Guadalcanal is the principal island in Guadalcanal Province of the nation of Solomon Islands, located in the south-western Pacific, northeast of Australia. The island is covered in dense tropical rainforest and has a mountainous interior. Guadalcanal's discovery by westerners was under the Spanish expedition of Álvaro de Mendaña in 1568; the name comes from the village of Guadalcanal, in the province of Seville, in Andalusia, birthplace of Pedro de Ortega Valencia, a member of Mendaña's expedition. During 1942–43, it was the scene of the Guadalcanal Campaign and saw bitter fighting between Japanese and US troops; the Americans were victorious. At the end of World War II, Honiara, on the north coast of Guadalcanal, became the new capital of the British Solomon Islands Protectorate. A Spanish expedition from Peru under the command of Álvaro de Mendaña de Neira discovered the island in the year 1568. Mendaña's subordinate, Pedro de Ortega Valencia, named the island after his home town Guadalcanal in Andalusia, Spain.
The name comes from the Arabic Wādī l-Khānāt, which means "Valley of the Stalls" or "River of Stalls", referring to the refreshment stalls which were set up there during Muslim rule in Andalusia. In the years that followed the discovery, the island was variously referred to as Guadarcana, Guarcana and Guadalcanar, which reflected different pronunciations of its name in Andalusian Spanish. European settlers and missionaries began to arrive in the 18th and 19th centuries, in the year 1893, the British Solomon Islands Protectorate was proclaimed which included the island of Guadalcanal. In 1932, the British confirmed the name Guadalcanal in line with the town in Spain. In the months following the attack on Pearl Harbor in December 1941, the Japanese drove the Americans out of the Philippines, the British out of British Malaya, the Dutch out of the East Indies; the Japanese began to expand into the Western Pacific, occupying many islands in an attempt to build a defensive ring around their conquests and threaten the lines of communication from the United States to Australia and New Zealand.
The Japanese reached Guadalcanal in May 1942. When an American reconnaissance mission spotted construction of a Japanese airfield at Lunga Point on the north coast of Guadalcanal, the situation became critical; this new Japanese airfield represented a threat to Australia itself, so the United States as a matter of urgency, despite not being adequately prepared, conducted its first amphibious landing of the war. The initial landings of US Marines on 7 August 1942 secured the airfield without too much difficulty, but holding the airfield for the next six months was one of the most hotly contested campaigns in the entire war for the control of ground and skies. Guadalcanal became a major turning point in the war. After six months of fighting, the Japanese ceased contesting the control of the island, they evacuated the island at Cape Esperance on the north west coast in February 1943. After landing on the island, the US Navy Seabees began finishing the airfield begun by the Japanese, it was named Henderson Field after a Marine aviator killed in combat during the Battle of Midway.
Aircraft operating from Henderson Field during the campaign were a hodgepodge of Marine, Army and allied aircraft that became known as the Cactus Air Force. They defended the airfield and threatened any Japanese ships that ventured into the vicinity during daylight hours. However, at night, Japanese naval forces were able to shell the airfield and deliver troops with supplies, retiring before daylight; the Japanese used fast ships to make these runs, this became known as the Tokyo Express. So many ships from both sides were sunk in the many engagements in and around the Solomon Island chain that the nearby waters were referred to as Ironbottom Sound; the Battle of Cape Esperance was fought on 11 October 1942 off the northwest coast of Guadalcanal. In the battle, United States Navy ships intercepted and defeated a Japanese formation of ships on their way down'the Slot' to reinforce and resupply troops on the island, but suffered losses as well; the Naval Battle of Guadalcanal in November marked the turning point in which Allied Naval forces took on the experienced Japanese surface forces at night and forced them to withdraw after sharp action.
Some Japanese viewpoints consider these engagements, the improving Allied surface capability to challenge their surface ships at night, to be just as significant as the Battle of Midway in turning the tide against them. After six months of hard combat in and around Guadalcanal and dealing with jungle diseases that took a heavy toll of troops on both sides, Allied forces managed to halt the Japanese advance and dissuade them from contesting the control of the island by driving the last of the Japanese troops into the sea on 15 January 1943. American authorities declared Guadalcanal secure on 9 February 1943. Two US Navy ships have been named for the battle: USS Guadalcanal, a World War II escort carrier. USS Guadalcanal, an amphibious assault ship. To date, the only Coast Guardsman recipient of the Medal of Honor is Signalman 1st Class Douglas Albert Munro, awarded posthumously for his extraordinary heroism on 27 September 1942 at Point Cruz, Guadalcanal. Munro provided a shield and covering fire, helped evacuate 500 besieged Marines from a beach at Point Cruz.
During the Battle for Guadalcanal, the Medal of Honor was awarded to John Basilone who died on Iwo Jima. After the Second World War, the capital of the British Solomon Islands Protectorate was moved to Honiara on Guadalcanal from its previous location
The island of Makira is the largest island of Makira-Ulawa Province in the Solomon Islands. The island is located east of south of Malaita; the largest and capital city is Kirakira. The first recorded sighting by Europeans of Makira was by the Spanish expedition of Álvaro de Mendaña in June 1568. More the sighting and landing in San Cristobal was due to a local voyage that set out from Guadalcanal in a small boat, in the accounts the brigantine Santiago, commanded by Alférez Hernando Enriquez and having Hernán Gallego as pilot, they charted it as San Cristóbal. Media related to Makira at Wikimedia Commons
The Cove (film)
The Cove is a 2009 documentary film directed by Louie Psihoyos which analyzes and questions dolphin hunting practices in Japan. It was awarded the 2010 Oscar for Best Documentary Feature in 2010; the film is a call to action to halt mass dolphin kills, change Japanese fishing practices, to inform and educate the public about the risks, increasing hazard, of mercury poisoning from dolphin meat. The film is told from an ocean conservationist's point of view; the film highlights the fact that the number of dolphins killed in the Taiji dolphin drive hunting is several times greater than the number of whales killed in the Antarctic, asserts that 23,000 dolphins and porpoises are killed in Japan every year by the country's whaling industry. The migrating dolphins are herded into a cove where they are netted and killed by means of spears and knives over the side of small fishing boats; the film argues that dolphin hunting as practiced in Japan is cruel. Since the film's release, The Cove has drawn controversy over neutrality, secret filming, its portrayal of the Japanese people.
The film was directed by former National Geographic photographer Louie Psihoyos. Portions were filmed secretly in 2007 using underwater microphones and high-definition cameras disguised as rocks; the documentary won the U. S. Audience Award at the 25th annual Sundance Film Festival in January 2009, it was selected out of the 879 submissions in the category. The film follows former dolphin trainer and activist Ric O'Barry's quest to document the dolphin hunting operations in Taiji, Japan. In the 1960s, O'Barry helped capture and train the five wild dolphins who shared the role of "Flipper" in the hit television series of the same name; the show popular, fueled widespread public adoration of dolphins, influencing the development of marine parks that included dolphins in their attractions. After one of the dolphins, in O'Barry's opinion, committed a form of suicide in his arms by closing her blowhole voluntarily in order to suffocate, O'Barry came to see the dolphin's captivity and the dolphin capture industry as a curse, not a blessing.
Days he was arrested off the island of Bimini, attempting to cut a hole in the sea pen in order to set free a captured dolphin. Since according to the film, O'Barry has dedicated himself full-time as an advocate on behalf of dolphins around the world. After meeting with O'Barry and his crew travel to Taiji, Japan, a town that appears to be devoted to dolphins and whales. In a nearby, isolated cove, surrounded by wire fences and "Keep Out" signs, an activity takes place that the townspeople attempt to hide from the public. In the cove, a group of Taiji fishermen engage in dolphin drive hunting; the film states that the dolphin hunt is, in large part, motivated by the tremendous revenue generated for the town by selling some of the captured dolphins, female bottlenose dolphins, to aquariums and marine parks and killing the majority of the rest. The dolphins that are not sold into captivity are slaughtered in the cove and the meat is sold in supermarkets. According to the evidence presented in the film, the local Japanese government officials are involved in the hiding of the hunting, the Japanese public is not aware of the hunt and the marketing of dolphin meat.
The film states that the dolphin meat contains dangerously high levels of mercury and interviews two local politicians, Taiji city councilors who have, for that reason, advocated the removal of dolphin meat from local school lunches. Attempts to view or film the dolphin killing in the cove are physically blocked by local police and the Japanese local government who treat the visitors with open intimidation and anger. Foreigners who come to Taiji, including The Cove's film crew, are shadowed and questioned by local police. In response, together with the Oceanic Preservation Society, Psihoyos, O'Barry, the crew utilize special tactics and technology to covertly film what is taking place in the cove; the film reports on Japan's alleged "buying" of votes of poor nations in the International Whaling Commission. The film indicates that while Dominica has withdrawn from the IWC, Japan has recruited the following nations to its whaling agenda: Cambodia, Eritrea, Guinea-Bissau, Kiribati and the Republic of the Marshall Islands.
At the end of the film, O'Barry shows footage of the Taiji dolphin slaughter to a Japanese official, after the official denies the incident. The film cuts to a scene showing an annual meeting of the International Whaling Commission. O'Barry marches into a meeting of the Commission strapping a TV showing the footage on his chest. O'Barry walks around the crowded meeting room displaying the images until he is escorted from the room; the film used specialized camouflaged high-definition cameras. These hidden cameras helped capture footage and were so well camouflaged that, according to director Louie Psihoyos, the crew had a hard time finding them again, they used a high grade military thermal camera and different night vision cameras in the production of the documentary. The film received predominately positive reviews from critics. Roger Ebert gave the film four stars, calling the film "a certain Oscar nominee". Jeannette Catsoulis of The New York Times called the film "an exceptionally well-made documentary that unfolds like a spy thriller", going on to describe it as "one of the most audacious and perilous operations in the history of the conservation movement".
Other reviewers played up the espionage angle of the film, including Time magazine's Mary Pols who s
Malaita is the largest island of the Malaita Province in Solomon Islands. South Malaita Island known as Small Malaita and Maramasike for Areare speakers and Malamweimwei known to more than 80% of the islanders, is the island at the southern tip of the larger island of Malaita. A tropical and mountainous island, Malaita's pristine river systems and tropical forests have not been exploited. Malaita is the second most populous island of the Solomon Islands, with a population of 140,000, or more than a third of the entire national population; the largest city and provincial capital is Auki, on the northwest coast and is on the northern shore of the Langa Langa Lagoon. The people of the Langa Langa Lagoon and the Lau Lagoon on the northeast coast of Malaita call themselves wane i asi ‘salt-water people’ as distinct from wane i tolo ‘bush people’ who live in the interior of the island. Most local names for the island are Mala; the name Malaita or Malayta appears in the logbook of the Spanish explorers who in the 16th century visited the islands, claimed that to be the actual name.
They first saw the island from Santa Isabel. One theory is that "ita" was added on, as the Bughotu word for up or east, or in this context "there." Bishop George Augustus Selwyn referred to it as Malanta in 1850. Mala was the name used under British control; the name Big Malaita is used to distinguish it from the smaller South Malaita Island. Malaita was, along with the other Solomon Islands, settled by Austronesian speakers between 5000 and 3500 years ago. However, Malaita has not been archaeologically examined, a chronology of its prehistory is difficult to establish. In the traditional account of the Kwara'ae, their founding ancestor arrived about twenty generations ago, landed first on Guadalcanal, but followed a magical staff which led him on to the middle of Malaita, where he established their cultural norms, his descendents dispersed to the lowland areas on the edges of the island. First recorded sighting by Europeans of Malaita was by the Spaniard Álvaro de Mendaña on 11 April 1568. More the sighting was due to a local voyage done by a small boat, in the accounts the brigantine Santiago, commanded by Maestre de Campo Pedro Ortega Valencia and having Hernán Gallego as pilot.
In his account, Gallego chief pilot of Mendaña's expedition, establishes that they called the island Malaita after its native name and explored much of the coast, though not the north side. The Maramasiki Passage was thought to be a river. At one point they were fired at with arrows. However, after this discovery, the entire Solomon Islands chain was not found, its existence doubted, for two hundred years. After it was re-discovered in the late 18th century, Malaitans were subjected to harsh treatment from whaling boat crews and blackbirders. Contact with outsiders brought new opportunities for education; the first Malaitans to learn to read and write were Joseph Wate and Watehou, who accompanied Bishop John Coleridge Patteson to St John's College, Auckland. From the 1870s to 1903 Malaitan men comprised the largest number of Solomon Islander participants in the indentured labour trade to Queensland, Australia and to Fiji; the 1870s were a time of illegal recruiting practices known as blackbirding.
Malaitans are known to have volunteered as indentured labourers with some making their second trip to work on plantations, although the labour system remained exploitative. In 1901 the Commonwealth of Australia enacted the Pacific Island Labourers Act 1901 which facilitated the deportation of Pacific Islanders, the precursor to the White Australia policy; however many islanders formed the South Sea Islander community of Australia. Many labourers that returned to Malaita had become Christian; the skills of literacy and protest letters as to being deported from Australia was a precedent for the Maasina Ruru movement. Many of the earliest missionaries, both Catholic and Protestant, were killed, this violent reputation survives in the geographic name of Cape Arsacides, the eastward bulge of the northern part of the island, meaning Cape of the Assassins; the cape was mentioned in Herman Melville's epic novel Moby Dick by Ishmael, the novel's narrator. Ishmael talks of his friendship with the fictional Tranquo, King of Tranque.
However, some of the earliest missionaries were Malaitans who had worked abroad, such as Peter Ambuofa, baptised at Bundaberg, Queensland in 1892, gathered a Christian community around him when he returned in 1894. In response to his appeals, Florence Young led the first party of the Queensland Kanaka Mission to the Solomons in 1904. Anglican and Catholic churches missionized at this point; as the international labour trade slowed, an internal labour trade within the archipelago developed, by the 1920s thousands of Malaitans worked on plantations on other islands. At this time, there was no central power among the groups on Malaita, there were numerous blood feuds, exacerbated by the introduction of Western guns, steel tools which meant less time constraints for gardening. Around 1880, one of the chiefs, negotiated with labour recruiters to receive a supply of weapons in exchange of workers, based on a similar negotiation made by a chief on the Shortland Islands. However, labour recruitment was not always smooth.
In 1886, the vessel Young Dick was attacked at Sinerango, Mal
Rob Roy Island
Rob Roy Island, native name Velaviru, is an island in the Solomon Islands located off the South East coast of Choiseul Island. The island is covered with coconut jungle; the island has a summit elevation of 150m. Nagosele Passage divides Rob Roy Island from Choiseul Island NotesRob Roy - Bird Checklists for 440 Melanesian Islands
Whale meat, broadly speaking, may include all cetaceans and all parts of the animal: muscle and fat. There is little demand for it, compared to farmed livestock, commercial whaling, which has faced opposition for decades, continues today in few countries, although whale meat used to be eaten across Western Europe and colonial America. However, wherever dolphin drive hunting and aboriginal whaling exist, marine mammals are eaten locally as part of the subsistence economy: in the Faroe Islands. Like horse meat, for some cultures whale meat is taboo, or a food of last resort, e.g. in times of war, whereas in others it is a delicacy and a culinary centrepiece. Indigenous groups contend, its consumption has been denounced by detractors on wildlife conservation and animal rights grounds. Whale meat can be prepared in various ways, including salt-curing, which means that consumption is not restricted to coastal communities. Whales were hunted in European waters throughout the Middle Ages for their oil.
Under Catholicism, aquatic creatures were considered "fish". An alternative explanation is that the Church considered "hot meat" to raise the libido, making it unfit for holy days. Parts submerged in water, such as whale or beaver tails, were considered "cold meat." See Fasting and abstinence in the Catholic Church. Eating whale meat did not end with the Middle Ages in Europe, but rather, whale stock in nearby oceans collapsed due to overexploitation the right whales around the Bay of Biscay, thus European whalers had to seek out the New World to catch whales. The Dutch were active in the whaling commerce during the Middle Ages, a number of records regarding the trafficking of whalemeat and taxation on it occur from historical Flanders. French surgeon Ambroise Paré wrote that "the flesh has no value, but the tongue is soft and delicious and therefore salted; this blubber, known as craspois or lard de carême was food for the poorer strata on the continent. The whaling industry in North America may have supplied rendered fat for consumption in Europe.
In early America, whalemen may have eaten blubber after rendering, which they termed "cracklings" or "fritters", said to be crunchy like toast. Colonial America more consumed the meat and other portions of the "blackfish". However, by the beginning of large-scale commercial whaling, whale meat was not consumed by the general American public, as it was not seen as fit for consumption by so-called civilized peoples. Minke whale is one of the most common species still hunted in substantial numbers. Baleen whales other than the minke are endangered, though they are taken in numbers by indigenous peoples who traditionally hunt them, more the whaling nations have resumed hunting larger baleen whales openly. In 1998-1999, Harvard researchers published their DNA identifications of samples of whalemeat they obtained in the Japanese market, found that mingled among the legal was a sizeable proportion of dolphin and porpoise meats, instances of endangered species such as fin whale and humpback whale. In recent years Japan has resumed taking North Pacific fin whale and sei whales in their "research whaling".
The fin whales are desired because they yield arguably the best quality of tail meat. Japanese research vessels refer to the harvested whale meat as incidental byproducts which have resulted from study. In Japan, the research whale meat was sold at published prices, but since 2011 an auction bid system has been adopted and actual realized prices have not been posted; the channels through which premium cuts such as fin whale tail meat are sold remain opaque. A report by one of the Greenpeace Japan activists who intercepted whale meat package deliveries got no further than the sentiment by one restaurateur that it would take Nagatachō connections to get it. In places such as Norway and Alaska, whale meat may be served without seasoning. However, it can be cured or marinated, or made into jerky. In Norway, whale meat was a common food until the 80s, it could be used in many ways but was cooked in a pot with lid in a little water so that broth was created and served with potatoes and vegetables with flatbrød at the side.
The consumption of whale meat by the Inuit people in Greenland is part of their culture. However, in 2010, tourists have begun to consume the meat. A Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society investigation has documented the practice of commercial wholesalers commissioning subsistence whalers to supply the demand by supermarkets. Whale products in Greenland are sold in 4-star hotels. Whales have been hunted
Malaita dolphin drive hunt
Dolphin are hunted in Malaita, in the Solomon Islands in the South Pacific for their meat and teeth, sometimes for live capture for dolphinariums. Dolphin drive hunting is practised by coastal communities around the world. A large-scale example is the Taiji dolphin drive hunt, made famous by the Oscar-winning documentary film The Cove; the hunt on South Malaita Island is smaller in scale. After capture, the meat is shared between households. Dolphin teeth are used in jewelry and as currency on the island; the dolphins are hunted in a similar fashion as in other drives, using stones instead of metal rods to produce sounds to scare and confuse the dolphins. The hunting season lasts from December to April, when the dolphins are closest to shore; as in other countries, the dolphins are hunted for their meat for local consumption, and, as explained below, the Malaitans have experimented with live capture for export. One reason for the hunt that appears to be specific to the Solomon Islands, however, is the desirability attached to the teeth of certain species.
The dolphin teeth have a value in trade and in brideprice ceremonial traditions, funeral feasts and for compensation. The teeth of Melon-headed whale were traditionally the most desirable, however hunting resulted in that species dolphins becoming rare in the ocean off Malaita; the other species hunted are the Pantropical Spotted Dolphin. While Indo-Pacific Bottlenose Dolphin have been captured for live export, their teeth are not considered to have any value. According to Malaitian oral history, a Polynesian woman named Barafaifu introduced dolphin drive hunting to Malaita from Ontong Java Atoll, she settled in Fanalei village. Dolphin hunting ceased in the mid-19th century; the influence of Christian missionaries is thought to be the cause of the end to hunting. However, in 1948 dolphin hunting was revived in Fanalei, Walande, located 10 km to the north, as well as at villages on Malaita, including Ata’a, Sulufou and at Mbita’ama harbour. However, Fanalei in South Malaita remained the preeminent dolphin hunting village.
The amount of dolphins killed each year was not known in 2008, but anecdotal information suggested between 600 and 1500 dolphins per hunting season. The capture and trade of wild dolphins is prohibited in the Western Province of the Solomon Islands. In April 2009 it was decided by CITES that an in-depth review of the commercial dolphin trade conducted from the Solomon Islands should take place, this after the IUCN Cetacean Specialist Group came to the conclusion that insufficient population data exists to prove the sustainability of the wild captures and the current export quota of 100 animals per year; the Solomon Island Dolphin Abundance Project was established to provide data on the size of the local Indo-Pacific Bottlenose population and the sustainability of the dolphin hunts. A report published in March 2013 as a result of this effort indicated that the capture of dolphins in the Solomon Islands can only be sustainable at a low rate and that previous rates of capture as seen between 2003 and 2013 would not be sustainable in the future.
The Solomon Islands signed the Memorandum of Understanding for the Conservation of Cetaceans and their Habitats in the Pacific Islands Region under the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals in 2007, a commitment to improve conservation efforts, reduce threats and undertake research and monitoring of cetaceans and provide reports. In recent years only villages in South Malaita Island have continued to hunt dolphin. In 2010, the villages of Fanalei and Bitamae signed a MoU with the non-governmental organization, Earth Island Institute, to stop hunting dolphin. However, in early 2013 the agreement broke down and some men in Fanalei resumed hunting; the hunting of dolphin continued in early 2014. Researchers from the South Pacific Whale Research Consortium, the Solomon Islands Ministry of Fisheries and Marine Resources, Oregon State University’s Marine Mammal Institute have concluded that hunters from the village of Fanalei killed more than 1,600 dolphins in 2013, included at least 1,500 pantropical spotted dolphins, 159 spinner dolphins and 15 bottlenose dolphins.
The total number total number killed during the period 1976-2013 was more than 15,400. The price at which dolphin tooth are traded in Malaita rose from the equivalent of 18c in 2004 to about 90c in 2013. Gordon Lilo, the prime minister of the Solomon Islands, announced in 2014 that he opposes export of live dolphins, but defends the traditional hunting of dolphin; some bottlenosed dolphins have been sold to the entertainment industry. There was much controversy in July 2003, when 28 Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins were exported to Parque Nizuc, a water park in Cancun. A large portion of the animals were transported to Cozumel, to do interaction programs. Though the export of dolphins had been banned in 2005, the export of dolphins was resumed in October 2007 when the ban was lifted following a court decision, allowing for 28 dolphins to be sent to a dolphinarium in Dubai. A further three dolphins were found dead near the holding pens; the dealer that exported these dolphins has stated that they intend to release their 17 remaining dolphins back into the wild in the future.
Tourism minister Bartholomew Parapolo visited Bita'ama community in 2015 and offered to fund eco-tourism business project involving swimming with dolphins, if they ceased killing