John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry
John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry was an effort by abolitionist John Brown to initiate an armed slave revolt in 1859 by taking over a United States arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia. Brown's party of 22 was defeated by a company of U. S. Marines, led by First Lieutenant Israel Greene. Colonel Robert E. Lee was in overall command of the operation to retake the arsenal. John Brown had asked Harriet Tubman and Frederick Douglass, both of whom he had met in his transformative years as an abolitionist in Springfield, Massachusetts, to join him in his raid, but Tubman was prevented by illness and Douglass declined, as he believed Brown's plan would fail. John Brown rented the Kennedy Farmhouse, with a small cabin nearby, 4 miles north of Harpers Ferry near the community of Dargan in Washington County and took up residence under the name Isaac Smith. Brown came with a small group of men minimally trained for military action, his group included 18 men besides himself. Northern abolitionist groups sent 198 breech-loading.52 caliber Sharps carbines and 950 pikes, in preparation for the raid.
The United States Armory was a huge complex of buildings that manufactured small arms for the U. S. Army, with an Arsenal, thought to contain 100,000 muskets and rifles at the time. Brown attempted to attract more black recruits, he tried recruiting Frederick Douglass as a liaison officer to the slaves in a meeting held in a quarry at Chambersburg, Pennsylvania. It was at this meeting that ex-slave "Emperor" Shields Green consented to join with John Brown on his attack on the United States Armory, Green stating to Douglass "I believe I will go with the old man". Douglass declined; the plan was "an attack on the federal government" that "would array the whole country against us... You will never get out alive", he warned; the Kennedy Farmhouse served as "barracks, supply depot, mess hall, debate club, home". It was crowded and life there was tedious. Brown was worried about arousing neighbors' suspicions; as a result, the raiders had to stay indoors during the daytime, without much to do but study, argue politics, discuss religion, play cards and checkers.
Brown's daughter-in-law Martha served as housekeeper. His daughter Annie served as lookout. Brown wanted women at the farm; the raiders went outside at night to get fresh air. Thunderstorms were welcome. Brown did not plan to escape to the mountains. Rather, he intended to use those rifles and pikes he captured at the arsenal, in addition to those he brought along, to arm rebellious slaves with the aim of striking terror in the slaveholders in Virginia, he believed. He ridiculed the militia and regular army, he planned rallying the slaves. He planned to hold Harpers Ferry for a short time, expecting that as many volunteers and black, would join him as would form against him, he would move southward, sending out armed bands along the way. They would free more slaves, obtain food and hostages, destroy slaveholders' morale. Brown planned to follow the Appalachian Mountains south into Tennessee and Alabama, the heart of the South, making forays into the plains on either side. Brown paid Hugh Forbes $600 to be his drillmaster.
Forbes was an English mercenary. Forbes' Manual for the Patriotic Volunteer was found in Brown's papers after the raid. Brown and Forbes argued over money. Forbes wanted more money. Forbes sent threatening letters to Brown's backers in an attempt to get money. Failing in this effort, Forbes traveled to Washington, DC, met with U. S. Senators William H. Seward and Henry Wilson, he denounced Brown to Seward as a "vicious man" who needed to be restrained, but did not disclose any plans for the raid. Forbes exposed the plan to Senator Wilson and others. Wilson wrote to Samuel Gridley Howe, a Brown backer, advising him to get Brown's backers to retrieve the weapons intended for use in Kansas. Brown's backers told him that the weapons should not be used "for other purposes, as rumor says they may be." In response to warnings, Brown had to return to Kansas to discredit Forbes. Some historians believe that this trip cost Brown valuable momentum. Estimates are. Many others had reasons to believe. One of those who knew was David J. Gue of Iowa.
Gue was a Quaker who believed that his men would be killed. Gue, his brother, another man decided to warn the government "to protect Brown from the consequences of his own rashness." Gue sent an anonymous letter dated August 20, 1859, to Secretary of War John B. Floyd; the letter said that "old John Brown,' late of Kansas," was planning to organize a slave uprising in the South. It said; the letter said. Gue warned that Brown planned to enter Virginia at Harpers Ferry. Gue acknowledged that he was afraid to disclose his identity but asked Floyd not to ignore his warning "on that account."
Fox's Gap known as Fox Gap, is a wind gap in the South Mountain Range of the Blue Ridge Mountains, located in Frederick County and Washington County, Maryland. The gap is traversed by Reno Monument Road; the Appalachian Trail crosses the gap along the ridgeline. The gap is about 200 feet below the ridge line to the north, 400 feet below the ridge line to the south and about 400 feet above the surrounding lowlands. To the east of the gap lies the Middletown Valley and to the west the Hagerstown Valley. Turner's Gap is 1 mile to the north, while Lambs Knoll is to the south; the area was settled in early 1751 by the John and Christiana Fox family and their son Frederick, German immigrants from Hesse. Frederick assembled adjoining lands which extended to Turner's Gap; the area is first mentioned as "Foxes Gap" in a September 1792 letter. Frederick Fox moved to Ohio in the early 1800s after the death of his wife. Fox’s gap was in use by Euromerican colonists for decades before anyone settled there on the slopes of the mountain or gave it a lasting name though.
This was the early route of what would be known as The Great Philadelphia Wagon Road. John MacGruder’s 1732 patent along Catoctin Creek is described as “about 1/2 mile above the wagon road that goes from Connestoga to Opeckon” indicating the road being well established by that early date; the main migration wagon road would be relocated to the center of the valley, but the Middletown to Sharpsburg route would remain in use as a local road over the same road beds from the 1730’s until present. The Daniel Wise family bought a portion of the property in 1858 for $46.96, clearing fields and building a log cabin. The Wise House was demolished in 1919. On September 14, 1862 the area was the scene some of the heaviest engagements of the Battle of South Mountain; the Reno Monument erected in 1889 by fellow soldiers at the top of Fox's Gap along Reno Monument Road commemorates the death of Union general Jesse L. Reno. Another monument has been erected nearby in the 1990s, which commemorates the death of Confederate Brig.
General Samuel Garland, Jr. and about a half-mile south is a bronze sculpture on a granite stone base dedicated in 2005 to remember the North Carolina troops that held the line here. The area is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as part of the Turner's and Fox's Gaps Historic District
Burkittsville is a town in Frederick County, United States. The population was 151 in the 2010 census. Burkittsville is located at 39°23.5′N 77°37.6′W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 0.45 square miles, all of it land. English settlement in this region began in the early 18th century. Land was being surveyed and patented in the south-western portion of the Middletown Valley beginning in the 1720s; the first land tract to be patented within the present boundaries of Burkittsville was "Dawson's Purchase," dated May 14, 1741. The Harley/Arnold Farm, located on the western border of the village at the base of South Mountain, stands on the "Dawson's Purchase" tract. Burkittsville was first founded by two property owners: Henry Burkitt; the western half was first founded as "Harley's Post Office" in 1824. After Harley's passing in 1828, Burkitt renamed it Burkittsville. Over the next thirty years it grew as a community with stores, blacksmiths, a schoolhouse, a tannery.
On September 13, 1862, Confederate cavalry under command of Colonel Thomas Munford occupied Burkittsville. On Sunday, September 14, the forces of the Union and Confederate armies engaged in the Battle of Crampton's Gap, a bloody prelude to the Battle of Antietam; the Reformed and Lutheran churches and adjacent schoolhouse were used as hospitals for the more than 300 wounded of both sides. These buildings still stand today. Characterized as the trigger to Antietam, victory at Crampton's Gap embodied Union Gen. George B. McClellan's strategic reaction to his acquiring the legendary “Lost Order” at Frederick which disclosed Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee's campaign movements, it was McClellan's intention to “cut the enemy in two and beat him in detail”. After seizing Crampton's Gap Gen. William B. Franklin failed to relieve the besieged Union garrison at Harpers Ferry, more to prevent Confederate generals James Longstreet and “Stonewall” Jackson from reuniting at Sharpsburg. There Lee hastily stood his ground in the war's bloodiest day.
President Abraham Lincoln used the marginal Union victory at Antietam as a springboard to his Emancipation Proclamation which changed war aims. Without the fall of Crampton's Gap there would have been no Antietam. Nearly all of Burkittsville is a historic district, listed on the National Register of Historic Places on November 20, 1975; the 300 acres district includes about 70 contributing structures. The Burkittsville Historic District is itself part of the larger Crampton's Gap Historic District, which comprises the southern portion of the lands involved in the Battle of South Mountain, extending from the western side of Crampton's Gap, over South Mountain and about a mile to the east of Burkittsville. Burkittsville gained uninvited attention with the 1999 release of the film The Blair Witch Project and the franchise it spawned. "The poor town of Burkittsville found itself overrun with Blair Witch groupies, wandering around in the woods, trying to find the'real' places where the story had happened."
Contrary to popular belief, the majority of the film was not filmed in Burkittsville, but in Maryland's Seneca Creek State Park, about 25 miles away, the events depicted in the film and the legend of the Blair Witch itself are false. Furthermore, other identifiable landmarks from the Blair Witch story - Coffin Rock, the Black Hills, Black Rock Road, the local convenience store - are not located in the real Burkittsville or the immediate surrounding area, but are rather in Germantown, Maryland. A Burkittsville town welcome sign appeared in the film, which featured cursive script with black and white coloring; as thievery of the town's welcome sign became more common due to the Blair Witch's increasing notoriety, the sign was radically redesigned to feature white letters and red stars against a blue background. The new sign notes that the town has fewer than 200 people, was established in 1824, is listed on the National Register of Historic Places; when a third movie in the series was released in 2016, the town pre-emptively took down its welcome signs and blocked off alleys to detour tourists.
As of the census of 2010, there were 151 people, 69 households, 42 families residing in the town. The population density was 335.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 74 housing units at an average density of 164.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 0.7 % Asian. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.3% of the population. There were 69 households of which 20.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.7% were married couples living together, 4.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.8% had a male householder with no wife present, 39.1% were non-families. 34.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.19 and the average family size was 2.79. The median age in the town was 50.5 years. 15.9% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the town was 50.3% male and 49.7% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 171 people, 72 households, 49 families residing in the town.
The population density was 415.8 people per square mile. There were 76 housing units at an average density of 184.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 94.74% White, 1.17% African American and 4.09% Asian. 1.8 percent of the population is Latino of any race. There were 72 h
Crampton's Gap known as Crampton Gap, is a wind gap on South Mountain in Maryland. The 928 feet gap connects Burkittsville in the Middletown Valley to the east with Gapland and Rohrersville in the Pleasant Valley to the west; the gap is the location of Gathland State Park and was the site of the Battle of Crampton's Gap on September 14, 1862, during the Maryland Campaign of the American Civil War. Topo map Gathland State Park
U.S. Route 40 in Maryland
U. S. Route 40 in the U. S. state of Maryland runs from western Maryland to Cecil County in the state's northeastern corner. With a total length of over 200 miles, it is the longest numbered highway in Maryland. Half of the road overlaps or parallels with Interstate 68 or Interstate 70, while the old alignment is known as U. S. Route 40 Alternate, U. S. Route 40 Scenic, or Maryland Route 144. West of Baltimore, in the Piedmont and Appalachian Mountains / Blue Ridge region of the Western Maryland panhandle of the small state, the portions where it does not overlap an Interstate highway are two-lane roads; the portion northeast of Baltimore going to Wilmington, in northern Delaware and Philadelphia in southeastern Pennsylvania before crossing the Susquehanna River at the north end of the Chesapeake Bay, is a four-lane divided highway, known as the Pulaski Highway. From Cumberland on the western branch of the Potomac River and terminus of the historic Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, west to Pennsylvania, US 40 is the successor to the historic route of the National Road, first Federal interstate road built in the early 19th century which ran from Baltimore west, through Ohio and Illinois to Vandalia territorial capital of the Illinois Territory near the Mississippi River.
East of Cumberland, towards Baltimore, US 40 follows several former private company turnpikes, most notably the Cumberland Turnpike and Frederick-town Turnpike known as Frederick Road between Baltimore and Frederick. The route from Baltimore northeast to the Delaware state line follows another historic East Coast / Northeast Corridor routing towards Philadelphia, New York City and Boston including the old Baltimore and Havre-de-Grace Turnpike. U. S. Route 40 enters Maryland from Pennsylvania in far western Maryland's Garrett County, carrying the name "National Pike." It passes through rural farmland on this side of the state, intersecting U. S. Route 219 at its interchange with Interstate 68 in Accident. U. S. Route 40 shares the roadway with U. S. Route 219. U. S. 40/I-68 passes into Allegany County just west of Frostburg. The highway traverses historic "Cumberland Narrows" mountain gap to the county seat and major western Maryland city of Cumberland; the previous alignments of US 40, carrying the name "National Pike", are either U.
S. Route 40 Alternate or Scenic US 40, which parallel I-68 and US 40 closely through the County (and also carrying the designation of Maryland Route 144 and serve as main streets for the various towns and small cities they pass through, trailing the continued historic route of the 1808's Old National Road extension from Cumberland to Baltimore turnpike, which will still have many of the original 19th Century stone milestones every mile on the north side with five-mile stone markers with more elaborate carvings indicating mileage and distance to destinations. Since, the mid 2000s, The National Road now has a multi-state tourism/historical partnership and association collaborating various towns and counties through which it passes from Baltimore to Vandalia, the original territorial capital of Illinois near the Mississippi River. Several significant histories and guide books have been published throughout the 20th Century to describe its features and attractions plus historic/scenic sites.
US 40 follows I-68 through Cumberland on an elevated highway through the western reaches of the Potomac River valley dividing the historic town, site of Colonel George Washington's Fort Cumberland of the French and Indian War era. At the Sideling Hill Creek Bridge, I-68/US 40 passes into Washington County, just west of Bellegrove, Maryland; the I-68/US 40 roadway passes through a 340-foot massive deep cut in Sideling Hill. Just to the east of the cut is the site of the former "Sideling Hill Exhibit Center", a state museum that highlighted the many varied rock layers of Western Maryland mountain geology in "The Cut". Shortly after this, in the town of Hancock where the State of Maryland narrows to less than two miles long, on a steep valley slope carrying parallel highways and railroad tracks (historic Baltimore and Ohio Railroad between the Mason–Dixon line with Pennsylvania to the north and the western branch of the Potomac River boundary with West Virginia. Interstate 68 ends at the I-70/US-522 interchange, US 40 defaults onto Interstate 70 at Exit 1 of the latter route, coming down from the northwest at the large truck stop plazas at Breezewood, Pennsylvania.
U. S. Route 522 is carried by I-70, but it leaves to the south at the next exit. Interstate 70 and US 40 pass close to the West Virginia border along the historic old 1820s-30s era Chesapeake and Ohio Canal and its Potomac River turns toward Hagerstown and Washington County. Shortly before this, though, US 40 separates from I-70 to the north at exit 9 and passes through the town and county seat on Washington Avenue and Franklin Street, where it interchanges with Interstate 81. Heading southeast out of Hagerstown, US 40 diverges into US 40 and US 40 Alt. US 40 parallels Interstate 70, its longtime, cross-country travel partner, crossing it again at exit 32 near Greenbrier State Park on the older Baltimore National P
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
A mountain range or hill range is a series of mountains or hills ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt is a group of mountain ranges with similarity in form and alignment that have arisen from the same cause an orogeny. Mountain ranges are formed by a variety of geological processes, but most of the significant ones on Earth are the result of plate tectonics. Mountain ranges are found on many planetary mass objects in the Solar System and are a feature of most terrestrial planets. Mountain ranges are segmented by highlands or mountain passes and valleys. Individual mountains within the same mountain range do not have the same geologic structure or petrology, they may be a mix of different orogenic expressions and terranes, for example thrust sheets, uplifted blocks, fold mountains, volcanic landforms resulting in a variety of rock types. Most geologically young mountain ranges on the Earth's land surface are associated with either the Pacific Ring of Fire or the Alpide Belt.
The Pacific Ring of Fire includes the Andes of South America, extends through the North American Cordillera along the Pacific Coast, the Aleutian Range, on through Kamchatka, Taiwan, the Philippines, Papua New Guinea, to New Zealand. The Andes is 7,000 kilometres long and is considered the world's longest mountain system; the Alpide belt includes Indonesia and Southeast Asia, through the Himalaya, Caucasus Mountains, Balkan Mountains fold mountain range, the Alps, ends in the Spanish mountains and the Atlas Mountains. The belt includes other European and Asian mountain ranges; the Himalayas contain the highest mountains in the world, including Mount Everest, 8,848 metres high and traverses the border between China and Nepal. Mountain ranges outside these two systems include the Arctic Cordillera, the Urals, the Appalachians, the Scandinavian Mountains, the Great Dividing Range, the Altai Mountains and the Hijaz Mountains. If the definition of a mountain range is stretched to include underwater mountains the Ocean Ridges form the longest continuous mountain system on Earth, with a length of 65,000 kilometres.
The mountain systems of the earth are characterized by a tree structure, where mountain ranges can contain sub-ranges. The sub-range relationship is expressed as a parent-child relationship. For example, the White Mountains of New Hampshire and the Blue Ridge Mountains are sub-ranges of the Appalachian Mountains. Equivalently, the Appalachians are the parent of the White Mountains and Blue Ridge Mountains, the White Mountains and the Blue Ridge Mountains are children of the Appalachians; the parent-child expression extends to the sub-ranges themselves: the Sandwich Range and the Presidential Range are children of the White Mountains, while the Presidential Range is parent to the Northern Presidential Range and Southern Presidential Range. The position of mountains influences climate, such as snow; when air masses move up and over mountains, the air cools producing orographic precipitation. As the air descends on the leeward side, it warms again and is drier, having been stripped of much of its moisture.
A rain shadow will affect the leeward side of a range. Mountain ranges are subjected to erosional forces which work to tear them down; the basins adjacent to an eroding mountain range are filled with sediments which are buried and turned into sedimentary rock. Erosion is at work while the mountains are being uplifted until the mountains are reduced to low hills and plains; the early Cenozoic uplift of the Rocky Mountains of Colorado provides an example. As the uplift was occurring some 10,000 feet of Mesozoic sedimentary strata were removed by erosion over the core of the mountain range and spread as sand and clays across the Great Plains to the east; this mass of rock was removed as the range was undergoing uplift. The removal of such a mass from the core of the range most caused further uplift as the region adjusted isostatically in response to the removed weight. Rivers are traditionally believed to be the principal cause of mountain range erosion, by cutting into bedrock and transporting sediment.
Computer simulation has shown that as mountain belts change from tectonically active to inactive, the rate of erosion drops because there are fewer abrasive particles in the water and fewer landslides. Mountains on other planets and natural satellites of the Solar System are isolated and formed by processes such as impacts, though there are examples of mountain ranges somewhat similar to those on Earth. Saturn's moon Titan and Pluto, in particular exhibit large mountain ranges in chains composed of ices rather than rock. Examples include the Mithrim Montes and Doom Mons on Titan, Tenzing Montes and Hillary Montes on Pluto; some terrestrial planets other than Earth exhibit rocky mountain ranges, such as Maxwell Montes on Venus taller than any on Earth and Tartarus Montes on Mars, Jupiter's moon Io has mountain ranges formed from tectonic processes including Boösaule Montes, Dorian Montes, Hi'iaka Montes and Euboea Montes. Peakbagger Ranges Home Page Bivouac.com