Dorset is a county in South West England on the English Channel coast. The ceremonial county comprises the unitary authority areas of Bournemouth and Poole and Dorset. Covering an area of 2,653 square kilometres, Dorset borders Devon to the west, Somerset to the north-west, Wiltshire to the north-east, Hampshire to the east; the county town is Dorchester, in the south. After the reorganisation of local government in 1974 the county's border was extended eastward to incorporate the Hampshire towns of Bournemouth and Christchurch. Around half of the population lives in the South East Dorset conurbation, while the rest of the county is rural with a low population density; the county has a long history of human settlement stretching back to the Neolithic era. The Romans conquered Dorset's indigenous Celtic tribe, during the early Middle Ages, the Saxons settled the area and made Dorset a shire in the 7th century; the first recorded Viking raid on the British Isles occurred in Dorset during the eighth century, the Black Death entered England at Melcombe Regis in 1348.
Dorset has seen much civil unrest: in the English Civil War, an uprising of vigilantes was crushed by Oliver Cromwell's forces in a pitched battle near Shaftesbury. During the Second World War, Dorset was involved in the preparations for the invasion of Normandy, the large harbours of Portland and Poole were two of the main embarkation points; the former was the sailing venue in the 2012 Summer Olympics, both have clubs or hire venues for sailing, Cornish pilot gig rowing, sea kayaking and powerboating. Dorset has a varied landscape featuring broad elevated chalk downs, steep limestone ridges and low-lying clay valleys. Over half the county is designated as an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. Three-quarters of its coastline is part of the Jurassic Coast Natural World Heritage Site due to its geological and palaeontologic significance, it features notable landforms such as Lulworth Cove, the Isle of Portland, Chesil Beach and Durdle Door. Agriculture was traditionally the major industry of Dorset but is now in decline and tourism has become important to the economy.
There are no motorways in Dorset but a network of A roads cross the county and two railway main lines connect to London. Dorset has ports at Poole and Portland, an international airport; the county has a variety of museums and festivals, is host to the Great Dorset Steam Fair, one of the biggest events of its kind in Europe. It is the birthplace of Thomas Hardy, who used the county as the principal setting of his novels, William Barnes, whose poetry celebrates the ancient Dorset dialect. Dorset derives its name from the county town of Dorchester; the Romans established the settlement in the 1st century and named it Durnovaria, a Latinised version of a Common Brittonic word meaning "place with fist-sized pebbles". The Saxons named the town Dornwaraceaster and Dornsæte came into use as the name for the inhabitants of the area from "Dorn"—a reduced form of Dornwaraceaster—and the Old English word "sæte" meaning people, it is first mentioned in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in AD 845 and in the 10th century the county's archaic name, "Dorseteschyre", was first recorded.
The first human visitors to Dorset were Mesolithic hunters, from around 8000 BC. The first permanent Neolithic settlers appeared around 3000 BC and were responsible for the creation of the Dorset Cursus, a 10.5-kilometre monument for ritual or ceremonial purposes. From 2800 BC onwards Bronze Age farmers cleared Dorset's woodlands for agricultural use and Dorset's high chalk hills provided a location for numerous round barrows. During the Iron Age, the British tribe known as the Durotriges established a series of hill forts across the county—most notably Maiden Castle, one of the largest in Europe; the Romans arrived in Dorset during their conquest of Britain in AD 43. Maiden Castle was captured by a Roman legion under the command of Vespasian, the Roman settlement of Durnovaria was established nearby. Bokerley Dyke, a large defensive ditch built by the county's post-Roman inhabitants near the border with modern-day Hampshire, delayed the advance of the Saxons into Dorset for 150 years. However, by the end of the 7th century Dorset had fallen under Saxon control and been incorporated into the Kingdom of Wessex.
The Saxons established a diocese at Sherborne and Dorset was made a shire—an administrative district of Wessex and predecessor to the English county system—with borders that have changed little since. In 789 the first recorded Viking attack on the British Isles took place in Dorset on the Portland coast, they continued to raid into the county for the next two centuries. After the Norman Conquest in 1066, feudal rule was established in Dorset and the bulk of the land was divided between the Crown and ecclesiastical institutions; the Normans consolidated their control over the area by constructing castles at Corfe and Dorchester in the early part of the 12th century. Over the next 200 years Dorset's population grew and additional land was enclosed for farming to provide the extra food required; the wool trade, the quarrying of Purbeck Marble and the busy ports of Weymouth, Melcombe Regis, Lyme Regis and Bridport brought prosperity to the county. However, Dorset was devastated by the bubonic plague in 1348 which arrived in Melcombe Regis on a ship from Gascony.
The disease, more known as the Black Death, created an epidemic that spread a
Lytchett Matravers is a village and civil parish in the Purbeck district of Dorset, England. The 2011 census recorded the parish as having 1,439 households and a population of 3,424; the name comes from the Brittonic litchet meaning "grey wood" and the Norman surname "Maltravers". Until the Norman Conquest of England in 1066 a Danish lord called. After the conquest William I granted the manor to Hugh Maltravers, still the feudal overlord when the Domesday Book of 1086 recorded Lytchett Matravers as part of Cogdean Hundred in 1086; the Maltravers family held the village for about 300 years, until the Black Death reduced the population in the second half of the 14th century. The surviving villagers deserted the original village, sited around the church and manor house, resettled further up the hill; the remaining female heir to the title'in abeyance', Eleanor Maltravers, inherited the title on the death of her sister, Joan, in or after 1376. She married John FitzAlan, 1st Baron Arundel on 17 February 1359.
The estate was bought from the Arundels by the Trenchard family, who demolished the former manor house and built a new one that incorporated, amongst other facilities, a ballroom and a tower. When the Trenchard family foundered in 1829, the manor passed to the Dillon family who added the name Trenchard to their own. However, the newly titled Dillon-Trenchards chose not to occupy the newer manor house; the Dillon-Trenchards left Lytchett Matravers in the latter part of the 20th century. In 2005 the Lordship of Lytchett Matravers passed to Hon. Geoffrey Beck, being one of the few remaining descendants of the de Carterets of Arundel, a direct descendant of Renaud de Courtenay, Baron Okehampton. Lytchett Matravers has developed over the 20th century from a settlement of scattered cottages with large curtilages to a village with a moderately high housing density. In the 1920s and 1930s there was some ribbon development on the main access road; this continued into the 1950s with the addition of small scale infill housing behind.
Since the 1970s development has been through housing estates. In the 1960s and early 1970s many of the original cob and thatch cottages were either demolished or altered, but there are still 13 thatched cottages in the village, some of which retain their original curtilage; some modern developments have included a smattering of thatched houses in an acknowledgement of the local vernacular architecture. There is a Lytchett Maltravers electoral ward, it is larger than the parish, extending westward towards Bulbury. The 2011 Census recorded the ward's population as 3,747; the village is on higher ground in a landscape of small valleys, open fields and woods about 5 miles northwest of Poole and a similar distance north of Wareham. The elevation gives views from many parts of the village to the Purbeck hills; the village is in the Green Belt of the South East Dorset conurbation. To the northeast are the plantations of Henbury and Stoney Down and to the south the woods of Lytchett Heath; the village is on what until 150 years ago was the main road between Dorchester.
There is some through traffic through the village between the main A350 and A35. The Church of England parish church of St Mary the Virgin is 1⁄4 mile northwest of the modern village, on the former site of the village deserted in the 14th century; the church's west tower is 13th-century, the chancel is 14th-century and the rest of the church was rebuilt in about 1500. It is a Grade I listed building; the west tower has six bells, the oldest of, cast in about 1400. Near the middle of the village is a Methodist church, a member of Poole Bay Methodist Circuit. Lytchett Matravers has two pubs: the Rose and Crown; the village has a primary school. It draws pupils from outside its catchment area. Secondary education is provided by Lytchett Minster Secondary School, about 2 miles from the village; the village hall was built in 1972. It has views over Poole Harbour. A small parish council office is attached; the youth centre is just off the west end of the High Street. The village has a children's play area, recreation ground, basketball court, a skateboarding area and a scout hut for the 1st Lytchett Matravers Scouts.
A small number of businesses run from the village. Most of those of working age however, commute elsewhere in Dorset for their work, chiefly to Poole and Bournemouth. A substantial number of retired or semi-retired people live in the village. There are other social and recreational clubs in the village. There is a cricket club and a British Legion Club. For children there are Beavers, Brownies, Guides, an Army Cadet Force Detachment and a Youth Parish Council. Lytchett Matravers Detachment, Dorset Army Cadet Force, is located opposite the Chequers Inn; the current centre was opened in September 1995, is to this day home to a successful ACF unit. The monthly Parish Magazine, received by about 700 households includes articles on the activities of 12 clubs and societies in the village. There are at least as many others. In October 2001, a typical month, there was a booking listed for the village hall every day of the month and several clubs and societies meet either in their own premises or at a venue elsewhere in the village.
For many years, the village has held a traditional carnival in June. The village is twinned with the French village of Les Pieux, 1 1⁄4 miles from Cherbourg, linked by a regular car ferry with Poole. A group of villagers prepared a village appraisal called the Lytchett Matravers Parish Plan whi
Bournemouth railway station
Bournemouth railway station is the main railway station serving the beach-side town of Bournemouth, England. It was known as Bournemouth East and Bournemouth Central, it has long been treated as an obligatory stop on the South Western Main Line from London Waterloo to Weymouth. It is 108 miles 2 chains down the main line from Waterloo and is situated between Pokesdown and Branksome. A previous incarnation of Bournemouth East station was on another site. Ticket barriers were installed in 2008 and British Transport Police have a Bournemouth office at the station which acts as a regional hub; the station was designed by William Jacob, chief engineer of the London and South Western Railway, opened on 20 July 1885 as Bournemouth East replacing the original station of the same name on the other side of Holdenhurst Road from 1870 to 1885, see Bournemouth East railway station. The station was over 1–km from the town centre on the insistence of town authorities of the time, it was renamed Bournemouth Central on 1 May 1899 and became Bournemouth on 10 July 1967 following the closure of Bournemouth West.
By 1967 third rail electrification had reached Bournemouth and continued beyond to Branksome and Bournemouth Depot but no further. From the end of steam most trains were formed of 4REP EMUs coupled up with one or more unpowered 4TC units; the 4TC units would be uncoupled at Bournemouth and attached to a Class 33/1 diesel locomotive for the onward journey to Weymouth. This continued until the electrification of the line from Branksome to Weymouth and the introduction of Wessex Electric units in 1988; the end of steam saw the removal of the station's centre tracks which ran between the up and down lines serving platforms 2 and 3 and the demolition of the locomotive sheds to the west. The station roof was damaged by the Great Storm of 1987 that hit the South of England, it was extensively refurbished in 2000 by Railtrack after many years of disrepair and being surrounded by scaffolding to protect people from falling debris. Ticket barriers were installed in 2008. Bournemouth railway station was once served by services and goods deliveries across five railways, the South Western Main Line and Dorchester Railway, Ringwood and Bournemouth Railway and Dorset Junction Railway and Somerset and Dorset Joint Railway.
On 2 September 1961, a train was derailed by trap points at the end of the down platform. The station has four platforms: Platform 1 – east facing bay platform capable of accommodating trains of up to four 20-metre coaches; as of 2012 there are no scheduled services from this platform. Platform 2 – for through services to the east towards Southampton & London. Platforms 3 and 4 – for terminating services from London and through services to Weymouth via Poole. Platform 4 is used by trains in passenger service. Platforms 3 and 4 are continuous, both can accommodate full-length trains; this means. Other stations with this arrangement include Gloucester and Edinburgh Waverley. A small locomotive depot was opened at Bournemouth East in 1870, but closed in 1883; this was replaced by a larger shed, adjacent to Bournemouth Central station, in 1883. This in turn was supplemented by another shed nearby in 1888. In 1921, the 1883 shed was closed and the 1888 one was extended to increase capacity, between 1936 and 1938 this was rebuilt and enlarged.
The new shed included a 50 LT hoist. However the facilities remained awkwardly sited; this site therefore remained in use until June 1967. The station is served by South Western Railway, who operate fast and semi-fast trains from Waterloo to Weymouth, stopping services from London Waterloo to Poole, all of which stop at Bournemouth and have long done so. In addition, CrossCountry operate services from Bournemouth to Manchester Piccadilly via Birmingham New Street. There is one CrossCountry service Monday to Saturday only from Nottingham but no return working. All CrossCountry services at Bournemouth use Voyager DEMUS. Before the CrossCountry service was standardised in 2007 there were for many years CrossCountry services to many other destinations, including the'Dorset Scot' and'Wessex Scot' and other trains to Scotland via both the West Coast Main Line and East Coast Main Line, along with trains to Leeds and to Liverpool Lime Street. From 1990 Network SouthEast and Connex South Central used to operate a London Victoria-Bournemouth service, but this was truncated at Southampton and eventually ceased under the Southern franchise.
The service was one of the few regular services to use platform 1. Bournemouth railway station serves as a hub for local bus services. On the down side of the station is Bournemouth Travel Interchange, served by Wilts & Dorset and Yellow Buses, both companies operate frequent services to the town centre. A regular bus service to Bournemouth Airport, the Bournemouth Airport Shuttle, is operated by Yellow Buses, it is a stop on National Express coach routes which serve the town
Weymouth is a seaside town in Dorset, situated on a sheltered bay at the mouth of the River Wey on the English Channel coast. The town is 8 kilometres north of the Isle of Portland; the town's population is 52,323. Weymouth has a metropolitan population of 71,083; the town is the third largest settlement in Dorset after the unitary authorities of Bournemouth and Poole. Weymouth is a tourist resort, its economy depends on its harbour and visitor attractions. Weymouth Harbour has included cross-channel ferries, is home to pleasure boats and private yachts, nearby Portland Harbour is home to the Weymouth and Portland National Sailing Academy, where the sailing events of the 2012 Olympic Games and Paralympic Games were held; the A354 road bridge connects Weymouth to Portland, which together form the borough of Weymouth and Portland. The history of the borough stretches back to the 12th century. Weymouth originated as a settlement on a constricted site to the south and west of Weymouth Harbour, an outlying part of Wyke Regis.
The town developed from the mid 12th century was not noted until the 13th century. By 1252 it became a chartered borough. Melcombe Regis developed separately on the peninsula to the north of the harbour. French raiders found the port so accessible. Melcombe Regis is thought to be the first port at which the Black Death came into England in June 1348 either aboard a spice ship or an army ship. In their early history Weymouth and Melcombe Regis were rivals for trade and industry, but the towns were united in an Act of Parliament in 1571 to form a double borough. Both towns have become known despite Melcombe Regis being the main centre; the villages of Upwey, Preston, Wyke Regis, Southill and Littlemoor have become part of the built-up area. King Henry VIII had two Device Forts built to protect the south Dorset coast from invasion in the 1530s: Sandsfoot Castle in Wyke Regis and Portland Castle in Castletown. Parts of Sandsfoot have fallen into the sea due to coastal erosion. During the English Civil War, around 250 people were killed in the local Crabchurch Conspiracy in February 1645.
In 1635, on board the ship Charity, around 100 emigrants from the town crossed the Atlantic Ocean and settled in Weymouth, Massachusetts. More townspeople emigrated to the Americas to bolster the population of Weymouth, Nova Scotia and Salem, Massachusetts. There are memorials to this on the side of Weymouth Harbour and near to Weymouth Pavilion and Weymouth Sea Life Tower; the architect Sir Christopher Wren was the Member of Parliament for Weymouth in 1702, controlled nearby Portland's quarries from 1675 to 1717. When he designed St Paul's Cathedral, Wren had it built out of Portland Stone, the famous stone of Portland's quarries. Sir James Thornhill was born in the White Hart public house in Melcombe Regis and became the town's MP in 1722. Thornhill became an artist, coincidentally decorated the interior of St Paul's Cathedral; the resort is among the first modern tourist destinations, after King George III's brother the Duke of Gloucester built a grand residence there, Gloucester Lodge, passed the mild winter there in 1780.
A painted statue of the King stands on the seafront, called the King's Statue, renovated in 2007/8 by stripping 20 layers of paintwork, replacing it with new paints and gold leaf, replacing the iron framework with a stainless steel one. A mounted white horse representing the King is carved into the chalk hills of Osmington. Weymouth's esplanade is composed of Georgian terraces, which have been converted into apartments, shops and guest houses; the buildings were constructed in the Georgian and Regency periods between 1770 and 1855, designed by architects such as James Hamilton, were commissioned by wealthy businessmen, including those that were involved in the growth of Bath. These terraces form a continuous arc of buildings which face Weymouth Bay along the esplanade; the earliest purpose-built hotel there was the first incarnation of the Royal Hotel. The esplanade features the multi-coloured Jubilee Clock, erected in 1887 to mark the 50th year of Queen Victoria's reign. Statues of Victoria, George III and Sir Henry Edwards, Member of Parliament for the borough from 1867 to 1885, two war memorials stand along the Esplanade.
In the centre of the town lies Weymouth Harbour. Since the 18th century they have been linked by successive bridges over the narrowest part of the harbour; the present Town Bridge, built in 1930, is a lifting bascule bridge allowing boats to access the inner harbour. The Royal National Lifeboat Institution stationed a lifeboat at Weymouth for the first time on 26 January 1869. A boathouse was built with a slipway by the harbour and is still in use, although the lifeboat is now moored at a pontoon. During World War I 120,000 ANZAC personnel convalesced in Weymouth after being injured at Gallipoli or other theatres
Ringwood is a market town in Hampshire, England, on the River Avon, close to the New Forest and northeast of Bournemouth. It was founded by the Anglo-Saxons, has held a weekly market since the Middle Ages; the town is on the border with Dorset. Ringwood is recorded in a charter of 961, in which King Edgar, gave 22 hides of land in Rimecuda to Abingdon Abbey; the name is recorded in the 10th century as Runcwuda and Rimucwuda. The second element Wuda means a'wood'; the name may refer to Ringwood's position on the fringe of the New Forest, or on the border of Hampshire. William Camden in 1607 gave a much more fanciful derivation, claiming that the original name was Regne-wood, the "Regni" being an ancient people of Britain. In the Domesday Book of 1086, Ringwood had been appropriated by the Crown and all but six hides taken into the New Forest. Prior to 1066 Ringwood had been held by Earl Tostig. During the 12th and early 13th centuries Ringwood, like other manors of which John and Henry III had the immediate overlordship changed hands.
Thus it was held by Roland de Dinan, a Breton lord, in 1167. In January 1331, Ringwood and other manors which Isabella had surrendered were granted to William Montagu, 1st Earl of Salisbury, whose descendants with some intermission held it for more than two centuries, until the death of Margaret Pole, Countess of Salisbury in 1541, it was held by Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset until his execution in 1552, briefly by John Gates, executed in 1553. Queen Mary granted the lands to Francis Hastings, 2nd Earl of Huntingdon, but by the middle of the 17th century the manor had passed to the Arundells of Wardour, in 1728 was in the hands of Henry Arundell, 6th Baron Arundell of Wardour, his grandson, the eighth Baron, sold it in 1794 to John Morant of Brockenhurst, the Morant family held the manor throughout the 19th century. In 1108, it was recorded that the tenants of the "manor of Ringwood and Harbridge" had common rights in the New Forest, among the knights and esquires, for their farm beasts and plough beasts between "Teg att Brokelisford" and "Ostaven" and in the vill of Beaulieu for all their livestock except goats and geese: for this they paid the King an annual agistment.
A valuation of the manor made at the end of the 13th century records the tenants services included mowing the lord's meadow, haymaking on eight acres in "Muchelmershe," carting the hay and making a rick. A mill in Ringwood is mentioned in the Domesday Book and there were two. In March 1226 Henry III granted a weekly market in Ringwood on Wednesdays to Richard Marshal, 3rd Earl of Pembroke and Gervaise his wife to hold until the King should come of age. In 1337 the Earl of Salisbury, as lord of Ringwood Manor, was granted a yearly fair on the feast-day of Saint Andrew. There was another fair held on the feast of Saint Peter in the 16th century. After the Battle of Sedgemoor on 6 July 1685, James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth was arrested near Horton, Dorset. Monmouth is believed to have hidden in a ditch under an ash tree disguised as a shepherd, but was betrayed by a local woman who, according to legend killed herself in remorse. Monmouth was taken to the house now named Monmouth House in West Street.
It was there. This was not granted, he was brought to trial in the Tower of London by the infamous "Hanging Judge Jefferies". After the Battle of Sedgemoor, an elderly local lady, Alice Lisle, gave refuge to two wanted men who were escaping the battle; when her home, Moyles Court, was raided, the men were found and Alice was arrested. She was sentenced by the same Judge Jefferies to be burned at the stake, she is buried at St Mary's Church, one mile from her Moyles Court home. Her tomb can be found to the right of the church entrance. There is now a pub called the Alice Lisle near Moyles Court; the Town Hall was erected by John Morant in 1868. The town was famous in the 19th century for its "Ringwood" woollen gloves, there was a large linen collar and cuff factory here; the site of Royal Air Force Station Ibsley, in use during World War II, is located on the outskirts of the Ringwood hamlet of Poulner. This site has been used for motor-racing as Ibsley Circuit and today is a quarry lake area. Ringwood is a town on the east bank of the River Avon in Hampshire.
The parish includes the hamlets of Poulner, Hightown, Crow and Bisterne. Ringwood has a weekly market in the traditional market place. A cattle market ran until 1989 in the Furlong, now home to a Waitrose supermarket, coffee shops and fashion outlets. Ringwood was noted as the second most expensive market town in England in July 2008 with average property prices of over £380,000. Ringwood is the home of the Ringwood Brewery, which produces a variety of cask ales and runs five pubs in the local ar
Poole is a large coastal town and seaport in Dorset, on the south coast of England. The town is 33 kilometres east of Dorchester, adjoins Bournemouth to the east. Since 1 April 2019 the local authority is Bournemouth and Poole Council, a unitary authority. Poole had an estimated population of 151,500 making it the second largest town in ceremonial county of Dorset. Together with Bournemouth and Christchurch, Poole has a total population of over 465,000. Human settlement in the area dates back to before the Iron Age; the earliest recorded use of the town's name was in the 12th century when the town began to emerge as an important port, prospering with the introduction of the wool trade. The town had important trade links with North America and, at its peak during the 18th century, it was one of the busiest ports in Britain. In the Second World War, Poole was one of the main departing points for the Normandy landings. Poole is a tourist resort, attracting visitors with its large natural harbour, the Lighthouse arts centre and Blue Flag beaches.
The town has a commercial port with cross-Channel passenger ferry services. The headquarters of the Royal National Lifeboat Institution are in Poole, the Royal Marines have a base in the town's harbour. Despite their names, Poole is the home of The Arts University Bournemouth, the Bournemouth Symphony Orchestra and a significant part of Bournemouth University; the town's name derives from a corruption of the Celtic word bol and the Old English word pool meaning a place near a pool or creek. Variants include Pool, Poles, Polle and Poolman; the area around modern Poole has been inhabited for the past 2,500 years. During the 3rd century BC, Celts known as the Durotriges moved from hilltop settlements at Maiden Castle and Badbury Rings to heathland around the River Frome and Poole Harbour; the Romans landed at Poole during their conquest of Britain in the 1st century and took over an Iron Age settlement at Hamworthy, an area just west of the modern town centre. In Anglo-Saxon times, Poole was included in the Kingdom of Wessex.
The settlement was used as a base for fishing and the harbour a place for ships to anchor on their way to the River Frome and the important Anglo-Saxon town of Wareham. Poole experienced two large-scale Viking invasions during this era: in 876, Guthrum sailed his fleet through the harbour to attack Wareham, in 1015, Canute began his conquest of England in Poole Harbour, using it as a base to raid and pillage Wessex. Following the Norman conquest of England, Poole grew into a busy port as the importance of Wareham declined; the town was part of the manor of Canford, but does not exist as an identifiable entry in the Domesday Book. The earliest written mention of Poole occurred on a document from 1196 describing the newly built St James's Chapel in "La Pole"; the Lord of the Manor, Sir William Longspée, sold a charter of liberties to the burgesses of Poole in 1248 to raise funds for his participation in the Seventh Crusade. Poole gained a small measure of freedom from feudal rule and acquired the right to appoint a mayor and hold a court within town.
Poole's growing importance was recognised in 1433 when it was awarded staple port status by King Henry VI, enabling the port to begin exporting wool and in turn granting a licence for the construction of a town wall. In 1568, Poole gained further autonomy when it was granted legal independence from Dorset and made a county corporate by the Great Charter of Elizabeth I. During the English Civil War, Poole's puritan stance and its merchants' opposition to the ship money tax introduced by King Charles I led to the town declaring for Parliament. Poole escaped any large-scale attack and with the Royalists on the brink of defeat in 1646, the Parliamentary garrison from Poole laid siege to and captured the nearby Royalist stronghold at Corfe Castle. Poole established successful commerce with the North American colonies in the 16th century, including the important fisheries of Newfoundland. Trade with Newfoundland grew to meet the demand for fish from the Catholic countries of Europe. Poole's share of this trade varied but the most prosperous period started in the early 18th century and lasted until the early 19th century.
The trade followed a three-cornered route. By the early 18th century Poole had more ships trading with North America than any other English port and vast wealth was brought to Poole's merchants; this prosperity supported much of the development which now characterises the Old Town where many of the medieval buildings were replaced with Georgian mansions and terraced housing. The end of the Napoleonic Wars and the conclusion of the War of 1812 ended Britain's monopoly over the Newfoundland fisheries and other nations took over services provided by Poole's merchants at a lower cost. Poole's Newfoundland trade declined and within a decade most merchants had ceased trading; the town grew during the industrial revolution as urbanisation took place and the town became an area of mercantile prosperity and overcrowded poverty. At the turn of the 19th century, nine out of ten workers were engaged in harbour activities, but as the century progressed ships became too large for the shallow harbour and the port lost business to the deep water ports at Liverpool and Plymouth.
Poole's first railway station opened in Hamworthy in 1847 and extended to the centre of Poole in 1872 ending the port's busy coastal shipping trade. The beaches and landscape of southern Dorset and south-west Hampshire began to attract tourists during
Dorchester is the county town of Dorset, England. It is situated between Bridport on the A35 trunk route. A historic market town, Dorchester is on the banks of the River Frome to the south of the Dorset Downs and north of the South Dorset Ridgeway that separates the area from Weymouth, 7 miles to the south; the area around the town was first settled in prehistoric times. The Romans established a garrison there after defeating the Durotriges tribe, calling the settlement that grew up nearby Durnovaria. After the departure of the Romans, the town diminished in significance, but during the medieval period became an important commercial and political centre, it was the site of the "Bloody Assizes" presided over by Judge Jeffreys after the Monmouth Rebellion, the trial of the Tolpuddle Martyrs. In the 2011 census, the population of Dorchester was 19,060, with further people coming from surrounding areas to work in the town which has six industrial estates; the Brewery Square redevelopment project is taking place in phases, with other development projects planned.
The town has a land-based college, Kingston Maurward College, the Thomas Hardye Upper School, three middle schools and thirteen first schools. The Dorset County Hospital offers an accident and emergency service, the town is served by two railway stations. Through vehicular traffic is routed round the town by means of a bypass; the town has a football club and a rugby union club, several museums and the biannual Dorchester Festival. It is twinned with three towns in Europe; as well as having many listed buildings, a number of notable people have been associated with the town. It was for many years the home and inspiration of the author Thomas Hardy, whose novel The Mayor of Casterbridge uses a fictionalised version of Dorchester as its setting. Dorchester's roots stem back to prehistoric times; the earliest settlements were about 2 miles southwest of the modern town centre in the vicinity of Maiden Castle, a large Iron Age hill fort, one of the most powerful settlements in pre-Roman Britain. Different tribes lived there from 4000 BC.
The Durotriges were to have been there when the Romans arrived in Britain in 43 AD. The Romans defeated the local tribes by 70 AD and established a garrison that became the town the Romans named Durnovaria, a Brythonic name incorporating durn, "fist", loosely interpreted as'place with fist-sized pebbles', it appears to have taken part of its name from the local Durotriges tribe. Durnovaria was recorded in the 4th-century Antonine Itinerary and became a market centre for the surrounding countryside, an important road junction and staging post, subsequently one of the twin capitals of the Celtic Durotriges tribe; the remains of the Roman walls that surrounded the town can still be seen. The majority have been replaced by pathways that form a square inside modern Dorchester known as'The Walks'. A small segment of the original wall remains near the Top'o Town roundabout. Other Roman remains include part of the town walls and the foundations of a town house near the county hall. Modern building works within the walls have unearthed.
Other Roman finds include silver and copper coins known as Dorn pennies, a gold ring, a bronze figure of the Roman god Mercury and large areas of tessellated pavement. The County Museum contains many Roman artefacts; the Romans built an aqueduct to supply the town with water. It was rediscovered in 1900 as the remains of a channel cut into the chalk and contouring round the hills; the source is believed to be the River Frome at Notton, about 12 miles upstream from Dorchester. Near the town centre is Maumbury Rings, an ancient British henge earthwork converted by the Romans for use as an amphitheatre, to the north west is Poundbury Hill, another pre-Roman fortification. Little evidence exists to suggest continued occupation after the withdrawal of the Roman administration from Britain; the name Durnovaria survived into Old Welsh as Durngueir, recorded by Asser in the 9th century. The area remained in British hands until the mid-7th century and there was continuity of use of the Roman cemetery at nearby Poundbury.
Dorchester has been suggested as the centre of a sub-kingdom of Dumnonia or other regional power base. One of the first raids of the Viking era may have taken place near Dorchester around 790. According to a chronicler, the King's reeve assembled a few men and sped to meet them thinking that they were merchants from another country; when he arrived at their location, he admonished them and instructed that they should be brought to the royal town. The Vikings slaughtered him and his men. By 864, the area around Durnovaria was dominated by the Saxons who referred to themselves as Dorsaetas,'People of the Dor' – Durnovaria; the original local name would have been Dorn-gweir giving the Old English Dornwary. The town became known as Dornwaraceaster or Dornwaracester, combining the original name Dor/Dorn from the Latin and Celtic languages with cester, an Old English word for a Roman station; this name evolved over time to Dorchester. At the time of the Norman conquest, Dorchester was not a place of great significance.
A priory was founded, in 1364, though this has since disappeared. In the medieval period the town prospered. In the time of Edward III, the town was governed by bailiffs and burgesses, with the number of