouTube is the dominant provider of online video in the United States, with a market share of around 43% and more than 14 billion views of videos in May 2010. In May 2011, 48 hours of new videos were uploaded to the site every minute, which increased to 60 hours every minute in January 2012, 100 hours every minute in May 2013, 300 hours every minute in November 2014, 400 hours every minute in February 2017; as of January 2012, the site had 800 million unique users a month. It is estimated that in 2007 YouTube consumed as much bandwidth as the entire Internet in 2000. According to third-party web analytics providers and SimilarWeb, YouTube is the second-most visited website in the world, as of December 2016.
Taxing and Spending Clause
The Taxing and Spending Clause and the Uniformity Clause, Article I, Section 8, Clause 1 of the United States Constitution, grants the federal government of the United States its power of taxation. While authorizing Congress to levy taxes, this clause permits the levying of taxes for two purposes only: to pay the debts of the United States, to provide for the common defense and general welfare of the United States. Taken together, these purposes have traditionally been held to imply and to constitute the federal government's taxing and spending power; the Congress shall have Power To lay and collect Taxes, Duties and Excises, to pay the Debts and provide for the common Defence and general Welfare of the United States. Under the Articles, Congress was forced to rely on requisitions upon the governments of its member states. Without the power to independently raise its own revenues, the Articles left Congress vulnerable to the discretion of the several State governments—each State made its own decision as to whether it would pay the requisition or not.
Some states were not giving Congress the funds for which it asked by either paying only in part, or by altogether ignoring the request from Congress. Without the revenue to enforce its laws and treaties, or pay its debts, without an enforcement mechanism to compel the States to pay, the Confederation was rendered impotent and was in danger of falling apart; the Congress recognized this limitation and proposed amendments to the Articles in an effort to supersede it. However, nothing came of those proposals until the Philadelphia Convention; the power to tax is a concurrent power of the individual states. The taxation power has been perceived over time to be broad, but has on occasion, been curtailed by the courts. United States v. Butler stated that the clause granted "a substantive power... to appropriate", not subject to the limitations imposed by the other enumerated powers of Congress. The Congress shall have Power To lay and collect Taxes, Duties and Excises This power is considered by many to be essential to the effective administration of government.
As argued under the Articles, the lack of a power to tax renders government impotent. The power is used to raise revenues for the general support of government. But, Congress has employed the taxing power in uses other than for the raising of revenue, such as: regulatory taxation – taxing to regulate commerce. In 1922, the Supreme Court struck down a 1919 tax on child labor in Bailey v. Drexel Furniture Co. referred to as the "Child Labor Tax Case". The Court had held that Congress did not have the power to directly regulate labor, found the law at issue to be an attempt to indirectly accomplish the same end; this ruling appeared to have been reinforced in United States v. Butler, in which the Supreme Court of the United States ruled that the processing taxes instituted under the 1933 Agricultural Adjustment Act were an unconstitutional attempt to regulate state activity in violation of the Tenth Amendment. However, despite its outcome, Butler affirmed that Congress does have a broad power to tax, to expend revenues within its discretion.
With the power to tax implicitly comes the power to spend the revenues raised thereby in order to meet the objectives and goals of the government. To what extent this power ought to be utilized by the Congress has been the source of continued dispute and debate since the inception of the federal government, as will be explained below. However, interpretations recognizing an implicit power to spend arising from this clause have been questioned, with the Necessary and Proper Clause being suggested as the actual source of Congress's spending power; the Supreme Court has found that, in addition to the power to use taxes to punish disfavored conduct, Congress can use its power to spend to encourage favored conduct. In South Dakota v. Dole, the Court upheld a federal law which withheld highway funds from states that did not raise their legal drinking age to 21. Several Constitutional provisions address the spending authority of Congress; these include both requirements for the apportionment of direct taxes and the uniformity of indirect taxes, the origination of revenue bills within the House of Representatives, the disallowal of taxes on exports, the General Welfare requirement, the limitation on the release of funds from the treasury except as provided by law, the apportionment exemption of the Sixteenth Amendment.
Additionally and the legislatures of the various states are prohibited from conditioning the right to vote in federal elections on payment of a poll tax or other types of tax by the Twenty-fourth Amendment. The Constitution provides in the Origination Clause that all bills for raising revenue must originate in the House of Representatives; the idea underlying the clause is that Representatives, being the most numerous branch of Congress, most associated with the people, know best the economic conditio