Great Barrier Reef Marine Park
The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park protects a large part of Australia's Great Barrier Reef from damaging activities. It is a vast multiple-use Marine Park which supports a wide range of uses, including commercial marine tourism, fishing and shipping, scientific research and Indigenous traditional use. Fishing and the removal of artefacts or wildlife is regulated, commercial shipping traffic must stick to certain specific defined shipping routes that avoid the most sensitive areas of the park; the Great Barrier Reef is the best known coral reef ecosystem in the world. Its reefs 3000 in total, represent about 10 per cent of all the coral reef areas in the world, it supports an amazing variety of biodiversity, providing a home to thousands of coral and other invertebrate species, bony fish, rays, marine mammals, marine turtles, sea snakes, as well as algae and other marine plants. The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority is responsible for the care and protection of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park.
It uses a range of tools to manage the marine park including Acts and Regulations, zoning plan, plans of management, Traditional Owner agreements, partnerships and best practice, education and monitoring and reporting. It issues permits for various forms of use of the marine park, monitors usage in the park to ensure compliance with rules and regulations associated with the park. GBRMPA is funded by Commonwealth Government appropriations and an environmental management charge levied on the permit-holders' passengers; this is A$6.00 per day per passenger. The marine park lies east starting in the north at Cape York, its northern boundary is the circle of latitude 10°41'S, thereby encompassing those few uninhabited Torres Strait Islands that are east of Cape York, south of 10°41'S and north of 11°00'S. The largest of those island are Albany Island, Turtle Head Island 12.8 km2 or 4.9 sq mi and Trochus Island 2.2 km2 or 0.85 sq mi. Further islands are Mai Island 0.25 km2 or 0.097 sq mi, Bush Island 0.2 km2 or 0.077 sq mi, Tree Islet 0.01 km2 or 0.0039 sq mi, Brewis Island 0.05 km2 or 0.019 sq mi, a few unnamed islets.
As of 2016, zones within the marine park has been categorized into the following IUCN protected area categories: IUCN Category Ia with an area of 859 square kilometres being about 0.2% of the marine park’s area, IUCN Category II with an area of 114,309 square kilometres being about 33%, IUCN Category IV with an area of 15,027 square kilometres being about 4% and IUCN Category VI with an area of 213,769 square kilometres being about 62%. In 1975, the Government of Australia enacted the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Act 1975, which created the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, defined what acts were prohibited on the Reef. Joe Baker, involved in the bid to make the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage-listed in 1981, was a founding member of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority; the Australian Government has recognised the ecological significance of this Park by its inclusion in the nation's Biodiversity Action Plan. The Government of Australia manages the reef through the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority and in partnership with the Government of Queensland, to ensure that it is understood and used in a sustainable manner.
A combination of zoning, management plans, permits and incentives is used in the effort to conserve the Great Barrier Reef. As many species of the Great Barrier Reef are migratory, many international and interstate conventions or pieces of legislation must be taken into account when strategies for conservation are made; some international conventions that the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park must follow are: the Bonn Convention, Ramsar Site, CITES, JAMBA and CAMBA. Some national legislation that the Park must follow are: Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Act 1975, Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999, National Strategy for Ecologically Sustainable Development, National Strategy for the Conservation of Australia's Biological Diversity, Australia’s Oceans Policy, National Strategy for the Conservation of Australian Species and Communities Threatened with Extinction; some state legislation that the Park must follow are: Nature Conservation Act 1992, Marine Parks Act 1982, Fisheries Act 1994, Queensland Nature Conservation Regulation 1994.
For example, the Queensland Government has enacted several plans attempting to regulate fishing. The East Coast Trawl Management Plan 1999 aimed to regulate trawling through limiting the times when trawling is permitted and restricting gear used; the Fisheries Management Plan 2003 aimed at reducing the annual commercial catch to 1996 levels, disallowing fishing when the fish are spawning and increasing the minimum legal size of fish. The Great Barrier Reef was selected as a World Heritage Site in 1981. Up until 1999, there were four main zones in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, they were "Cairns", "Central" and "Mackay/Capricorn" sections. These zoning sections were created between 1983–1987. Another section, the "Gumoo Woojabuddee" section was declared in 1998; each section had its own zoning plan. The Great Barrier Marine Park Zoning Plan 2003 superseded all previous zoning plans, coming into effect on 1 July 2004. In July 2004, a new zoning plan was brought into effect for the entire Marine Park, has been acclaimed as a
Capricorn Coast National Park
Capricorn Coast is a national park in the Shire of Livingstone, Australia. The park is 535 km northwest of Brisbane, it covers about 114 hectares, is divided into five sections: Vallis Park, Rosslyn Head, Double Head, Bluff Point, Pinnacle Point. The five sections were amalgamated into a single national park in 1994. Protected areas of Queensland
Queensland is the second-largest and third-most populous state in the Commonwealth of Australia. Situated in the north-east of the country, it is bordered by the Northern Territory, South Australia and New South Wales to the west, south-west and south respectively. To the east, Queensland is bordered by the Coral Pacific Ocean. To its north is the Torres Strait, with Papua New Guinea located less than 200 km across it from the mainland; the state is the world's sixth-largest sub-national entity, with an area of 1,852,642 square kilometres. As of 15 May 2018, Queensland has a population of 5,000,000, concentrated along the coast and in the state's South East; the capital and largest city in the state is Australia's third-largest city. Referred to as the "Sunshine State", Queensland is home to 10 of Australia's 30 largest cities and is the nation's third-largest economy. Tourism in the state, fuelled by its warm tropical climate, is a major industry. Queensland was first inhabited by Torres Strait Islanders.
The first European to land in Queensland was Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon in 1606, who explored the west coast of the Cape York Peninsula near present-day Weipa. In 1770, Lieutenant James Cook claimed the east coast of Australia for the Kingdom of Great Britain; the colony of New South Wales was founded in 1788 by Governor Arthur Phillip at Sydney. Queensland was explored in subsequent decades until the establishment of a penal colony at Brisbane in 1824 by John Oxley. Penal transportation ceased in 1839 and free settlement was allowed from 1842; the state was named in honour of Queen Victoria, who on 6 June 1859 signed Letters Patent separating the colony from New South Wales. Queensland Day is celebrated annually statewide on 6 June. Queensland was one of the six colonies which became the founding states of Australia with federation on 1 January 1901; the history of Queensland spans thousands of years, encompassing both a lengthy indigenous presence, as well as the eventful times of post-European settlement.
The north-eastern Australian region was explored by Dutch and French navigators before being encountered by Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. The state has witnessed frontier warfare between European settlers and Indigenous inhabitants, as well as the exploitation of cheap Kanaka labour sourced from the South Pacific through a form of forced recruitment known at the time as "blackbirding"; the Australian Labor Party has its origin as a formal organisation in Queensland and the town of Barcaldine is the symbolic birthplace of the party. June 2009 marked the 150th anniversary of its creation as a separate colony from New South Wales. A rare record of early settler life in north Queensland can be seen in a set of ten photographic glass plates taken in the 1860s by Richard Daintree, in the collection of the National Museum of Australia; the Aboriginal occupation of Queensland is thought to predate 50,000 BC via boat or land bridge across Torres Strait, became divided into over 90 different language groups.
During the last ice age Queensland's landscape became more arid and desolate, making food and other supplies scarce. This led to the world's first seed-grinding technology. Warming again made the land hospitable, which brought high rainfall along the eastern coast, stimulating the growth of the state's tropical rainforests. In February 1606, Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon landed near the site of what is now Weipa, on the western shore of Cape York; this was the first recorded landing of a European in Australia, it marked the first reported contact between European and Aboriginal Australian people. The region was explored by French and Spanish explorers prior to the arrival of Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. Cook claimed the east coast under instruction from King George III of the United Kingdom on 22 August 1770 at Possession Island, naming Eastern Australia, including Queensland,'New South Wales'; the Aboriginal population declined after a smallpox epidemic during the late 18th century. In 1823, John Oxley, a British explorer, sailed north from what is now Sydney to scout possible penal colony sites in Gladstone and Moreton Bay.
At Moreton Bay, he found the Brisbane River. He established a settlement at what is now Redcliffe; the settlement known as Edenglassie, was transferred to the current location of the Brisbane city centre. Edmund Lockyer discovered outcrops of coal along the banks of the upper Brisbane River in 1825. In 1839 transportation of convicts was ceased, culminating in the closure of the Brisbane penal settlement. In 1842 free settlement was permitted. In 1847, the Port of Maryborough was opened as a wool port; the first free immigrant ship to arrive in Moreton Bay was the Artemisia, in 1848. In 1857, Queensland's first lighthouse was built at Cape Moreton. A war, sometimes called a "war of extermination", erupted between Aborigines and settlers in colonial Queensland; the Frontier War was notable for being the most bloody in Australia due to Queensland's larger pre-contact indigenous population when compared to the other Australian colonies. About 1,500 European settlers and their alli
Mount Walsh National Park
Mount Walsh is a national park in Queensland, Australia, 230 km northwest of Brisbane. A prominent landmark in the Biggenden region is the granite bluff area of Mount Walsh which rises to 703 m above sea leven in the northern part of park; the summit has three peaks. Exposed granite outcrops, rugged ridges and steep forested slopes support a range of vegetation; the "Bluff" area of Mount Walsh is located at the park’s northern end and is a prominent landmark of the Biggenden area. The park features sheltered gullies, rugged ridge lines with mountain areas with spectacular exposed granite outcrops and cliffs support a diversity of vegetation; such diversity gives a home to many endangered animal species such as the powerful owl and grey goshawk. Visitors may see peregrine falcons, wallabies, eastern grey kangaroos and lace monitors. A complex landscape has led to diverse vegetation communities which includes heath, woodland, open forest and dry forest. There are patches of hoop pines in some gullies.
The geological history of the mountain began in the late Triassic period about 215 million years ago. Violent explosions emanated from a volcanic structure referred to as the Mungore Centre. Two large bodies of magma rose close to the surface where Mount Malarga and Mount Walsh are presently situated. Erosion has left the cliffs, gorges rocky pavements and tors seen today. Picnic and barbecue facilities are available. Bush camping is allowed in the park. No facilities are provided so visitors must be self-sufficient. A 300 metre trail from the picnic area leads visitors through open eucalypt forest to a rocky creek gully fringed in rain forest on to lookouts over surrounding countryside. Experienced walkers can take the strenuous two and a half hour hike to Mount Walsh's bare granite summit. You will be rewarded with stunning views. Protected areas of Queensland Rocks and Landscape Notes: Mount Walsh, Biggenden - Geological Society of Australia: Queensland Division
Captain James Cook was a British explorer, navigator and captain in the Royal Navy. He made detailed maps of Newfoundland prior to making three voyages to the Pacific Ocean, during which he achieved the first recorded European contact with the eastern coastline of Australia and the Hawaiian Islands, the first recorded circumnavigation of New Zealand. Cook joined the British merchant navy as a teenager and joined the Royal Navy in 1755, he saw action in the Seven Years' War and subsequently surveyed and mapped much of the entrance to the Saint Lawrence River during the siege of Quebec, which brought him to the attention of the Admiralty and Royal Society. This acclaim came at a crucial moment in his career and the direction of British overseas exploration, led to his commission in 1766 as commander of HM Bark Endeavour for the first of three Pacific voyages. In three voyages, Cook sailed thousands of miles across uncharted areas of the globe, he mapped lands from New Zealand to Hawaii in the Pacific Ocean in greater detail and scale not charted by Western explorers.
As he progressed in his voyages of discovery, he surveyed and named features, recorded islands and coastlines on European maps for the first time. He displayed a combination of seamanship, superior surveying and cartographic skills, physical courage, an ability to lead men in adverse conditions. Cook was attacked and killed in 1779 during his third exploratory voyage in the Pacific while attempting to kidnap Hawaiian chief Kalaniʻōpuʻu in order to reclaim a cutter stolen from one of his ships, he left a legacy of scientific and geographical knowledge which influenced his successors well into the 20th century, numerous memorials worldwide have been dedicated to him. James Cook was born on 7 November 1728 in the village of Marton in Yorkshire and baptised on 14 November in the parish church of St Cuthbert, where his name can be seen in the church register, he was the second of eight children of James Cook, a Scottish farm labourer from Ednam in Roxburghshire, his locally born wife, Grace Pace, from Thornaby-on-Tees.
In 1736, his family moved to Airey Holme farm at Great Ayton, where his father's employer, Thomas Skottowe, paid for him to attend the local school. In 1741, after five years' schooling, he began work for his father, promoted to farm manager. Despite not being formally educated he became capable in mathematics and charting by the time of his Endeavour voyage. For leisure, he would climb Roseberry Topping, enjoying the opportunity for solitude. Cooks' Cottage, his parents' last home, which he is to have visited, is now in Melbourne, having been moved from England and reassembled, brick by brick, in 1934. In 1745, when he was 16, Cook moved 20 miles to the fishing village of Staithes, to be apprenticed as a shop boy to grocer and haberdasher William Sanderson. Historians have speculated that this is where Cook first felt the lure of the sea while gazing out of the shop window. After 18 months, not proving suited for shop work, Cook travelled to the nearby port town of Whitby to be introduced to friends of Sanderson's, John and Henry Walker.
The Walkers, who were Quakers, were prominent local ship-owners in the coal trade. Their house is now the Captain Cook Memorial Museum. Cook was taken on as a merchant navy apprentice in their small fleet of vessels, plying coal along the English coast, his first assignment was aboard the collier Freelove, he spent several years on this and various other coasters, sailing between the Tyne and London. As part of his apprenticeship, Cook applied himself to the study of algebra, trigonometry and astronomy—all skills he would need one day to command his own ship, his three-year apprenticeship completed, Cook began working on trading ships in the Baltic Sea. After passing his examinations in 1752, he soon progressed through the merchant navy ranks, starting with his promotion in that year to mate aboard the collier brig Friendship. In 1755, within a month of being offered command of this vessel, he volunteered for service in the Royal Navy, when Britain was re-arming for what was to become the Seven Years' War.
Despite the need to start back at the bottom of the naval hierarchy, Cook realised his career would advance more in military service and entered the Navy at Wapping on 17 June 1755. Cook married Elizabeth Batts, the daughter of Samuel Batts, keeper of the Bell Inn in Wapping and one of his mentors, on 21 December 1762 at St Margaret's Church, Essex; the couple had six children: James, Elizabeth, Joseph and Hugh. When not at sea, Cook lived in the East End of London, he attended St Paul's Church, where his son James was baptised. Cook has no direct descendants—all of his children died before having children of their own. Cook's first posting was with HMS Eagle, serving as able seaman and master's mate under Captain Joseph Hamar for his first year aboard, Captain Hugh Palliser thereafter. In October and November 1755, he took part in Eagle's capture of one French warship and the sinking of another, following which he was promoted to boatswain in addition to his other duties, his first temporary command was in March 1756 when he was master of Cruizer, a small cutter attached to Eagle while on patrol.
In June 1757 Cook formally passed his master's examinations at Trinity House, qualifying him to navigate and handle a ship of the King's fleet. He joined the frigate
North Queensland or the Northern Region is the northern part of the Australian state of Queensland that lies just south of Far North Queensland. Queensland is a massive state, larger than many countries, the tropical northern part of it has been remote and undeveloped, resulting in a distinctive regional character and identity. Townsville is the largest urban centre in North Queensland, leading it to be regarded as an unofficial capital; the region has a population of 231,628 and covers 80,041.5 km2. There is no official boundary. Unofficially it is considered to have a southern border beginning south of the Mackay Region southern boundary, but it has been as far south as Rockhampton. To the north is the Far North Queensland region, centred on Cairns and out west is the Gulf Country. A coastal region centred on its largest settlement is the city of Townsville; the city is the location of a major seaport handling exports from mines in Mount Isa and cattle exports from coastal and inland areas. The region contains a bulk sugar exporting terminal at Lucinda in the region's north.
Mackay and the Burdekin region are Australia's sugar capital and produces the most sugar in Australia and is shipped at Mackay Harbour. Mackay is one of Australia's biggest coal exporters as it is close to Queensland's major mines. Dalrymple Bay, south of Mackay is another port where sugar is exported, it contains the inland city of Charters Towers and the coastal towns of Ayr and Ingham. The Burdekin is centred on the two towns of Ayr and Home Hill and while producing the largest amount of sugar produces seasonal fruit such as Lychees and Mangos in Summer/wet season. Other communities in North Queensland include Home Hill, Bowen and Proserpine. Abbot Point, north of Bowen, is coal exporting port undergoing significant expansion; the region has a number of significant tourist attractions including the Great Barrier Reef and reef islands, rainforests in the Wet Tropics of Queensland, Magnetic Island, the Whitsunday Islands. The region has 36 national parks. Captain James Cook passed by the region in 1770, naming several places including Magnetic Island and Cape Cleveland.
Alan Cunningham was the first European to explore parts of the region. John Mackay explored the Pioneer Valley near Mackay in 1860; the first settlement in the region was established at Port Denison in 1861, at what is now known as Bowen. In 1865, the first surveys of what was to become Townsville were conducted. In 1871, gold was discovered at Charters Towers; this led to much development for the town and for Townsville which served as a major port and service centre as both the pastoral and sugar industry spread along the coast. Work on the Great Northern Railway from Townsville to Mount Isa began in 1879 with a small section opening the following year. In July 1942, Japanese naval flying boats conducted air raids on Townsville; the Perc Tucker Regional Gallery was established at Townsville in 1981 and the TYTO Regional Art Gallery at Ingham opened in 2011. The region is serviced by Townsville Airport, ranked as the 11th busiest airport in Australia; the airport was granted international status in 1980.
Along the coast, the Bruce Highway passes from the south through to the north of the region. The Flinders Highway links Townsville with Charters Towers and the Peak Downs Highway extends west from Mackay. Throughout the years, there have been many calls for the formation of a new state. Many proposals have been drawn up, regarding the borders and the debate over which town will become the capital. List of schools in North Queensland
Blackdown Tableland National Park
Blackdown Tableland is a national park in the Central Highlands Region, Australia. The park is in Central Queensland, 576 km northwest of Brisbane; the mountainous terrain of the tablelands provides a unique landscape featuring gorges and diverse vegetation. It is the traditional home of the Ghungalu people; the Blackdown Tableland is a 900 m sandstone plateau rising abruptly from the plains below. Many creeks on the Tableland have developed gorges and waterfalls along their courses, the most notable of which drains in to the spectacular Rainbow Falls over a 40 m drop; some of the creeks on the Tableland are catchment fed by rain and dry up, some are spring fed and always flow just a small amount. The national park is located in the north east of the central Queensland sandstone belt; the tablelands are positioned at the junction of the Shotover and Dawson Ranges. Evidence of folding is shown in the depressions amongst the ranges. Camping is available on Mimosa Creek in the Tableland, camping fees apply.
The plateau has a more temperate, local climate than the surrounding plains, supporting open forests, ferns, a variety of plants and animals, several of which are not found anywhere else. Parts of the eastern tablelands have an average rainfall of 1,500 mm per year. Dense fog may shroud the plateau. Camping is permitted at Munall campground. There are walking tracks leading to heritage sites and creeks. Picnic facilities are available at Yaddamen Dhina lookout. Access to the area was limited until a road was constructed in 1969 by the Queensland Forest Department. Entrance to the park is via a turn-off 11 km west of Dingo along the Capricorn Highway. Protected areas of Queensland Blackdown Tableland National Park Queensland Holidays: Blackdown Tableland National Park Photo Gallery