German orthography is the orthography used in writing the German language, phonemic. However, it shows many instances of spellings that are historic or analogous to other spellings rather than phonemic; the pronunciation of every word can be derived from its spelling once the spelling rules are known, but the opposite is not the case. Today, German orthography is regulated by the Rat für deutsche Rechtschreibung, composed of representatives from most German-speaking countries; the modern German alphabet consists of the twenty-six letters of the ISO basic Latin alphabet plus four special letters. ^ In the spelling alphabet, for ⟨ch⟩, Charlotte is used. For the trigraph ⟨sch⟩, Schule is used. German uses three letter-diacritic combinations using the umlaut and one ligature which are considered distinct letters of the alphabet; the capital ẞ was declared an official letter of the German alphabet on 29 June 2017. In the past, long s was used as well, as in many other European languages. While the Council for German Orthography considers Ä/ä, Ö/ö, Ü/ü, ẞ/ß distinct letters, disagreement on how to categorize and count them has led to a dispute over the exact number of letters the German alphabet has, the number ranging between 26 and 30.
The diacritic letters ä, ö and ü are used to indicate the presence of umlauts. Before the introduction of the printing press, frontalization was indicated by placing an e after the back vowel to be modified, but German printers developed the space-saving typographical convention of replacing the full e with a small version placed above the vowel to be modified. In German Kurrent writing, the superscripted e was simplified to two vertical dashes, which have further been reduced to dots in both handwriting and German typesetting. Although the two dots of umlaut look like those in the diaeresis, the two have different origins and functions; when it is not possible to use the umlauts the characters Ä, Ö, Ü, ä, ö, ü should be transcribed as Ae, Oe, Ue, ae, oe, ue following the earlier postvocalic-e convention. However, such transcription should be avoided if possible with names. Names exist in different variants, such as "Müller" and "Mueller", with such transcriptions in use one could not work out the correct spelling of the name.
Automatic back-transcribing is not only wrong for names. Consider, for example, das neue Buch; this should never be changed to das neü Buch, as the second e is separate from the u and does not belong in the same syllable. The word neü does not exist in German. Furthermore, in northern and western Germany, there are family names and place names in which e lengthens the preceding vowel, as in the former Dutch orthography, such as Straelen, pronounced with a long a, not an ä. Similar cases are Bernkastel-Kues. In proper names and ethnonyms, there may appear a rare ë and ï, which are not letters with an umlaut, but a diaeresis, used as in French to distinguish what could be a digraph, for example, ai in Karaïmen, eu in Alëuten, ie in Ferdinand Piëch, oe in Clemens von Loë and Bernhard Hoëcker, ue in Niuë. A diaeresis may be used in some well-known names, i.e.: Italiën. To separate the au diphthong, as well as some others, which are graphically composed of umlaut-holding letters, the acute accent is sometimes used.
Swiss typewriters and computer keyboards do not allow easy input of uppercase letters with umlauts because their positions are taken by the most frequent French diacritics. Uppercase umlauts were dropped. Geographical names in particular are supposed to be written with A, O, U plus e except "Österreich"; the omission can cause some inconvenience since the first letter of every noun is capitalized in German. Unlike in Hungarian, the exact shape of the umlaut diacritics – when handwritten – is not important, because they are the only ones in the language, they will be understood whether they look like dots, acute accents, vertical bars, a horizontal bar, a breve, a tiny N or e, a tilde, such variations are used in stylized writing. In the past, the breve was traditionally used in some scripts to distinguish a u from an n, as was the ring. In rare cases the n was underlined; the breved u was common in some Kurrent-derived handwritings. The eszett or scharfes S represents; the German spelling reform of 1996 somewhat reduced usage of this letter in Austria.
It is not used in Liechtenstein. As the ß derives from a ligature of lowercase letters, it is used in the middle or the end of a word; the proper transcription when it cannot be used, is ss. This transcription can give rise to ambiguities, albeit rarely. For all caps usage, an uppercase ß was added to the German alphabet in 2017. In 2008, it was included in Unicode 5.1 as U+1E9E, since 2010
Swabian is one of the dialect groups of Alemannic German that belong to the High German dialect continuum. It is spoken in Swabia, located in central and southeastern Baden-Württemberg and the southwest of Bavaria. Furthermore, Swabian German dialects are spoken by Caucasus Germans in Transcaucasia; the dialects of the Danube Swabian population of Hungary, the former Yugoslavia and Romania are only nominally Swabian and can be traced back not only to Swabian but to Frankonian and Hessian German dialects, with locally varying degrees of influence of the initial dialects. Swabian can be difficult to understand for speakers of Standard German due to its pronunciation and differing grammar and vocabulary. For example, the Standard German term for "strawberry jam" is Erdbeermarmelade, whereas in Swabian it is called Bräschdlingsgsälz. In 2009, the word "Muggeseggele", meaning the scrotum of a housefly, was voted in a readers' survey by Stuttgarter Nachrichten, the largest newspaper in Stuttgart, as the most beautiful Swabian word, well ahead of any other term.
The expression is used in an ironic way to describe a small unit of measure and is deemed appropriate to use in front of small children. German broadcaster SWR's children's website, explained the meaning of Muggeseggele in their Swabian dictionary in the Swabian-based TV series Ein Fall für B. A. R. Z; the ending "-ad" is used for verbs in the first person plural. As in other Alemannic dialects, the pronunciation of "s" before "t" and "p" is The voice-onset time for plosives is about halfway between where it would be expected for a clear contrast between voiced and unvoiced-aspirated stops; this difference is most noticeable on the unvoiced stops, rendering them similar to or indistinguishable from voiced stops:One simple thing to look for is the addition of the diminutive "-le" suffix on many words in the German language. With the addition of this "-le", the article of the noun automatically becomes "das" in the German language, as in Standard German; the Swabian "-le" is the same as standard German "-lein" or "-chen", but is used, more in Swabian.
A small house is a Häuschen in a Heisle in Swabian. In some regions "-la" for plural is used. Many surnames in Swabia are made to end in "-le". Articles are pronounced as "dr", "d" and "s"; the "ch" is sometimes replaced. "ich", "dich" and "mich" may become "i", "di" and "mi". Vowels:In many regions, the Swabian dialect is spoken with a unique intonation, present when Swabian native speakers talk in Standard German. There is only one alveolar fricative phoneme /s/, a feature, shared with most other southern dialects. Most Swabian speakers are unaware of the difference between /s/ and /z/ and do not attempt to make it when speaking Standard German; the voiced plosives, the post-alveolar fricative, the frequent use of diminutives based on "l" suffixes gives the dialect a "soft" or "mild" feel felt to be in sharp contrast to the harder varieties of German spoken in the North. Swabian is categorized as an Alemannic dialect, which in turn is one of the two types of Upper German dialects; the ISO 639-3 language code for Swabian is swg.
The Swabian dialect is composed of numerous sub-dialects. These sub-dialects can be categorized by the difference in the formation of the past participle of'sein' into gwäa and gsei; the Gsei group is nearer to other Alemannic dialects, such as Swiss German. It can be divided into West Swabian and Central Swabian; the Baden-Württemberg Chamber of Commerce launched an advertising campaign with the slogan "Wir können alles. Außer Hochdeutsch." Which means "We can everything. Except Standard German" to boost Swabian pride for their dialect and industrial achievements. However, it failed to impress Northern Germans and neighboring Baden. Dominik Kuhn became famous in Germany with schwäbisch fandub videos, dubbing among others Barack Obama with German dialect vocals and revised text. Sebastian Sailer August Lämmle Josef Eberle Thaddäus Troll Hellmut G. Haasis Peter Schlack Muss i denn Streck, Tobias. Phonologischer Wandel im Konsonantismus der alemannischen Dialekte Baden-Württembergs: Sprachatlasvergleich, Spontansprache und dialektometrische Studien.
Stuttgart: Steiner. ISBN 978-3-515-10068-7. Cercignani, Fausto; the consonants of German: synchrony and diachrony. Milano: Cisalpino-Goliardica. LCCN 81192307; the Swabian-English dictionary Die Welt auf Schwäbisch - Best of Obama - Vollversammlung der Eigentümer Wilhelmstr. 48 "Harald Schmidt Sprachkurs Schwäbisch" Parody Sprecherdemo: Dialekt schwäbisch Helen Lutz
Mosbach is the capital of the Neckar-Odenwald district in the north of Baden-Württemberg, about 58 km east of Heidelberg. Its geographical position is 49.21'N 9.9'E. It has a population of 25,000 people distributed in six boroughs: Mosbach Town, Neckarelz, Diedesheim and Reichenbuch. Mosbach is situated south of the Odenwald mountains at a height of 134-354m at the confluence of the Neckar and the Elz; the town is part of the conservation area Naturpark Neckartal-Odenwald and the UNESCO Geopark Bergstraße-Odenwald. The settlement of Mosbach developed around the Benedictine monastery of Mosbach Abbey, the first written record of which dates from the 9th century. In 1241 rights and privileges had been granted to Mosbach as an Imperial free city; these rights were lost in 1362. With the division of the lands of King Rupert in 1410, Mosbach became the capital of a small principality known as Palatinate-Mosbach as the inheritance for his son Otto I. With the death of his brother John, Count Palatine of Neumarkt 1443, the territory of Palatinate-Neumarkt was added in a personal union to Palatinate-Mosbach creating the territory of Palatinate-Mosbach-Neumarkt.
This principality was dissolved with the death of Count Palatine Otto II in 1499. The city and adjoining territory reverted to the Electorate of the Palatinate, Mosbach became the capital of the administrative district of "Oberamt Mosbach". In 1806 the city was made part of the Grand Duchy of Baden. In World War II, the Mosbach area was the location of a Daimler-Benz underground airplane engine factory, codenamed "Goldfisch", it was occupied by the 289th Combat Engineer Battalion in the immediate postwar period. Mosbach is twinned with: Château-Thierry Finike Lymington Pesthidegkút Pößneck Historic sites include: the historic town centre with the pedestrian area and timber-framed houses, such as: the Palm House built in 1610, the town’s emblem the Salzhaus, the oldest timber-framed house old town hall with tower the former collegiate church, now a parish church, of which the nave is used by the Protestants, the chancel by the Roman Catholics the Tempelhaus in Neckarelz, which has the character of both a castle and a church.
Mosbach lies on two heritage routes: the Burgenstraße, linking many historic castles the Deutsche Fachwerkstraße, joining the locations of many of the best German half-timbered buildings
Rhine Franconian dialects
Rhine Franconian, or Rhenish Franconian, is a dialect family of West Central German. It comprises the German dialects spoken across the western regions of the states of Saarland, Rhineland-Palatinate, northwest Baden-Wurttemberg, Hesse in Germany, it is spoken in northeast France, in the eastern part of the département of Moselle in the Lorraine region, in the north-west part of Bas-Rhin in Alsace. To the north, it is bounded by the Sankt Goar line. Hessian Palatinate German Lorraine Franconian Saarland, Moselle Franconian, Palatine German Hughes, Stephanie. 2005. Bilingualism in North-East France with specific reference to Rhenish Franconian spoken by Moselle Cross-border workers. In Preisler, Bent, et al. eds. The Consequences of Mobility: Linguistic and Sociocultural Contact Zones. Roskilde, Denmark: Roskilde Universitetscenter: Institut for Sprog og Kultur. ISBN 87-7349-651-0
Baden-Württemberg is a state in southwest Germany, east of the Rhine, which forms the border with France. It is Germany's third-largest state, with an area of 11 million inhabitants. Baden-Württemberg is a parliamentary republic and sovereign, federated state, formed in 1952 by a merger of the states of Württemberg-Baden, Baden and Württemberg-Hohenzollern; the largest city in Baden-Württemberg is the state capital of Stuttgart, followed by Karlsruhe and Mannheim. Other cities are Freiburg im Breisgau, Heilbronn, Pforzheim and Ulm; the sobriquet Ländle is sometimes used as a synonym for Baden-Württemberg. Baden-Württemberg is formed from the historical territories of Baden, Prussian Hohenzollern, Württemberg, parts of Swabia. In 100 AD, the Roman Empire invaded and occupied Württemberg, constructing a limes along its northern borders. Over the course of the third century AD, the Alemanni forced the Romans to retreat west beyond the Rhine and Danube rivers. In 496 AD the Alemanni were defeated by a Frankish invasion led by Clovis I.
The Holy Roman Empire was established. The majority of people in this region continued to be Roman Catholics after the Protestant Reformation influenced populations in northern Germany. In the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries, numerous people emigrated from this rural area to the United States for economic reasons. After World War II, the Allies established three federal states in the territory of modern-day Baden-Württemberg: Württemberg-Hohenzollern, Württemberg-Baden. Baden and Württemberg-Hohenzollern were occupied by France, while Württemberg-Baden was occupied by the United States. In 1949, each state became a founding member of the Federal Republic of Germany, with Article 118 of the German constitution providing an accession procedure. On 16 December 1951, Württemberg-Baden, Württemberg-Hohenzollern and Baden voted via referendum in favor of a joint merger. Baden-Württemberg became a state in West Germany on 25 April 1952. Baden-Württemberg shares borders with the German states of Rhineland Palatinate and Bavaria, Switzerland.
Most of the major cities of Baden-Württemberg straddle the banks of the Neckar River, which runs downstream through the state past Tübingen, Heilbronn and Mannheim. The Rhine forms the western border as well as large portions of the southern border; the Black Forest, the main mountain range of the state, rises east of the Upper Rhine valley. The high plateau of the Swabian Alb, between the Neckar, the Black Forest, the Danube, is an important European watershed. Baden-Württemberg shares Lake Constance with Switzerland and Bavaria, the international borders within its waters not being defined, it shares the foothills of the Alps with Bavaria and the Austrian Vorarlberg, but Baden-Württemberg does not border Austria over land. The Danube River has its source in Baden-Württemberg near the town of Donaueschingen, in a place called Furtwangen in the Black Forest. Baden-Württemberg is divided into thirty-five districts and nine independent cities, both grouped into the four Administrative Districts of Freiburg, Stuttgart, Tübingen.
Map Baden-Württemberg contains nine additional independent cities not belonging to any district: The state parliament of Baden-Württemberg is the Landtag. The politics of Baden-Württemberg have traditionally been dominated by the conservative Christian Democratic Union of Germany, who until 2011 had led all but one government since the establishment of the state in 1952. In the Landtag elections held on 27 March 2011 voters replaced the Christian Democrats and centre-right Free Democrats coalition by a Greens-led alliance with the Social Democrats which secured a four-seat majority in the state parliament. From 1992 to 2001, the Republicans party held seats in the Landtag; the Baden-Württemberg General Auditing Office acts as an independent body to monitor the correct use of public funds by public offices. Although Baden-Württemberg has few natural resources compared to other regions of Germany, the state is among the most prosperous and wealthiest regions in Europe with a low unemployment rate historically.
A number of well-known enterprises are headquartered in the state, for example Daimler AG, Robert Bosch GmbH, Carl Zeiss AG, SAP SE and Heidelberger Druckmaschinen. In spite of this, Baden-Württemberg's economy is dominated by medium-sized enterprises. Although poor in workable natural resources and still rural in many areas, the region is industrialised. In 2003, there were 8,800 manufacturing enterprises with more than 20 employees, but only 384 with more than 500; the latter category accounts for 43% of the 1.2 million persons employed in industry. The Mittelstand or mid-sized company is the backbone of the Baden-Württemberg economy. Medium-sized businesses and a tradition of branching out into different industrial sectors have ensured specialization over a wide range. A fifth of the "old" Federal Republic's industrial gross value added is generated by Baden-Württemberg. Turnover for manufacturing in 2003 e
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Heilbronn is a city in northern Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It is surrounded by Heilbronn County and, with 123,000 residents, it is the sixth-largest city in the state; the city on the Neckar is the seat of Heilbronn County. Heilbronn is the economic center of the Heilbronn-Franken region that includes most of northeast Baden-Württemberg. Furthermore, Heilbronn is known for its wine industry and is nicknamed Käthchenstadt, after Heinrich von Kleist's Das Käthchen von Heilbronn. Heilbronn is located in the northern corner of the Neckar basin at the bottom of the Wartberg, it occupies both banks of the Neckar, the highest spot inside city limits is the Schweinsberg with a height of 372 meters. Heilbronn is surrounded by vineyards. Heilbronn and its surroundings are located in the northern part of the larger Stuttgart metropolitan area; the city is the economic center of the Heilbronn-Franken region and is one of fourteen such cities in the Baden-Württemberg master plan of 2002. It serves Abstatt, Bad Rappenau, Bad Wimpfen, Brackenheim, Eberstatt, Eppingen, Gemmingen, Güglingen, Ittlingen, Lauffen am Neckar, Leingarten, Löwenstein, Neckarwestheim, Obersulm, Schwaigern, Talheim, Weinsberg, Wüstenrot, Zaberfeld as a regional economic centre.
Heilbronn shares a border with the following cities and towns, all part of Heilbronn County and listed here clockwise from the North: Bad Wimpfen, Erlenbach, Lehrensteinsfeld, Flein, Lauffen am Neckar, Leingarten, Schwaigern and Bad Rappenau. The city is divided into nine boroughs: The oldest traces of humans in and around Heilbronn date back to the Old Stone Age; the fertile Neckar floodplains in the Heilbronn basin aided early settlement by farmers and ranchers. The city limits of present-day Heilbronn contain. On, but still before AD, the Celts mined here for salt from brine. Under Roman Emperor Domitian the Romans pushed east away from the Rhine and the outer boundary of the Roman Empire was set at the Neckar-Odenwald Limes. A castle in today's borough of Böckingen was part of that limes, nearby numerous Roman villas and plantations were built. Around AD 150, the Neckar-Odenwald Limes became obsolete when the boundary of the Roman Empire was moved 30 km to the east, where it was subsequently fortified with the construction of the Upper Germanic Limes complete with parapet and trenches.
Around 260, the Romans surrendered the limes, the Alamanni became rulers of the Neckar basin. Between the 4th and 7th centuries, the area became part of the Frankish Empire, the first settlement was built in the general vicinity of the present center of town. In 741 Heilbronn is first mentioned in an official document of the Diocese of Würzburg as villa Helibrunna, in 841, King Louis the German set up court here for a period of time; the name Heilbrunna hints to a well, located not far from the basilica. In 1050 a significant settlement of Jews is noted in official documents, the Codex of the monastery in Hirsau documented Heilbronn's right to hold market days and mint coins, mentioning its harbor and vineyards as well; the name of the city became a widespread Jewish surname in many varieties, see Heilprin and Halperin. In 1225 Heilbronn was incorporated into the Hohenstaufen Empire as oppidum Heilecbrunnen. Oppidum signified a city fortified by parapet and trenches. During the 13th century, the Teutonic Knights obtained ownership of a large area south of Heilbronn which would remain owned by that order until German Mediatisation in 1805.
Starting in 1268, the order built the Deutschhof there as one of its residences. The church building of the order, located on the premises was modified and expanded several times: First in 1350 it was expanded it was remodeled in 1719, in 1977, it was consecrated as a cathedral. After the demise of the Staufen dynasty, King Rudolf I returned city status to Heilbronn in 1281 and installed a regal advocate to rule the city. In addition to the advocate he put a council in place, headed up by a mayor. Around 1300, the first city hall was erected in the market place and the Kilianskirche was expanded; the Neckar privilege gave the city the right to modify the flow of the river in 1333, which meant it now had the right to construct dams and mills. Because of the infrastructure thus created, during the 14th century Heilbronn grew attractive to merchants and craftspeople, who now demanded the right to determine their own fate. In 1371 Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor, issued a new charter to the city. Now Heilbronn needed as such was an Imperial Free City.
Craftspeople and merchants were now represented in its council and the villages of Böckingen, Flein and Neckargartach became part of Heilbronn's territory. As an Imperial Free City Heilbronn was threatened by the ambitious House of Württemberg. A relationship with the Holy Roman Emperor and a treaty with the Electorate of the Palatinate in effect from 1417 to 1622 strengthened Heilbronn's position and kept the House of Württemberg at bay; the political stability enjoyed by the city during the 15th century enabled it to expand, many of its historic structures, such as the Kilianskirche, trace their origins to that era. Götz von Berlichingen spent three years in "kn