Middlesex County, New Jersey
Middlesex County is a county located in north- central New Jersey, United States. In 2017 the Census Bureau estimated the county's population at 842,798, making it the state's second-most populous county, an increase of 4.1% from 809,858 in the 2010 census. Middlesex is part of the New York metropolitan area, its county seat is New Brunswick; the center of population of the state of New Jersey is located in Middlesex County, in East Brunswick Township, just east of the New Jersey Turnpike. The 2000 Census showed that the county ranked 63rd in the United States among the highest-income counties by median household; the Bureau of Economic Analysis ranked the county as having the 143rd-highest per capita income of all 3,113 counties in the United States as of 2009. Middlesex County holds the nickname, "The Greatest County in the Land"; the county was settled due to its ideal location near the Raritan River and was established as of March 7, 1683, as part of the Province of East Jersey and was partitioned as of October 31, 1693, into the townships of Piscataway, Perth Amboy and Woodbridge.
Somerset County was established on May 1688, from portions of Middlesex County. The county's first court met in June 1683 in Piscataway, held session at alternating sites over the next century in Perth Amboy and Woodbridge before relocating permanently to New Brunswick in 1778. Middlesex County hosts an extensive park system totaling more than 6,300 acres. According to the 2010 Census, the county had a total area of 322.83 square miles, including 308.91 square miles of land and 13.91 square miles of water. The county is named after the historic English county of Middlesex. Bisected by the Raritan River, the county is topographically typical of Central Jersey in that it is flat; the elevation ranges from sea level to 300 feet above sea level on a hill scaled by Major Road/ Sand Hill Road near Route 1 in South Brunswick Township. Union County, New Jersey – north Monmouth County, New Jersey – southeast Mercer County, New Jersey – southwest Somerset County, New Jersey – northwest Richmond County, New York – northeast As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 809,858 people, 281,186 households, 203,016.292 families residing in the county.
The population density was 2,621.6 per square mile. There were 294,800 housing units at an average density of 954.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 58.60% White, 9.69% Black or African American, 0.34% Native American, 21.40% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 6.99% from other races, 2.95% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 18.40% of the population. There were 281,186 households out of which 34.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.9% were married couples living together, 11.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.8% were non-families. 22.5% of all households were made up of individuals, 8.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.8 and the average family size was 3.29. In the county, the population was spread out with 22.9% under the age of 18, 10.2% from 18 to 24, 28.3% from 25 to 44, 26.3% from 45 to 64, 12.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37.2 years.
For every 100 females there were 96.4 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and older there were 94 males; as of the 2010 Census, there were 170,070 people of Asian descent in Middlesex County accounting for 21% of the county's total population. At 61.57% of the population of Asian descent, Indian Americans accounted for a majority of the county's Asian population or 12.93% of the county's total population in 2010, increasing to 119,579 by 2015, more than that of the other sub-groups combined. Middlesex County had the largest population of Asian Indians of all counties in New Jersey. In Middlesex County, election ballots are printed in English, Gujarati and Punjabi. Middlesex County has the largest and fastest growing population of Chinese Americans of all counties in New Jersey, in places such as East Brunswick. Edison is developing a sprawling suburban Chinatown, with other Chinese communities spread out over the county; as of the 2000 United States Census there were 750,162 people, 265,815 households, 190,855 families residing in the county.
The population density was 2,422 people per square mile. There were 273,637 housing units at an average density of 884 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 68.42% White, 9.13% Black or African American, 0.20% Native American, 13.89% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 5.71% from other races, 2.60% from two or more races. 13.59% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. Among residents listing their ancestry, 16.1% were of Italian, 13.8% Irish, 10.2% German and 9.8% Polish ancestry according to the 2000 Census. There were 265,815 households out of which 34.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.00% were married couples living together, 10.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.20% were non-families. 22.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.70% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.74 and the average family size was 3.23. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.70% under the age of 18, 9.50% from 18 to 24, 32.80% from 25 to 44, 21.70% from 45 to 64, 12.30% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age wa
Manalapan Brook is a tributary of the South River in Monmouth and Middlesex counties, New Jersey in the United States. The Manalapan Brook's source is at 40°11′26″N 74°23′51″W in Monmouth County, a few miles south of Monmouth Battlefield State Park, adjacent to the headwaters of Matchaponix Brook, it flows north, heading to Jamesburg. After crossing a dammed section named Lake Manalapan, it continues north along CR 615 flowing into Devoe Lake in Spotswood; the flow merges with Matchaponix Brook in Spotswood forming the South River. It crosses under Route 18 and continues to the Raritan River, where it ends at 40°23′33″N 74°22′58″W. Manalapan is Lenape for "good cultivation" or "good country"; the name derives from Manalapan Township, one of the several municipalities the stream flows through. List of rivers of New Jersey Monmouth Battlefield State Park U. S. Geological Survey: NJ stream gaging stations
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States. It is located on a peninsula, bordered on the north and east by the state of New York along the extent of the length of New York City on its western edge. New Jersey is the fourth-smallest state by area but the 11th-most populous, with 9 million residents as of 2017, the most densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. New Jersey lies within the combined statistical areas of New York City and Philadelphia. New Jersey was the second-wealthiest U. S. state by median household income as of 2017. New Jersey was inhabited by Native Americans for more than 2,800 years, with historical tribes such as the Lenape along the coast. In the early 17th century, the Dutch and the Swedes founded the first European settlements in the state; the English seized control of the region, naming it the Province of New Jersey after the largest of the Channel Islands and granting it as a colony to Sir George Carteret and John Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley of Stratton.
New Jersey was the site of several decisive battles during the American Revolutionary War in the 18th century. In the 19th century, factories in cities, Paterson, Trenton, Jersey City, Elizabeth helped to drive the Industrial Revolution. New Jersey's geographic location at the center of the Northeast megalopolis, between Boston and New York City to the northeast, Philadelphia and Washington, D. C. to the southwest, fueled its rapid growth through the process of suburbanization in the second half of the 20th century. In the first decades of the 21st century, this suburbanization began reverting with the consolidation of New Jersey's culturally diverse populace toward more urban settings within the state, with towns home to commuter rail stations outpacing the population growth of more automobile-oriented suburbs since 2008. Around 180 million years ago, during the Jurassic Period, New Jersey bordered North Africa; the pressure of the collision between North America and Africa gave rise to the Appalachian Mountains.
Around 18,000 years ago, the Ice Age resulted in glaciers. As the glaciers retreated, they left behind Lake Passaic, as well as many rivers and gorges. New Jersey was settled by Native Americans, with the Lenni-Lenape being dominant at the time of contact. Scheyichbi is the Lenape name for the land, now New Jersey; the Lenape were several autonomous groups that practiced maize agriculture in order to supplement their hunting and gathering in the region surrounding the Delaware River, the lower Hudson River, western Long Island Sound. The Lenape society was divided into matrilinear clans; these clans were organized into three distinct phratries identified by their animal sign: Turtle and Wolf. They first encountered the Dutch in the early 17th century, their primary relationship with the Europeans was through fur trade; the Dutch became the first Europeans to lay claim to lands in New Jersey. The Dutch colony of New Netherland consisted of parts of modern Middle Atlantic states. Although the European principle of land ownership was not recognized by the Lenape, Dutch West India Company policy required its colonists to purchase the land that they settled.
The first to do so was Michiel Pauw who established a patronship called Pavonia in 1630 along the North River which became the Bergen. Peter Minuit's purchase of lands along the Delaware River established the colony of New Sweden; the entire region became a territory of England on June 24, 1664, after an English fleet under the command of Colonel Richard Nicolls sailed into what is now New York Harbor and took control of Fort Amsterdam, annexing the entire province. During the English Civil War, the Channel Island of Jersey remained loyal to the British Crown and gave sanctuary to the King, it was from the Royal Square in Saint Helier that Charles II of England was proclaimed King in 1649, following the execution of his father, Charles I. The North American lands were divided by Charles II, who gave his brother, the Duke of York, the region between New England and Maryland as a proprietary colony. James granted the land between the Hudson River and the Delaware River to two friends who had remained loyal through the English Civil War: Sir George Carteret and Lord Berkeley of Stratton.
The area was named the Province of New Jersey. Since the state's inception, New Jersey has been characterized by religious diversity. New England Congregationalists settled alongside Scots Presbyterians and Dutch Reformed migrants. While the majority of residents lived in towns with individual landholdings of 100 acres, a few rich proprietors owned vast estates. English Quakers and Anglicans owned large landholdings. Unlike Plymouth Colony and other colonies, New Jersey was populated by a secondary wave of immigrants who came from other colonies instead of those who migrated directly from Europe. New Jersey remained agrarian and rural throughout the colonial era, commercial farming developed sporadically; some townships, such as Burlington on the Delaware River and Perth Amboy, emerged as important ports for shipping to New York City and Philadelphia. The colony's fertile lands and tolerant religious policy drew more settlers, New Jersey's population had increased to 120,000 by 1775. Settlement for the first 10 years of English rule took place along Hackensack River and Arthur Kill –
The Raritan River is a major river of central New Jersey in the United States. Its watershed drains much of the mountainous area of the central part of the state, emptying into the Raritan Bay on the Atlantic Ocean. Geologists assert that the lower Raritan provided the course of the mouth of the Hudson River 6,000 years ago. Following the end of the last ice age, the Narrows had not yet been formed and the Hudson flowed along the Watchung Mountains to present-day Bound Brook followed the course of the Raritan eastward into Lower New York Bay; the river forms at the confluence of the North and South Branches just west of Somerville at the border of Bridgewater and Hillsborough Townships. It flows for 16 mi before slowing in tidewater at New Brunswick, its estuary extends 14 mi more entering the western end of Raritan Bay at South Amboy; the river has served an important water transportation route since the Pre-Columbian era. The name Raritan is applied to the Raritan people, an Algonquian tribe that inhabited Staten Island, near the river's mouth.
In colonial days, the river allowed the development of early industry around New Brunswick, as well as the transportation of agricultural materials from central New Jersey. During the American Revolutionary War, the river provided a means for troop conveyance; the construction of the Delaware and Raritan Canal along the right bank of the river provided a critical link between New York City and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania on the Delaware River. Comprehensive measures have been taken to increase the water quality; these actions have benefited the fish population which include largemouth bass, smallmouth bass, catfish, chain pickerel, american eels and yellow perch. Pike can be found in relative abundance in some portions of the river like Califon. An occasional Musky has been taken out of the Raritan as well; the tidal portions of the river host migratory salt water species such as striped bass, winter flounder and bluefish. Efforts to restore anadromous fish populations have been made, done by removing many of the obsolete dams and the constructing dam bypass infrastructure.
This will result in restoring shad, striped bass, sturgeon populations in the river. Many nesting birds and water fowl make their homes along the length of the river. Crustaceans such as blue claw crab, fiddler crabs and green crabs are found in the tidal sections of the river. Crayfish can be found farther upstream; the river is used for recreational boating, including use by the rowing team of Rutgers University in New Brunswick. The river is featured in the title of Rutgers' alma mater, On the Banks of the Old Raritan, its flooding is mentioned in the song; the musical 1776 mentions troops bathing in the Raritan River. Near its mouth, the river is spanned by a New Jersey Transit railroad bridge which carries the North Jersey Coast Line. S. Route 9; the Raritan River is an important source of drinking water for the central portion of New Jersey. Two water purification plants, operated by New Jersey American Water, are located where the Raritan River and its largest tributary meet just east of Manville, New Jersey.
At times of drought and low water flow rates, the flow rate in the Raritan River is enhanced by planned discharges from the Round Valley Reservoir and Spruce Run Reservoir, both of which are located close to the South Branch of the Raritan River in Hunterdon County, New Jersey, are connected to the river via outflow pipes/channels. The water levels are boosted so downstream water purification facilities will have adequate water supplies in times of drought; the Raritan River has persistent flooding problems when excessive rain from storms affects the river basin. The flooding problems affect the town of Bound Brook, built on a natural flood plain at the junction of several tributaries, Manville, which has a large neighborhood known as Lost Valley that lies on the floodplain between the Raritan River and its largest tributary river, known as the Millstone River. Other towns in the Raritan River basin experience flooding to a lesser degree. Record flooding in the aftermath of Hurricane Floyd in September 1999 flood crest, 14 ft above flood stage) caused renewed interest in a flood control project called the Green Brook Flood Control Project, designed to protect Bound Brook from a 150-year flood.
In August 2011, record flooding occurred once again. This problem was exacerbated by well-above average rainfall that fell in the weeks before the storm hit, spurred completion of the Army Corps of Engineers flood control project; as of 2015, the current status of this project is: The R2 levee system is functionally complete – The R2 Levee System is designed to provide Bound Brook with protection from a 150-year flood level. The levee is built to the height of the raised Talmage Avenue Bridge. Closure gates along Raritan are functionally complete – The gate closures across the New Jersey Transit railroad tracks on the western side of Bound Brook and at the South Main Street railroad underpass that leads to Queens Bridge have been completed and are used to keep flood waters out of Bound Brook; the new Talmadge Avenue Bridge that connects Bound Brook and Bridgewater, New Jersey is functionally complete. The replaceme
A tributary or affluent is a stream or river that flows into a larger stream or main stem river or a lake. A tributary does not flow directly into a ocean. Tributaries and the main stem river drain the surrounding drainage basin of its surface water and groundwater, leading the water out into an ocean. A confluence, where two or more bodies of water meet together refers to the joining of tributaries; the opposite to a tributary is a distributary, a river or stream that branches off from and flows away from the main stream. Distributaries are most found in river deltas. "Right tributary" and "left tributary" are terms stating the orientation of the tributary relative to the flow of the main stem river. These terms are defined from the perspective of looking downstream. In the United States, where tributaries sometimes have the same name as the river into which they feed, they are called forks; these are designated by compass direction. For example, the American River receives flow from its North and South forks.
The Chicago River's North Branch has the East and Middle Fork. Forks are sometimes left. Here, the "handedness" is from the point of view of an observer facing upstream. For instance, Steer Creek has a left tributary, called Right Fork Steer Creek. Tributaries are sometimes listed starting with those nearest to the source of the river and ending with those nearest to the mouth of the river; the Strahler Stream Order examines the arrangement of tributaries in a hierarchy of first, second and higher orders, with the first-order tributary being the least in size. For example, a second-order tributary would be the result of two or more first-order tributaries combining to form the second-order tributary. Another method is to list tributaries from mouth to source, in the form of a tree structure, stored as a tree data structure. A gallery of major river basins with tributaries Estuary
Sayreville, New Jersey
Sayreville is a borough located on the Raritan River, near the Raritan Bay in Middlesex County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the borough's population was 42,704, reflecting an increase of 2,327 from the 40,377 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 5,391 from the 34,986 counted in the 1990 Census. Sayreville was incorporated as a township on April 6, 1876, from portions of South Amboy Township. On April 2, 1919, the borough was reincorporated as the Borough of Sayreville and ratified by a referendum held on April 29, 1919. Native Americans were the first settlers of Sayreville. Tribes of the Navesink lived along the South River; this was noted on a 1656 New Netherland map by Adriaen van der Donck, a Dutch surveyor and map maker. During the 20th century, amateur archaeologists found thousands of Indian artifacts at the location shown on the map. Predating the incorporation of Sayreville, the Morgan Inn was established in 1703 in what is now the Morgan section of Sayreville.
Charles Morgan III and his descendants, including Major General James Morgan and Lieutenant Nicholas Morgan, played significant roles in the Revolutionary War. The Morgan family lived in the area for over 200 years and many family members, including Evertsons, are buried in the owned Morgan Cemetery, which overlooks Raritan Bay; the Morgans were said to be related to the famous pirate, Captain Henry Morgan, said to have visited the Inn on more than one occasion. It was from an episode during the Revolutionary War that the Morgan Inn gained its new name, the Old Spye Inn. According to local legends, a local British loyalist, Abe Mussey, was captured by Continental Army troops in 1777 while signaling to British ships in Raritan Bay, he was tried as a spy at the Inn, convicted in a one-day trial, sentenced to death by hanging. Mussey's execution was carried out using a tree near the Inn's entrance. Mussey was reported to be buried behind the Inn in an unmarked grave; the Inn was destroyed by fire in 1976, but its ruins remain on the National Register of Historic Places.
Known as Roundabout and as Wood's Landing, the community was renamed in the 1860s for James R. Sayre Jr. of Newark, who co-founded Sayre and Fisher Brick Company in the 1850s together with Peter Fisher. It was one of the many companies that took advantage of the extensive clay deposits that supported the brick industry from the early 19th century until 1970. From its inception, Sayre & Fisher grew into one of the largest brick-making companies in the world. Production grew from 54 million bricks annually in 1878, to 178 million bricks a year in 1913, had reached a total of 6.2 billion bricks in the 100 years through its centennial in 1950. In 1898, DuPont began production of gunpowder at its plant on Deerfield Road, off Washington Road; the company built additional facilities in Sayreville for the production of paint and photo products. At one time the Raritan River Railroad passed through Sayreville and had several spurs to service Sayre & Fisher and other local industries. A train running on the line was featured in "The Juggernaut," a 1914 episode of the silent movie serial The Perils of Pauline.
The episode was staged on the line, including the construction of a bridge over Ducks Nest Pond in Sayreville. The fishing pond is located in the back near the DuPont and Hercules factories. In 1918 during World War I, Sayreville was damaged by TNT explosions at the Gillespie Shell Loading Plant; the disaster killed dozens and injured hundreds of local victims, damaged hundreds of buildings, required an emergency declaration of martial law, scattered wide areas of ammunition remnants that continue to surface occasionally. Sayreville's clay deposits have earned scientific notice as one of the world's major sources of museum-quality fossils found in amber; this prehistoric tree resin managed to encase over a hundred species of insects and plants from 90 million years ago, when Sayreville had a tropical climate. The fossils have been extensively researched and published by David Grimaldi, curator of invertebrate zoology at the American Museum of Natural History. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough had a total area of 18.704 square miles, including 15.842 square miles of land and 2.862 square miles of water.
The borough is located on the southern bank of the Raritan River across from Woodbridge Township and Perth Amboy, is bordered on the southwest and south by Old Bridge Township. The borough borders East Brunswick Township, South Amboy, South River in Middlesex County, Staten Island in New York City. Low-lying areas near the Raritan River are subject to flooding associated with storm surges; the borough is 24 miles southwest of Lower Manhattan, 4 miles southwest of Staten Island and 57 miles northeast of Philadelphia. Area codes 908, 732 and 848 are used in Sayreville. Sayreville uses four ZIP codes. 08871 and 08872 are post offices located in the borough itself. 08879 is the South Amboy ZIP code serving the Morgan and Melrose sections of Sayreville, the City of South Amboy, the Laurence Harbor neighborhood of Old Bridge Township. 08859 is the Parlin ZIP code, which serves adjoining portions of Old Bridge Township. Unincorporated communities and place names within the borough include: Crossmans, Gillespie, Laurel Park, MacArthur Manor, Morgan, Morgan Heights, Runyon, Sayre Woods, Sayreville Junction, Sayreville Station, Whitehead Dock.
As of the 2010 United States