A town is a human settlement. Towns are larger than villages but smaller than cities, though the criteria to distinguish them vary between different parts of the world; the word town shares an origin with the German word Zaun, the Dutch word tuin, the Old Norse tun. The German word Zaun comes closest to the original meaning of the word: a fence of any material. An early borrowing from Celtic *dunom. In English and Dutch, the meaning of the word took on the sense of the space which these fences enclosed. In England, a town was a small community that could not afford or was not allowed to build walls or other larger fortifications, built a palisade or stockade instead. In the Netherlands, this space was a garden, more those of the wealthy, which had a high fence or a wall around them. In Old Norse tun means a place between farmhouses, the word is still used in a similar meaning in modern Norwegian. In Old English and Early and Middle Scots, the words ton, etc. could refer to diverse kinds of settlements from agricultural estates and holdings picking up the Norse sense at one end of the scale, to fortified municipalities.
If there was any distinction between toun and burgh as claimed by some, it did not last in practice as burghs and touns developed. For example, "Edina Burgh" or "Edinburgh" was built around a fort and came to have a defensive wall. In some cases, "town" is an alternative name for "city" or "village". Sometimes, the word "town" is short for "township". In general, today towns can be differentiated from townships, villages, or hamlets on the basis of their economic character, in that most of a town's population will tend to derive their living from manufacturing industry and public services rather than primary industry such as agriculture or related activities. A place's population size is not a reliable determinant of urban character. In many areas of the world, e.g. in India at least until recent times, a large village might contain several times as many people as a small town. In the United Kingdom, there are historical cities; the modern phenomenon of extensive suburban growth, satellite urban development, migration of city dwellers to villages has further complicated the definition of towns, creating communities urban in their economic and cultural characteristics but lacking other characteristics of urban localities.
Some forms of non-rural settlement, such as temporary mining locations, may be non-rural, but have at best a questionable claim to be called a town. Towns exist as distinct governmental units, with defined borders and some or all of the appurtenances of local government. In the United States these are referred to as "incorporated towns". In other cases the town lacks its own governance and is said to be "unincorporated". Note that the existence of an unincorporated town may be set out by other means, e.g. zoning districts. In the case of some planned communities, the town exists in the form of covenants on the properties within the town; the United States Census identifies many census-designated places by the names of unincorporated towns which lie within them. The distinction between a town and a city depends on the approach: a city may be an administrative entity, granted that designation by law, but in informal usage, the term is used to denote an urban locality of a particular size or importance: whereas a medieval city may have possessed as few as 10,000 inhabitants, today some consider an urban place of fewer than 100,000 as a town though there are many designated cities that are much smaller than that.
Australian geographer Thomas Griffith Taylor proposed a classification of towns based on their age and pattern of land use. He identified five types of town: Infantile towns, with no clear zoning Juvenile towns, which have developed an area of shops Adolescent towns, where factories have started to appear Early mature towns, with a separate area of high-class housing Mature towns, with defined industrial and various types of residential area In Afghanistan and cities are known as shār; as the country is an rural society with few larger settlements, with major cities never holding more than a few hundred thousand inhabitants before the 2000s, the lingual tradition of the country does not discriminate between towns and cities. In Albania "qytezë" means town, similar with the word for city. Although there is no official use of the term for any settlement. In Albanian "qytezë" means "small city" or "new city", while in ancient times "small residential center within the walls of a castle"; the center is a population group, larger than a village, smaller than a city.
Though the village is bigger than a hamlet In Australia, towns or "urban centre localities" are understood to be those centers of population not formally declared to be cities and having a population in excess of about 200 people. Centers too small to be called towns are understood to be a township. In addition, some local government entities are styled as towns in Queensland, Western Australia and the Northern Territory, before the statewide amalgamations of th
A civil township is a used unit of local government in the United States, subordinate to a county. The term town is used in New England, New York, Wisconsin to refer to the equivalent of the civil township in these states. Specific responsibilities and the degree of autonomy vary based on each state. Civil townships are distinct from survey townships, but in states that have both, the boundaries coincide and may geographically subdivide a county; the U. S. Census Bureau classifies civil townships as minor civil divisions. There are 20 states with civil townships. Township functions are overseen by a governing board and a clerk or trustee. Township officers include justice of the peace, road commissioner, assessor and surveyor. In the 20th century, many townships added a township administrator or supervisor to the officers as an executive for the board. In some cases, townships run local libraries, senior citizen services, youth services, disabled citizen services, emergency assistance, cemetery services.
In some states, a township and a municipality, coterminous with that township may wholly or consolidate their operations. Depending on the state, the township government has varying degrees of authority. In the Upper Midwestern states near the Great Lakes, civil townships, are but not always, overlaid on survey townships; the degree to which these townships are functioning governmental entities varies from state to state and in some cases within a state. For example, townships in the northern part of Illinois are active in providing public services — such as road maintenance, after-school care, senior services — whereas townships in southern Illinois delegate these services to the county. Most townships in Illinois provide services such as snow removal, senior transportation, emergency services to households residing in unincorporated parts of the county; the townships in Illinois each have a township board, whose board members were called township trustees, a single township supervisor. In contrast, civil townships in Indiana are operated in a consistent manner statewide and tend to be well organized, with each served by a single township trustee and a three-member board.
Civil townships in these states are not incorporated, nearby cities may annex land in adjoining townships with relative ease. In Michigan, general law townships are corporate entities, some can become reformulated as charter townships, a status intended to protect against annexation from nearby municipalities and which grants the township some home rule powers similar to cities. In Wisconsin, civil townships are known as "towns" rather than townships, but they function the same as in neighboring states. In Minnesota, state statute refers to such entities as towns yet requires them to have a name in the form "Name Township". In both documents and conversation, "town" and "township" are used interchangeably. Minnesota townships can be either Non-Urban or Urban, but this is not reflected in the township's name. In Ohio, a city or village is overlaid onto a township unless it withdraws by establishing a paper township. Where the paper township does not extend to the city limits, property owners pay taxes for both the township and municipality, though these overlaps are sometimes overlooked by mistake.
Ten other states allow townships and municipalities to overlap. In Kansas, some civil townships provide services such as road maintenance and fire protection services not provided by the county. In New England, the states are subdivided into towns, which are functioning municipal corporations that provide most local services. While counties exist in New England, for the most part they serve as dividing lines for state judicial systems. With the exception of a few remote areas of New Hampshire and Maine, every square foot of New England lies within the borders of an incorporated town. New England has cities, most of which are towns whose residents have voted to replace the town meeting form of government with a city form. In portions of New Hampshire and Maine, county subdivisions that are not incorporated are referred to as townships, or by other terms such as "gore", "grant", "location", "plantation", or "purchase". In New York, counties are further subdivided into towns and cities, the principal forms of local government.
Towns fulfill a function similar to those of townships in other states. As is the case in most of New England, every square foot of New York's territory is incorporated. New York towns contain one or more incorporated villages, village residents pay both town and village taxes. Towns include a number of unincorporated hamlets. A Pennsylvania township is a unit of local government, responsible for services such as police departments, local road and street maintenance, it acts the same as a borough. Townships were established based on convenient geographical boundaries and vary in size from six to fifty-two square miles. A New Jersey township is similar, in that it is a form of municipal government equal in status to a village, borough, or city, provides similar services to a Pennsylvania township. In the South, outside cities and towns there is no local government other than the county. North Carolina is no exception to that rule, but it does have townships as minor geographical subdivisions of counties, including
Arkansas Highway 7
Highway 7 is a north–south state highway that runs across the state of Arkansas. As Arkansas's longest state highway, the route runs 297.27 miles from Louisiana Highway 558 at the Louisiana state line north to Bull Shoals Lake at Diamond City near the Missouri state line. With the exception of the segment north of Harrison, Highway 7 has been designated as an Arkansas Scenic Byway and a National Forest Scenic Byway; the road passes through the heart of both the Ozark Mountains and the Ouachita Mountains, features scenic views. It's the route favored by motorcycle riders touring the region. AR 7 begins at the Louisiana state line near Louisiana, it meets US 63/US 167, which it forms a concurrency with until El Dorado. North of El Dorado AR 7 shoots a spur route named the Calion Cutoff; the route continues north to cross AR 335 before entering Smackover. Arkansas Highway 7 Business goes through downtown Smackover, while the main route runs around the town meeting AR 172. AR 7 continues northwest to enter Ouachita County.
AR 7 runs parallel to AR 376 until meeting the route south of Cullendale. The route continues north to Camden, when it intersects US 79/US 278. AR 7 heads northwest to enter Dallas County. AR 7 continues north to meet AR 208 in Sparkman; the route continues north to AR 8/Dalark. AR 7 runs west after meeting AR 8. AR 7/AR 8 runs to meet AR 51/AR 128 east of Arkadelphia. In Arkadelphia, AR 7 meets US 67, which it follows north to Caddo Valley and Interstate 30. After crossing I-30, AR continues north through DeGray Lake Resort State Park, now entering Hot Spring County, where it meets AR 84 in Bismarck. Highway 7 enters Garland County by crossing over Lake Hamilton and crossing through the community of Lake Hamilton. AR 7 continues into Hot Springs, crossing US 70/US 270; the route enters Hot Springs National Park with AR 128. The route meets AR 298 north of Hot Springs Village, running with it until an area near the Perry County line; the route runs through the Ouachita National Forest until the Fourche Junction meeting with AR 60.
The route continues in Yell County by running through Ola. The route meets AR 28 in Ola. AR 7 continues northeast to Centerville, meeting AR 154 and AR 247. AR 7 meets AR 115 before Dardanelle; the route turns right at Union Street in Dardanelle. The route continues through Russellville, meeting O Street before leaving town. AR 7 meets I-40 north of Russellville. Continuing north, AR 7 meets AR 164 in Dover. In the Ozark National Forest, AR 7 meets AR 123 before entering Newton County. AR 7 breaks north from AR 16 towards AR 74/Jasper. AR 7 crosses AR 206 upon entering Boone County. AR 7 enters Harrison, meeting AR 43, having an designated exception over US 65 Business and US 62/US 65/US 412, it is after this point. The route continues to AR 14/Lead Hill before Diamond City; the route now known as Highway 7 first appears as a state maintained road in 1924, when the Arkansas General Assembly first created a federal aid system. Two main routes, State Road B-14 and State Road A-5 form a rough trail similar to the present-day Highway 7.
Upon creation of the U. S. Route system in 1925, the north and south portions of the highway were replaced by U. S. Route 65 to Harrison and U. S. Route 167, respectively. Arkansas numbered its highways in 1926, the route became Highway 7. Mile markers reset at concurrencies. Arkansas Highway 7 has six total auxiliary routes. AR 7 business in Smackover runs into town. El Dorado, Hot Springs, Russellville all have short spur routes serving as connectors. AR 7 Truck serves as a bypass in Russellville, where AR 7S near Marble Falls serves former amusement park Dogpatch USA. List of state highways in Arkansas List of longest state highways in the United States Media related to Arkansas Highway 7 at Wikimedia Commons
Boone County, Arkansas
Boone County is a county located in the U. S. state of Arkansas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 36,903; the county seat is Harrison. It is Arkansas's 62nd county, formed on April 9, 1869; the headquarters of the Ku Klux Klan is in Boone County. It is part of AR Micropolitan Statistical Area. Boone County was formed from the eastern portion of Carroll County. Contrary to popular belief, it was not named for frontiersman Daniel Boone, it was called Boon, since the residents believed it would be a "boon" to all who settled there. The county’s first newspaper, begun in 1870, was the Boon County Advocate. However, when Governor Powell Clayton signed the act, creating the county 1869 it was titled An Act to Organize and Establish the County of Boone and for Other Purposes. So for whatever reason an "'e'" was added. In 1905 and 1909, race riots were conducted to drive African-Americans out of the area, it was marketed as an all-white sundown town into the 1920s. Today, it is known as a center of white supremacist activity, including the national headquarters of the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 602 square miles, of which 590 sq mi is land and 12 sq mi is water; the county is located in the northwest portion of the state, borders Missouri to the north. The county lies within the Ozark Mountains. Rolling hills characterize the topography, with the more rugged Boston Mountains lying just to the south. Isolated peaks of the Boston Mountain range are found in the south, including Boat Mountain, Pilot's Knob, Gaither Mountain. Portions of Bull Shoals Lake and Table Rock Lake lie in the northeast and northwest corners, respectively; the Corps of Engineers operates and maintains popular campsites on the lakes at Lead Hill and Cricket Creek. Crooked Creek, popular with bass fishermen, winds through the county from south to east. Taney County, Missouri Marion County Searcy County Newton County Carroll County As of the 2000 census, there were 33,948 people, 13,851 households, 9,861 families residing in the county; the population density was 57 people per square mile.
There were 15,426 housing units at an average density of 26 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 97.60% White, 0.11% Black or African American, 0.71% Native American, 0.32% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.34% from other races, 0.90% from two or more races. 1.06% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 13,851 households out of which 30.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.50% were married couples living together, 8.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.80% were non-families. 25.60% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 2.88. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.90% under the age of 18, 8.20% from 18 to 24, 26.50% from 25 to 44, 24.70% from 45 to 64, 16.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.10 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.70 males. The median income for a household in the county was $29,988, the median income for a family was $34,974. Males had a median income of $27,114 versus $19,229 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,175. About 10.70% of families and 14.80% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.00% of those under age 18 and 12.90% of those age 65 or over. Alpena Bergman Harrison Lead Hill Omaha Valley Springs North Arkansas College Diamond City Harrison Batavia Bear Creek Springs Capps Hopewell Little Arkansaw Self Elixir was a town in the vicinity of many springs, it was nearby present day Bergman. Heavy rains flooded the town in 1883, a major factor in its decline by 1892. In the 1880s, both Lead Hill and Elixir were expecting a railroad but none materialized; this helped the town's decline. Although the town is gone, the township of Elixir remains and contains Bergman. Keener was a town around one mile south of present-day Bergman.
Keener had a population of about 1,000 people. But, Keener began to decline fast by 1892. Townships in Arkansas are the divisions of a county; each township includes unincorporated areas. Arkansas townships have limited purposes in modern times. However, the United States Census does list Arkansas population based on townships. Townships are of value for historical purposes in terms of genealogical research; each town or city is within one or more townships in an Arkansas county based on census maps and publications. The townships of Boone County are listed below. Former townships include Bear Creek, Crooked Creek, Harrison and Young. List of lakes in Boone County, Arkansas National Register of Historic Places listings in Boone County, Arkansas Ron McNair, state representative for Boone and Carroll counties since 2015 County government site Unofficial/Community guide site County Ordinances genealogy information pages at USGenWeb Map of Boone County Map of Boone County from Encyclopedia of Arkansas Boone County entry in the Encyclopedia of Arkansas Boone County Historical and Railroad Society, Inc. Boone County School District Reference Map
Harrison is a city in Boone County, United States. It is the county seat of Boone County, it is named after General Marcus LaRue Harrison, a surveyor that laid out the city along Crooked Creek at Stifler Springs. According to 2017 Census Bureau estimates, the population of the city was 13,079, up from 12,943 at the 2010 census and it is the 30th largest city in Arkansas based on official 2017 estimates from the US Census Bureau. Harrison is the principal city of the Harrison Micropolitan Statistical Area, which includes all of Boone and Newton counties. Race riots by whites in 1905 and 1909 drove away black residents, establishing Harrison as a sundown town. Today it is known as a center of white supremacist activity, including the national headquarters of the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. While in the 2010 census the population of Arkansas was 15.7% African-American, in Harrison it was 0.9% and in Boone County 0.5%. Native Americans were the first inhabitants of the area, the first being cliff dwellers who lived in caves in the bluffs along the rivers.
In times, the Osage, a branch of the Sioux, was the main tribe in the Ozarks, one of their larger villages is thought to have been to the east of the present site of Harrison. The Shawnee and Caddo people were familiar to the area; the Cherokee did not get along with the Osage. This hostility erupted into a full-scale war in the Ozark Mountains. By the 1830s both tribes were removed to Indian Territory, it is possible that the first white men to visit the area were some forty followers of Hernando de Soto and that they camped at a Native village on the White River at the mouth of Bear Creek. It is more that the discoverers were French hunters or trappers who followed the course of the White River. In early 1857, the Baker-Fancher wagon train assembled at Beller's Stand, south of Harrison. On September 11, 1857 120 members of this wagon train were murdered near Mountain Meadows, Utah Territory, by attacking local Mormon militia and members of the Paiute Indian tribe. In 1955, a monument to memorialize the victims of the massacre was placed on the Harrison town square.
Boone County was organized during Reconstruction after the Civil War. Harrison was made the county seat, it is named after a Union officer who surveyed and platted the town. The town of Harrison was incorporated on March 1, 1876; the notorious bank robber and convicted murderer Henry Starr met his fate in Harrison on February 18, 1921, when Starr and three companions entered the People's State Bank and robbed it of $6,000.00. During the robbery, Starr was shot by the former president of William J. Myers. Starr was carried to the town jail. On May 7, 1961, heavy rain caused Crooked Creek south of the downtown business district, to flood the town square and much of the southwestern part of the city. Water levels inside buildings reached eight feet. Many small buildings and automobiles were swept away. According to the American Red Cross, four lives were lost, 80 percent of the town's business district was destroyed, over 300 buildings were damaged or destroyed in losses exceeding $5.4 million. Harrison is just north of the Buffalo National River.
On March 1, 1972, 100 years after the establishment of the first National Park at Yellowstone National Park, President Richard Nixon signed into law the Buffalo National River as the first National River in the United States. The project was spearheaded by longtime congressman John Paul Hammerschmidt of Arkansas. In 1982, Kingdom Identity Ministries, an anti-gay Christian Identity outreach ministry identified as a hate group by the Southern Poverty Law Center, was founded in Harrison. In 2014, a peace march and vigil celebrating the life and legacy of Martin Luther King Jr. was held in downtown Harrison. The march was hosted by the Arkansas Martin Luther King Jr. Commission. U. S. Routes 62, 65, 412 pass through Harrison. U. S. 65 leads north 33 miles to Branson and south 108 miles to Conway, Arkansas. U. S. 62 leads beyond to Rogers and Bentonville. U. S. 412 leads west 73 miles to Springdale. U. S. 62 and 412 combined lead east 48 miles to Mountain Home. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 11.1 square miles, of which 11.1 square miles is land and 0.04 square miles, or 0.26%, is water.
As of the census of 2010, there were 6,043 housing units in the city. The racial makeup of the city was 96.2% White, 0.3% Black or African American, 0.6% American Indian and Alaska Native, 0.7% Asian, 0.0% Pacific Islander, 1.6% from two or more races. 2.2% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 23.2% of the population was under the age of 18, 19.0% were 65 years of age or older. Females made up 53.1% of the population, males made up 46.9% of the population. The median income for the period 2007-11 for a household in the city was $33,244, the number of people living below the poverty level was 15.1%. The median value of owner-occupied housing units was $108,700; the Boone County Courthouse, built in 1909, the Boone County Jail, built in 1914, were both designed by architect Charles L. Thompson and are listed on the U. S. National Register of Historic Places. Harrison is home to the general office of a leading Less-Than-Load freight carrier. Arkansas Freightways renamed to American Freightways, was combined with Viking Freight to become FedEx Freight in February 2001.
Walmart store #2 opened in 1965. Claridge Products and Equipment, Inc. is one of the largest Visual Display Board manufacturers in the world
Alpena is a town in Boone and Carroll counties in the U. S. state of Arkansas. The population was 392 at the 2010 census; the Boone County portion of Alpena is part of the Harrison Micropolitan Statistical Area. Alpena Pass was founded in 1908 on top of a graveyard shortly after the Missouri and North Arkansas Railroad was built through Boone County. In the 1950s, the word "pass" was dropped from the name, thus creating Alpena. At the time of the town's founding, the town of Carrollton was in decline. Many of the buildings of Carrollton were disassembled and reassembled at Alpena Pass. MADtv's Rice and Beans Tour once came through the town, doing a tongue-in-cheek exposé about rural America, they encountered a drug-intoxicated woman and had an interview with the "mayor". Alpena is located at 36°17′37″N 93°17′46″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 3.5 km², all land. U. S. Highway 62 US 412 As of the census of 2000, there were 371 people, 146 households, 95 families residing in the town.
The population density was 105.3/km². There were 170 housing units at an average density of 48.3/km². The racial makeup of the town was 96.50% White, 2.16% Native American, 0.27% Asian, 1.08% from two or more races. 2.43% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 146 households out of which 35.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.9% were married couples living together, 12.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.9% were non-families. 31.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 19.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.54 and the average family size was 3.21. In the town, the population was spread out with 31.0% under the age of 18, 7.3% from 18 to 24, 26.1% from 25 to 44, 18.3% from 45 to 64, 17.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females, there were 83.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.6 males. The median income for a household in the town was $23,906, the median income for a family was $28,333.
Males had a median income of $29,000 versus $17,125 for females. The per capita income for the town was $13,429. About 7.3% of families and 13.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.0% of those under age 18 and 29.4% of those age 65 or over. The Boone County portion of Alpena, along with part of the Carroll County portion Alpena is within the Alpena School District, which leads to graduation from Alpena High School A small part of the Carroll County portion of Alpena is within the Green Forest School District; the climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Alpena has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps. Ron McNair, Republican member of the Arkansas House of Representatives for Boone and Carroll counties since 2015. Alpena School District Town government information Detailed 2000 Census Statistics Boone County School District Reference Map Carroll County School District Reference Map
Harrison, Arkansas micropolitan area
The Harrison Micropolitan Statistical Area, as defined by the United States Census Bureau, is an area consisting of two counties in the U. S. state of Arkansas, anchored by the city of Harrison. As of the 2000 census, the μSA had a population of 42,556. Boone Newton Alpena Bellefonte Bergman Diamond City Everton Harrison Jasper Lead Hill Omaha South Lead Hill Valley Springs Western Grove Zinc Marble Falls Olvey As of the census of 2000, there were 42,556 people, 17,351 households, 12,356 families residing within the μSA; the racial makeup of the μSA was 97.56% White, 0.12% African American, 0.68% Native American, 0.29% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.35% from other races, 0.99% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.06% of the population. The median income for a household in the μSA was $27,372, the median income for a family was $32,554. Males had a median income of $24,760 versus $18,442 for females; the per capita income for the μSA was $14,982. Arkansas census statistical areas