Second Schleswig War
The Second Schleswig War was the second military conflict as a result of the Schleswig-Holstein Question. It began on 1 February 1864, when Prussian forces crossed the border into Schleswig, decisive controversy arose due to the passing of the November Constitution, which integrated the Duchy of Schleswig into the Danish kingdom in violation of the London Protocol. Reasons for the war were the controversy in Schleswig and the co-existence of conflicting political systems within the Danish unitary state. The war ended on 30 October 1864, when the Treaty of Vienna caused Denmarks cession of the Duchies of Schleswig, the northern and middle parts of Schleswig spoke Danish, but over time, the language in the southern half had shifted gradually to German. German culture was dominant among the clergy and nobility, Danish culture had a social status and was spoken mainly by the rural population. For centuries, while the rule of the king was absolute, when ideas of liberal democracy spread and nationalist currents emerged about 1820, identification was mixed between Danish and German.
To that was added a grievance about tolls charged by Denmark on shipping passing through the Danish Straits between the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, to avoid that expense, Prussia planned the Kiel Canal, which could not be built so long as Denmark ruled Holstein. Much of the focused on the heir of King Frederick VII of Denmark. Prince Christian had served on the Danish side in the First Schleswig War in 1848-1851, at the time, the king of Denmark was duke of the duchies of Holstein and Schleswig. In 1848, Denmark had received its first free constitution and at the time had fought a civil war with the Germans of Schleswig-Holstein in which Prussia had intervened. The peace treaty stipulated that the duchy of Schleswig should not be treated any differently from the duchy of Holstein in its relations with the Kingdom of Denmark and that was a clear breach of the 1851 peace treaty and gave Prussia and the German union a casus belli against Denmark. France had colonial problems, not least with Britain, Bismarck had effectively neutralized Russia politically and succeeded in obtaining cooperation from Austria which underlined its major power status within the German union.
The adoption of the Constitution of Denmark in 1849 complicated matters further, as many Danes wished for the new constitution to apply to all Danes. Thus two systems of government co-existed within the state, democracy in Denmark, and absolutism in Schleswig. This caused a deadlock for practical lawmaking, in Copenhagen, the Palace and most of the administration supported a strict adherence to the status quo. In 1858, the German Confederation deposed the union constitution of the Danish monarchy concerning Holstein and Lauenburg, the two duchies were henceforth without any constitution, while the union constitution still applied to Schleswig and Denmark proper. As the heirless King Frederick VII grew older, Denmarks successive National-Liberal cabinets became increasingly focused on maintaining control of Schleswig following the kings demise. The king died in 1863 at a critical time, work on the November Constitution for the joint affairs of Denmark and Schleswig had just been completed
Diocese of Ribe
The Diocese of Ribe is a diocese of the Church of Denmark. As of 860, Ansgar found a church in Ribe, the diocese of Ribe was formed in 948. During the Reformation in 1530s, the diocese was replaced into a Lutheran diocese, val, ca 1043~1060 Odder, 1060~1085 Gerold, 1085~1122 Thore, 1122~1134 Nothold, 1134~11
Church of Denmark
The Evangelical Lutheran Church in Denmark or National Church, sometimes called Church of Denmark, is the established, state-supported church in Denmark. The reigning monarch is the secular authority in the church. As of 1 January 2017,75. 9% of the population of Denmark are members, Christianity was introduced to Denmark in the 9th century by Ansgar, Archbishop of Hamburg-Bremen. In the 10th century, King Harald Bluetooth became a Christian and began organizing the church, since the Reformation in Denmark, the Church has been Evangelical Lutheran, while retaining much of its pre-Reformation liturgical traditions. The 1849 Constitution of Denmark designated the church the Danish peoples church, the Church of Denmark continues to maintain the historical episcopate. Theological authority is vested in bishops, ten bishops in mainland Denmark and one in Greenland, there is no archbishop, the Bishop of Copenhagen acts as a primus inter pares. The Church of Denmark is organized in dioceses, each led by a bishop.
There are no archbishops, the most senior bishop is the Bishop of Copenhagen, the further subdivision includes 111 deaneries and 2,200 parishes. Each parish has a council, elected by church members in four-year terms. The parochial council leads the business of the local church and decides employment of personnel. The vicar is subordinate to the council, except in matters such as conducting church services. Both parochial councils and vicars are, subordinate to bishops, a special feature is the possibility of creating voluntary congregations within the Church. These account for a few percent of church members and they are voluntary associations, electing their own parochial council and vicar, whom they agree to pay from their own pockets. In return, they are exempt from church tax, the voluntary congregation and its vicar are subordinate to bishops, and members remain full members of the Church. Historically, when a parish was dominated by a fundamentalist majority and rector, today the voluntary congregations are often a solution for people who find the idea of a free church appealing, but wish to keep some bonds to the church.
Another, less commonly used feature is parish optionality, according to official statistics from January 2017,75. 9% of Danes are members of the Church of Denmark. Membership rates vary from 58. 1% in the Diocese of Copenhagen to 85. 2% in the Diocese of Viborg, any person who is baptised into the Church of Denmark automatically becomes a member. Members may renounce their membership and if they wish
Aabenraa County is a former province in Denmark, located on the east-central region of Southern Jutland. Aabenraa County was established in 1920 following the reunification of Denmark and it was dissolved in 1970 when it merged with three other counties to form South Jutland County. Aabenraa County corresponded geographically to the former Prussian Kreis Apenrade combined with the part of Bov Parish. Both were transferred from Kreis Flensburg with the establishment of the current Danish-German border, aabenraa County and Sønderborg County merged in 1932, forming Aabenraa-Sønderborg County
This conflict paralleled the Third Independence War of Italian unification. It saw the abolition of the German Confederation and its replacement by a North German Confederation that excluded Austria. The war resulted in the Italian annexation of the Austrian province of Venetia, for centuries, Central Europe was split into a few large states and hundreds of tiny entities, each maintaining its independence with the assistance of outside powers, particularly France. After 1815, the German states were again reorganized into a loose confederation. When Austria brought the dispute before the German Diet and decided to convene the Diet of Holstein, when the German Diet responded by voting for a partial mobilization against Prussia, Bismarck claimed that the German Confederation was ended. Crown Prince Frederick was the member of the Prussian Crown Council to uphold the rights of the Duke of Augustenberg. Although he supported unification and the restoration of the medieval empire, the ultimate aim of most German nationalists was the gathering of all Germans under one state.
Two ideas of national unity eventually came to the fore – once including, US newspaper The New York Times summarized its views of German nationalism shortly after the outbreak of the war, There is, in political geography, no Germany proper to speak of. There are Kingdoms and Grand Duchies, and Duchies and Principalities, inhabited by Germans, yet there is a natural undercurrent tending to a national feeling and toward a union of the Germans into one great nation, ruled by one common head as a national unit. Bismarck maintained that he orchestrated the conflict in order to bring about the North German Confederation, the Franco-Prussian War, taylor thinks Bismarck manipulated events into the most beneficial solution possible for Prussia. On 22 February 1866, Count Karolyi, Austrian ambassador in Berlin, sent a dispatch to the Minister of Foreign Affairs, possible evidence can be found in Bismarcks orchestration of the Austrian alliance during the Second Schleswig War against Denmark, which can be seen as his diplomatic masterstroke.
It was in the Prussian interest to gain an alliance with Austria to defeat Denmark and settle the issue of the duchies of Schleswig, the alliance can be regarded as an aid to Prussian expansion, rather than a provocation of war against Austria. Many historians believe that Bismarck was simply a Prussian expansionist, rather than a German nationalist and it was at the Gastein Convention that the Austrian alliance was set up to lure Austria into war. The timing of the declaration was perfect, because all other European powers were bound by alliances that forbade them from entering the conflict. Britain had no stake economically or politically in war between Prussia and Austria, the details of the discussion are unknown but many historians think Bismarck was guaranteed French neutrality in the event of a war. Italy was already allied with Prussia, which meant that Austria would be fighting both with no major allies of its own, Bismarck was aware of his numerical superiority but still he was not prepared to advise it immediately even though he gave a favourable account of the international situation.
When the Prussian victory became clear, France attempted to extract concessions in the Palatinate. Naturally I was not doubtful of the answer for a second, I answered him, its war
Tinglev is a town with a population of 2,729 in Aabenraa Municipality in Region of Southern Denmark on the Jutland peninsula in south Denmark. From 1866-1920 Tinglev was part of the Prussian Province of Schleswig-Holstein, until 1 January 2007 Tinglev was a municipality in the former South Jutland County. The municipality covered an area of 326 km2, and has a population of 10,148. Its last mayor was Susanne Beier, a member of the Venstre political party and it was merged with Bov, Lundtoft, Rødekro, and Aabenraa municipalities to form a new Aabenraa municipality. This created a municipality with an area of 951 square kilometres and a total population of 60,151
Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe. It includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,021 square kilometres, with about 82 million inhabitants, Germany is the most populous member state of the European Union. After the United States, it is the second most popular destination in the world. Germanys capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while its largest conurbation is the Ruhr, other major cities include Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf and Leipzig. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity, a region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period the Germanic tribes expanded southward, beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation, in 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire.
After World War I and the German Revolution of 1918–1919, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic, the establishment of the national socialist dictatorship in 1933 led to World War II and the Holocaust. After a period of Allied occupation, two German states were founded, the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic, in 1990, the country was reunified. In the 21st century, Germany is a power and has the worlds fourth-largest economy by nominal GDP. As a global leader in industrial and technological sectors, it is both the worlds third-largest exporter and importer of goods. Germany is a country with a very high standard of living sustained by a skilled. It upholds a social security and universal health system, environmental protection. Germany was a member of the European Economic Community in 1957. It is part of the Schengen Area, and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999, Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G8, the G20, and the OECD.
The national military expenditure is the 9th highest in the world, the English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz popular, derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- people, the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a mine in Schöningen where three 380, 000-year-old wooden javelins were unearthed