The Salford Hundred is one of the subdivisions of the historic county of Lancashire, in Northern England. Its name alludes to its judicial centre being the township of Salford, it is known as the Royal Manor of Salford and the Salford wapentake. The Manor or Hundred of Salford had Anglo-Saxon origins; the Domesday Book recorded. Salford was recorded as part of the territory of Inter Ripam et Mersam or "Between Ribble and Mersey", it was included with the information about Cheshire, though it cannot be said to have been part of Cheshire; the area became a subdivision of the County Palatine of Lancaster on its creation in 1182. In spite of its incorporation into Lancashire, Salford Hundred retained a separate jurisdiction for the administration of justice, known as the Court Leet, View of frankpledge, Court of Record of our Sovereign Lord the King for his Hundred or Wapentake of Salford. Exceptionally for hundred courts, Salford survived until the 19th century; the lordship of Salford passed with the Duchy of Lancaster to the Crown, a serjeant or bailiff was appointed to administer the hundred on the king's behalf.
In 1436 the office of Hereditary Steward of the Wapentake of Salfordshire was granted to Sir Robert Molyneux of Sefton. The office was held by Sir Robert's successors, the Earls of Sefton until 1972; the Portmote of the Borough of Salford merged with the Hundred Court in the 17th century, the latter body took over the administrative business of the manorial borough. In 1792 police commissioners were established in Manchester and Salford, the Hundred Court was left with few powers. By 1828 the activities of the court consisted of the following: A twice-yearly meeting of jury-men chose the borough reeve of Salford, along with two constables, a dog-muzzler, ale-taster and inspectors of flesh and fish for the town; the meeting appointed constables in those townships that did not possess their own court leet. In these townships it possessed powers to deal with noxious smells and smoke from factories, clearing obstructions of the highway, fencing of roads, foul ditches and enforcement of weights and measures.
A three-weekly court for the recovery of debts of less than forty shillings. These were held every third Thursday by one of three deputy stewards appointed by the Earl of Sefton. In 1846 the court was reformed to become a Court of Record with its jurisdiction extended to debts not exceeding fifty pounds in value. In 1838 Manchester was granted its own court of record; the two courts were merged as the Salford Hundred Court of Record in 1869 by the Salford Hundred Court of Record Act 1868. The court had jurisdiction in personal actions only; the municipal boroughs of Oldham, Bolton and Rochdale successively had their areas exempted from the jurisdiction of the Hundred Court by Order in Council or private Act of Parliament between 1878 and 1893. In 1910 a committee was appointed by the Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster to report on the practices and jurisdiction of the court, whether it was "of benefit to the parties for whose use it was intended". One member of the three-man committee recommended the abolition of the court which had "little but its age to justify its continuance", while the majority called for amending legislation.
Accordingly, the Salford Hundred Court of Record Act 1911 was passed to restrict the area of the court to the county court areas of Manchester and Salford and to alter its procedures and costs. Forty years the court was again referred to a review committee; the committee's report recommended that the court be retained as it provided "a popular and speedy remedy for a large number of litigants in the area". In 1956 the court's area was extended to encompass the entire County Borough of Stockport, deemed to belong to the County of Lancashire and the Hundred of Salford for the purposes of assizes, quarter sessions and licensing; the Court of Record for the Hundred of Salford was abolished by section 43 of the Courts Act 1971. The last hereditary steward, Hugh Molyneux, 7th Earl of Sefton died on 13 April 1972. Separate places of detention were maintained for the hundred: the New Bailey Prison in Salford, replaced by Strangeways Prison in 1868; the area it occupied, 212,170 acres, corresponds loosely to the modern metropolitan county of Greater Manchester, though excludes those parts from the historic county boundaries of Cheshire, as well as most of that that forms the modern Metropolitan Borough of Wigan.
Its area extended into territory north of what is now Greater Manchester, including parts of Rossendale and Todmorden. The parish of Manchester formed part of Salfordshire, it has been suggested that a Manchester-shire hundred was not favoured over one centred at Salford because Manchester had been ravaged as part of the Viking occupation. The parish of Rochdale, in Salfordshire, included the chapelry of Saddleworth from the historic county boundaries of Yorkshire. Salfordshire comprised several townships during its history; these were not static, but fragmented with the establishment of daughter churches and chapels and increases in population. The parish of Prestwich-cum-Oldham included the parishes of Bury and Radcliffe, the parish of Manchester included the parish of Ashton-under-Lyne; the township of Hundersfield was one of Rochdale parish's four original townships, but was itself split into four. Prestwich-cum-Oldham was split into two separate parishes of Prestwich an
Stretford (UK Parliament constituency)
Stretford was a parliamentary constituency in North West England, which returned one Member of Parliament to the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. The constituency was created for the 1885 general election, abolished for the 1997 general election; the constituency was centred on the town of Stretford and included an area to the south west of the city of Manchester. The boundaries changed over its existence, at times extending east to include parts of the city itself and at other times including the towns of Irlam and Urmston to the west; the Stretford Division of the County of Lancashire was formed by the Redistribution of Seats Act 1885. The constituency consisted of a number of civil parishes and townships to the south and south-east of the city of Manchester and north-east of the borough of Stockport: Burnage Chorlton-cum-Hardy Didsbury The portion of Heaton Norris outside the Borough of Stockport Levenshulme Reddish Rusholme Stretford WithingtonAn extension of the boundaries of Manchester meant that Rusholme became part of the city in 1885.
A further enlargement saw Burnage, Chorlton-cum-Hardy and Withington included in Manchester in 1904. The County Borough of Stockport was enlarged to include Reddish in 1901 and Heaton Norris in 1913; these local government boundary changes did not affect the constituency until the next parliamentary redistribution in 1918. The Representation of the People Act 1918 reorganised constituencies throughout the United Kingdom. A new Stretford Division of Lancashire was formed; the areas in Manchester and Stockport passed to the Manchester Rusholme, Manchester Withington and Stockport constituencies. The new Stretford constituency included areas further to the west and was defined as consisting of the following local government units of the administrative county of Lancashire: The urban districts of Irlam and Urmston The civil parish of Astley in Leigh Rural District The civil parish of Clifton in Barton upon Irwell Rural District For the 1950 general election, a new Stretford borough constituency was created.
The constituency comprised the urban district of Urmston. The Astley area passed to the Leigh borough constituency and Clifton to the Farnworth county constituency. Constituencies were redrawn for the 1983 general election to reflect the changes in local government in 1974. A new Stretford borough constituency, part of the Greater Manchester parliamentary county, was formed; the new constituency consisted of two wards of the City of Manchester, five wards from the Metropolitan Borough of Trafford. The Manchester wards were Moss Side and Whalley Range, the Trafford wards were Clifford, Park and Talbot. Urmston became part of the new constituency of Davyhulme; the Parliamentary Constituencies Order 1995, which came into effect for the 1997 general election, abolished the Stretford constituency. The area was redistributed, with Moss Side and Whalley Range added to an enlarged Manchester Central seat; the remainder became part of Urmston constituency. The last MP for Stretford, Tony Lloyd, was subsequently elected as the Member of Parliament for Manchester Central.
Maclure died 28 January 1901. * Robinson stood as an'Independent Free Trade and Anti-Socialist' candidate, but he was claimed as a Liberal candidate and has thus been denoted as such. Crossley died in an aeroplane crash off the coast of Denmark on 15 August 1939; the sitting MP, Winston Churchill, moved to the newly created Davyhulme constituency
Middleton (UK Parliament constituency)
Middleton was a county constituency in the county of Lancashire of the House of Commons for the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Created by the Redistribution of Seats Act 1885, it was represented by one Member of Parliament; the constituency was abolished in 1918. The Redistribution of Seats Act 1885 provided that the constituency was to consist of "The Sessional Division of Middleton, the Municipal Borough of Rochdale, the Parishes of Alkrington and Tonge, in the Sessional Division of Bury so much of the Parish of Hopwood as is not included in the Municipal Borough of Heywood." Fielden's death caused a by-election. Adkins was required to seek re-election. General Election 1914/15: Another General Election was required to take place before the end of 1915; the political parties had been making preparations for an election to take place and by the July 1914, the following candidates had been selected.
Heywood (UK Parliament constituency)
Heywood was a county constituency in the county of Lancashire of the House of Commons for the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Created by the Redistribution of Seats Act 1885, it was represented by one Member of Parliament; the constituency was abolished in 1918. This area had been represented as part of the South East Lancashire multi-seat division; the Redistribution of Seats Act 1885 divided the former constituency into eight new single-member seats, one of, designated South-East Lancashire, Heywood Division. The constituency comprised the Municipal Borough of Heywood, the cotton town of Ramsbottom, a number of surrounding townships, namely: Ainsworth, Pilkington, Tottington Higher End and the rural part of the parish of Spotland; the constituency was industrial but it included some agriculture. The town of Heywood was the most Liberal part of the constituency, having an engineering-based economy; the countryside element of the constituency was Conservative inclined. Overall the division was Liberal 1885–1895, Liberal Unionist 1895–1904 and after a change of allegiance by the sitting MP was Liberal again from 1904 until the constituency was abolished in 1918.
The constituency adjoined Westhoughton to the west, Rossendale to the north and Rochdale to the east as well as Radcliffe-cum-Farnworth and another part of the Middleton constituency to the south. The Representation of the People Act 1918 abolished this constituency; the successor seat was Radcliffe. General Election 1914/15: Another General Election was required to take place before the end of 1915; the political parties had been making preparations for an election to take place and by the July 1914, the following candidates had been selected. W. S. Craig British Parliamentary Election Results 1885–1918, compiled and edited by F. W. S. Craig Social Geography of British Elections 1885–1910. By Henry Pelling Who's Who of British Members of Parliament, Volume II 1886–1918, edited by M. Stenton and S. Lees Who's Who of British Members of Parliament, Volume III 1919–1945, edited by M. Stenton and S. Lees
Parliament of the United Kingdom
The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland known internationally as the UK Parliament, British Parliament, or Westminster Parliament, domestically as Parliament, is the supreme legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies and the British Overseas Territories. It alone possesses legislative supremacy and thereby ultimate power over all other political bodies in the UK and the overseas territories. Parliament is bicameral but has three parts, consisting of the Sovereign, the House of Lords, the House of Commons; the two houses meet in the Palace of Westminster in the City of Westminster, one of the inner boroughs of the capital city, London. The House of Lords includes two different types of members: the Lords Spiritual, consisting of the most senior bishops of the Church of England, the Lords Temporal, consisting of life peers, appointed by the Sovereign on the advice of the Prime Minister, of 92 hereditary peers, sitting either by virtue of holding a royal office, or by being elected by their fellow hereditary peers.
Prior to the opening of the Supreme Court in October 2009, the House of Lords performed a judicial role through the Law Lords. The House of Commons is an elected chamber with elections to 650 single member constituencies held at least every five years under the first-past-the-post system; the two Houses meet in separate chambers in the Palace of Westminster in London. By constitutional convention, all government ministers, including the Prime Minister, are members of the House of Commons or, less the House of Lords and are thereby accountable to the respective branches of the legislature. Most cabinet ministers are from the Commons, whilst junior ministers can be from either House. However, the Leader of the House of Lords must be a peer; the Parliament of Great Britain was formed in 1707 following the ratification of the Treaty of Union by Acts of Union passed by the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland, both Acts of Union stating, "That the United Kingdom of Great Britain be represented by one and the same Parliament to be styled The Parliament of Great Britain".
At the start of the 19th century, Parliament was further enlarged by Acts of Union ratified by the Parliament of Great Britain and the Parliament of Ireland that abolished the latter and added 100 Irish MPs and 32 Lords to the former to create the Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. The Royal and Parliamentary Titles Act 1927 formally amended the name to the "Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland", five years after the secession of the Irish Free State in 1922. With the global expansion of the British Empire, the UK Parliament has shaped the political systems of many countries as ex-colonies and so it has been called the "Mother of Parliaments". However, John Bright – who coined the epithet – used it in reference to the political culture of "England" rather than just the parliamentary system. In theory, the UK's supreme legislative power is vested in the Crown-in-Parliament. However, the Crown acts on the advice of the Prime Minister and the powers of the House of Lords are limited to only delaying legislation.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was created on 1 January 1801, by the merger of the Kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland under the Acts of Union 1800. The principle of ministerial responsibility to the lower House did not develop until the 19th century—the House of Lords was superior to the House of Commons both in theory and in practice. Members of the House of Commons were elected in an antiquated electoral system, under which constituencies of vastly different sizes existed. Thus, the borough of Old Sarum, with seven voters, could elect two members, as could the borough of Dunwich, which had completely disappeared into the sea due to land erosion. Many small constituencies, known as pocket or rotten boroughs, were controlled by members of the House of Lords, who could ensure the election of their relatives or supporters. During the reforms of the 19th century, beginning with the Reform Act 1832, the electoral system for the House of Commons was progressively regularised.
No longer dependent on the Lords for their seats, MPs grew more assertive. The supremacy of the British House of Commons was reaffirmed in the early 20th century. In 1909, the Commons passed the so-called "People's Budget", which made numerous changes to the taxation system which were detrimental to wealthy landowners; the House of Lords, which consisted of powerful landowners, rejected the Budget. On the basis of the Budget's popularity and the Lords' consequent unpopularity, the Liberal Party narrowly won two general elections in 1910. Using the result as a mandate, the Liberal Prime Minister, Herbert Henry Asquith, introduced the Parliament Bill, which sought to restrict the powers of the House of Lords; when the Lords refused to pass the bill, Asquith countered with a promise extracted from the King in secret before the second general election of 1910 and requested the creation of several hundred Liberal peers, so as to erase the Conservative majority in the House of Lords. In the face of such a threat, the House of Lords narrowly passed the bill.
The Parliament Act 1911, as it became, prevented the Lords from blocking a money bill, allowed them to delay any other bill for a maximum of three sessions, after which it could become law over their objections. However, regardless of the Parliament Acts of 1911 and 1949, t
House of Commons of the United Kingdom
The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Like the upper house, the House of Lords, it meets in the Palace of Westminster; the full name of the house is the Honourable the Commons of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Parliament assembled. Owing to shortage of space, its office accommodation extends into Portcullis House; the Commons is an elected body consisting of 650 members known as Members of Parliament. Members are elected to represent constituencies by the first-past-the-post system and hold their seats until Parliament is dissolved; the House of Commons of England started to evolve in 14th centuries. It became the House of Commons of Great Britain after the political union with Scotland in 1707, assumed the title of "House of Commons of Great Britain and Ireland" after the political union with Ireland at the start of the 19th century; the "United Kingdom" referred to was the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 1800, became the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland after the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922.
Accordingly, the House of Commons assumed its current title. Under the Parliament Act 1911, the Lords' power to reject legislation was reduced to a delaying power; the Government is responsible to the House of Commons and the Prime Minister stays in office only as long as she or he retains the confidence of a majority of the Commons. Although it does not formally elect the prime minister, the position of the parties in the House of Commons is of overriding importance. By convention, the prime minister is answerable to, must maintain the support of, the House of Commons. Thus, whenever the office of prime minister falls vacant, the Sovereign appoints the person who has the support of the House, or, most to command the support of the House—normally the leader of the largest party in the Commons, while the leader of the second-largest party becomes the Leader of the Opposition. Since 1963, by convention, the prime minister is always a member of the House of Commons, rather than the House of Lords.
The Commons may indicate its lack of support for the Government by rejecting a motion of confidence or by passing a motion of no confidence. Confidence and no confidence motions are phrased explicitly, for instance: "That this House has no confidence in Her Majesty's Government." Many other motions were until recent decades considered confidence issues though not explicitly phrased as such: in particular, important bills that were part of the Government's agenda. The annual Budget is still considered a matter of confidence; when a Government has lost the confidence of the House of Commons, the prime minister is obliged either to resign, making way for another MP who can command confidence, or to request the monarch to dissolve Parliament, thereby precipitating a general election. Parliament sits for a maximum term of five years. Subject to that limit, the prime minister could choose the timing of the dissolution of parliament, with the permission of the Monarch. However, since the Fixed-Term Parliaments Act 2011, terms are now a fixed five years, an early general election is brought about by a two-thirds majority in favour of a motion for a dissolution, or by a vote of no confidence, not followed within fourteen days by a vote of confidence.
By this second mechanism, the UK's government can change its political composition without an intervening general election. Only four of the eight last Prime Ministers have attained office as the immediate result of a general election; the latter four were Jim Callaghan, John Major, Gordon Brown and the current Prime Minister Theresa May. In such circumstances there may not have been an internal party leadership election, as the new leader may be chosen by acclaim, having no electoral rival. A prime minister will resign after party defeat at an election if unable to lead a coalition, or obtain a confidence and supply arrangement, she or he may resign after a motion of no confidence or for health reasons. In such cases, the premiership goes to, it has become the practice to write the constitution of major UK political parties to provide a set way in which to appoint a new leader. Until 1965, the Conservative Party had no fixed mechanism for this, it fell to the Queen to appoint Harold Macmillan as the new prime minister, after taking the consensus of cabinet ministers.
By convention, ministers are members of the House of House of Lords. A handful have been appointed who were outside Parliament, but in most cases they entered Parliament in a by-election or by receiving a peerage. Exceptions include Peter Mandelson, appointed Secretary of State for Business and Regulatory Reform in October 2008 before his peerage. Since 1902, all prime ministers have been members of the Commons; the new session of Parliament was delayed to await the outcome of his by-election, which happened
1880 United Kingdom general election
The 1880 United Kingdom general election was a general election in the United Kingdom held from 31 March to 27 April 1880. Intense rhetoric of the election was provided by the Midlothian campaign of the Liberals, led by the fierce oratory of Liberal leader William Ewart Gladstone. Gladstone vehemently attacked the foreign policy of the government of Benjamin Disraeli, Earl of Beaconsfield, as utterly immoral; the Liberals secured one of their largest-ever majorities in the election, leaving the Conservatives a distant second. As a result of the campaign, the Liberal leaders, Lord Hartington and Lord Granville, withdrew in favour of Gladstone, who thus became Prime Minister a second time; the Conservative government was doomed by the poor condition of the British economy and the vulnerability of its foreign policy to moralistic attacks by the Liberals. Gladstone, appealing to moralistic evangelicals, led the attack on the foreign policy of Disraeli as immoral. Historian Paul Smith paraphrases the rhetorical tone which focused on attacking "Beaconsfieldism" as a:Sinister system of policy, which not involved the country in immoral and expensive external adventures, inimical to peace and to the rights of small peoples, but aimed at nothing less than the subversion of parliamentary government in favour of some simulacrum of the oriental despotism its creator was alleged to admire.
Smith notes that there was indeed some substance to the allegations, but: "Most of this was partisan extravaganza, worthy of its target's own excursions against the Whigs." Disraeli himself was now the Earl of Beaconsfield in the House of Lords, custom did not allow peers to campaign. His party was unable to deal with the rhetorical onslaught. Although he had improved the organisation of the Conservative Party, Disraeli was based in the rural gentry, had little contact with or understanding of the urban middle class, dominating his party. Besides issues of foreign policy more important thing Conservatives were unable to defend their economic record on the home front; the 1870s coincided with a long term global depression caused by the collapse of the worldwide railway boom of the 1870s, so profitable to Britain. The stress was growing by the late 1870s; the free trade system supported by both parties made Britain defenceless against the flood of cheap wheat from North America, exacerbated by the worst harvest of the century in Britain in 1879.
The party in power got the blame, Liberals emphasised the growing budget deficit as a measure of bad stewardship. In the election itself, Disraeli's party lost up and down the line in Scotland and Ireland, in the urban boroughs, his Conservative strength fell from 351 to 238, while the Liberals jumped from 250 to 353. Disraeli resigned on 21 April 1880. Spartacus: Political Parties and Election Results