Southern Expressway (South Australia)
The Southern Expressway is an 18.5 km freeway in the southern suburbs of Adelaide, South Australia, between Bedford Park and Old Noarlunga. The Southern Expressway was built as a corridor to relieve heavy traffic from the major arterial, Main South Road, in Adelaide's south, it was built as a reversible one way freeway, was the world's longest after its completion in 2001. Between 2010 and 2014 it was expanded and it is now a regular 2-direction freeway. Construction of the expressway included the Adelaide Southern Veloway for cyclists, which runs alongside it for 7 km, from Marion/Main South Road to the Panalatinga Tunnel. South of the Panalatinga Tunnel, the bikeway becomes a shared track for the remaining 12 km of the expressway; the expressway crosses over the Coast to Vines rail trail at both Panalatinga Road and at the expressway's Southern end. The expressway is the southern part of a north-south freeway conceptualised under the Metropolitan Adelaide Transport Study, completed in 1965, as a freeway bypassing the city from Dry Creek to Old Noarlunga.
The MATS plan proved unpopular, in 1971 all further highway construction in Adelaide was postponed for a period of ten years. In 1983 plans for the freeway north of Darlington were abandoned, the land, set aside was progressively sold off. In 1984 the state government announced plans to develop a "third arterial road" for the south. In 1987 the project was split into two phases, the first the upgrading of Main South Road and Marion Road in the Darlington area, the second a new road from Darlington to Reynella. Phase one was completed in 1994 with the widening of Main South Road to eight lanes between Ayliffes Road and Seacombe Road, the widening of Marion Road to six lanes between Main South Road and Sturt Road. Phase 2 became the expressway, to be constructed in two stages: from Darlington to Reynella, from Reynella to Old Noarlunga, it was developed as a one-way reversible road with future duplication provided for in the roadworks base, to be constructed when the need arose. It used the remaining "Noarlunga Freeway" reservation, except for the northernmost kilometre where a new route through O'Halloran Hill was chosen to provide high-quality links with Marion and Main South Roads without interfering with existing infrastructure at Sturt.
Construction of the expressway commenced in July 1995 and the first stage was opened to traffic on 17 December 1997. Construction commenced on the second stage in February 1999 and was opened to traffic on 9 September 2001; the total cost of the reversible freeway was A$76.5m. During its construction and for some time after its opening, the expressway was promoted via a dedicated FM radio station established by the Department of Transport broadcasting via a low-power FM transmitter in the immediate vicinity of the road; the radio station broadcast a recorded message on continuous loop featuring promotional and community information messages relating to the expressway, including a jingle that Transport Minister Diana Laidlaw declared made the expressway the only road in the world to have its own jingle. Until August 2014, the expressway was open 21 hours per day, one way for over 10 hours in each direction; the northbound direction occurred on weekday mornings and weekend evenings, the southbound direction on weekday evenings and weekend mornings.
It was closed 12:30–2:00 am and 12:30–2:00 pm, except for Saturday and Monday mornings when the direction remained unchanged. Weekday public holidays operated under the weekend's opening times to accommodate tourists travelling to the Fleurieu Peninsula. During each closure all road signs and boom gates changed over, the road was inspected by a tow truck contractor for debris and car breakdowns. In 2007 the Howard Government pledged $100m towards widening the expressway in its unsuccessful re-election bid. On 17 February 2010, during the state election campaign, Premier Mike Rann announced that, if re-elected the expressway would be duplicated in a A$445m project. However, the inclusion of a new A$75m interchange at Darlington was scrapped, after the government planning for a major transport hub at Darlington discovered the need for a $50 million section of road that would have to be destroyed when the expressway was duplicated. Once duplication was announced in 2010, construction started one year in 2011.
The first construction-related expressway closures were 3 consecutive days in January 2012, out of peak hours, but is the most disruption the road has experienced since the opening of Stage 2, with only day-long resurfacing of line-marking, cycle rides disrupting the expressway previously. Due to the duplication of the Expressway, all of the bridges had to be widened to meet the new width of the road; some road bridges were closed during the work needed, others required a temporary lower speed limit for safety reasons. This caused some anger to businesses; the new road was built on the western side of the original roadway, is four lanes wide between Reynella and Marion Road in the northbound. Accessibility has been improved with the project, with new intersections at Beach Road and Sheriffs Road, as well as being able to left turn out at Old Noarlunga, right turn out at Marion Road, left turn in at Marion Road; the expressway opened to two-way traffic in August 2014 after a construction period of about a whole year and a cost of about A$400m.
The 15 bridges over the expressway from north to south are: The expressway has five underpasses: Freeways in Australia Freeways in South Australia Adelaide's Freeways - A History from MATS to the Port River Expressway So
Henley Beach, South Australia
Henley Beach is a coastal suburb of Adelaide, South Australia in the City of Charles Sturt. Henley Beach was named for the English town of Henley-on-Thames, the home town of Sir Charles Cooper, South Australia's first judge. Cooper had a residence in the area adjacent Charles Sturt's property "The Grange", for which Grange Beach was named, it has been asserted that Sturt's suggestion of "Cooper's Beach" was rejected by Cooper, who gave it the current name. The Town of Henley Beach was promoted in the South Australian Register in 1860 as being "free from all the noxious smells which have been cause of complaint elsewhere"; the Register again advertised the township in 1874: While admitted to be one of the finest in the colony, has been somewhat neglected owing to the road not being made. The District Council and private enterprise, have overcome this... Henley Beach lies between the suburbs of West Grange; the 2006 Census by the Australian Bureau of Statistics counted 5,405 persons in Henley Beach on census night.
Of these, 49.9% were male and 50.1% were female. The majority of residents are of Australian birth, with a further 6.8% identifying England as their country of origin. Henley Beach is part of Henley Ward in the City of Charles Sturt local government area, being represented in that council by Jim Fitzpatrick and Robert Randall, it was part of the Henley & Grange Council from 1915 until the merger with the City of Hindmarsh Woodville to create the City of Charles Sturt on 1 January 1997. Henley Beach lies in the state electoral district of Colton and the federal electoral division of Hindmarsh; the suburb is represented in the South Australian House of Assembly by Paul Caica and federally by Steve Georganas. There are several schools in the suburb, including: Fulham Gardens Primary School, Fulham North Primary School, Henley High School, St Michael's College, Henley Beach Primary school, Star of the Sea School Henley Square is located behind Henley Jetty on the Esplanade. Other greenspace in the suburb is John Mitchell Oval.
Henley Beach extends the length of the suburb. Henley Beach is serviced by Grange Road and Henley Beach Road, both connecting the suburb to Adelaide City Centre. Seaview Road runs along the coast. Henley Beach is serviced by public transport run by the Adelaide Metro which provides bus services to the Adelaide city centre and Glenelg; the Grange railway line was extended to Henley Beach as the Henley Beach railway line in 1894 and the extension closed in 1957. There was a tram line from the city centre to Henley Beach; this was a horse-drawn tram, converted to electricity in the 1920s and ceased operation in the 1950s along with every other tram line in Adelaide. List of Adelaide suburbs "City of Charles Sturt". Official website. City of Charles Sturt. Retrieved 1 February 2012
An overpass is a bridge, railway or similar structure that crosses over another road or railway. An overpass and underpass together form a grade separation. Stack interchanges are made up of many overpasses; the world's first railroad flyover was constructed in 1843 by the London and Croydon Railway at Norwood Junction railway station to carry its atmospheric railway vehicles over the Brighton Main Line. The first flyover in India was opened on 14 April 1965 at Kemps Corner in Mumbai; the 48-foot-long bridge was constructed in about seven months by Shirish Patel at a cost of ₹17.5 lakh. In North American usage, a flyover is a high-level overpass, built above main overpass lanes, or a bridge built over what had been an at-grade intersection. Traffic engineers refer to the latter as a grade separation. A flyover may be an extra ramp added to an existing interchange, either replacing an existing cloverleaf loop with a higher, faster ramp that bears left, but may be built as a right or left exit. A cloverleaf or partial cloverleaf contains some 270 degree loops, which can slow traffic and can be difficult to construct with multiple lanes.
Where all such turns are replaced with flyovers only 90 degree turns are needed, there may be four or more distinct levels of traffic. Depending upon design, traffic may flow in all directions near open road speeds. For more examples see Freeway interchange. A pedestrian overpass allows pedestrians safe crossing over busy roads without impacting traffic. Railway overpasses are used to replace level crossings as a safer alternative. Using overpasses allows for unobstructed rail traffic to flow without conflicting with vehicular and pedestrian traffic. Rapid transit systems use complete grade separation of their rights of way to avoid traffic interference with frequent and reliable service. Railroads use balloon loops and flying junctions instead of flat junctions, as a way to reverse direction and to avoid trains conflicting with those on other tracks. Footbridge Skyway Stack interchange Viaduct Wildlife crossing Overpass at Encyclopædia Britannica
Cape Jervis is a town in the Australian state of South Australia located near the western tip of Fleurieu Peninsula on the southern end of the Main South Road 88 kilometres south of the state capital of Adelaide. It is named after the headland at the western tip of Fleurieu Peninsula, named by Matthew Flinders after John Jervis, 1st Earl of St Vincent on 23 March 1802, it overlooks the coastline adjoining the following three bodies of water - Gulf St Vincent, Investigator Strait and Backstairs Passage. It overlooks the following facilities both located at the headland of Cape Jervis - the Cape Jervis Lighthouse and the port used by Kangaroo Island SeaLink who operates the ferry service to Penneshaw on Kangaroo Island. In the 2011 census, the population was 202 and, reported as growing with a new estate situated behind the main town. Cape Jervis is the starting point for the Heysen Trail, a walking track of 1,200 kilometres length which finishes at Parachilna Gorge in the Flinders Ranges. Venues of interest to visitors to the town include the Deep Creek Conservation Park, the Talisker Conservation Park and two nearby beaches - Morgan's Beach and Fisheries Beach.
Cape Jervis is notable as a point of embarkment for fishing charters. Cape Jervis is located within the federal division of Mayo, the state electoral district of Mawson and the local government area of the District Council of Yankalilla
Adelaide city centre
Adelaide city centre is the innermost locality of Greater Adelaide, the capital city of South Australia. It is known by locals as "The City" or "Town" to distinguish it from Greater Adelaide and from the City of Adelaide; the locality is split into two key geographical distinctions: the city "square mile", bordered by North, East and West Terraces. The locality is home to the Parliament of many key state government offices. Due to the construction of many new apartments in the city, the population has grown over ten years from 10,229 to 15,115. Before the European settlement of South Australia, the Adelaide Plains, on which Adelaide was built, were home to the Kaurna group of Indigenous Australians; the colony of South Australia was established in 1836 at Glenelg, the city itself established in 1837. The location and layout of the city is accredited to Colonel William Light, in a plan known as Light's Vision; the area where the Adelaide city centre now exists was once known as "Tarndanya", which translates as "male red kangaroo rock" in Aboriginal, an area along the south bank of what is now known as the River Torrens, which flows through Adelaide.
Kaurna numbers were reduced by at least two widespread epidemics of smallpox which preceded European settlement, having been transported downstream along the Murray River. When European settlers arrived in 1836, estimates of the Kaurna population ranged from 300 to 1000 people. British Captain Matthew Flinders, along with French Captain Nicolas Baudin, charted the southeast coast of Australia, where Adelaide is located. Flinders provided little information on Adelaide itself. Charles Sturt explored the Murray and wrote a favourable reflection on what he saw. Colonel William Light is credited with settling and laying out the Adelaide region, which included a grid plan of Adelaide's streets. Adelaide was not as badly affected by the 1860s economic depression in Australia as other gold rush cities like Sydney and Melbourne, allowing it to prosper. Historian F. W. Crowley noted that the city was full of elite upper-class citizens which provided a stark contrast to the grinding poverty of the labour areas and slums outside the inner city ring.
Due to its historic puritan wealth during the 20th century, the city retains a notable portion of Victorian architecture. Adelaide is separated from its greater metropolitan area by a ring of public parklands on all sides; the so-called "square mile" within the park lands is defined by a small area of high rise office and apartment buildings in the centre north, around King William Street, which runs north-to-south through the centre. Surrounding this central business district are a large number of medium to low density apartments and detached houses which make up the residential portion of the city centre; the layout of Adelaide, known as Light's Vision, features a cardinal direction grid pattern of wide streets and terraces and five large public squares: Victoria Square in the centre of the city, Hindmarsh, Light and Whitmore Squares in the centres of each of the four quadrants of the Adelaide city centre. These squares occupy 32 of the 700 numbered "town acre" allotments on Light's plan.
All east-west roads change their names as they cross King William Street, except for North and South terraces. They alternate between being wide and narrow, 99 and 66 feet, except for the central Grote and Wakefield which are extra-wide, 132 feet, along with the surrounding four terraces. In the south half of the city, in several places the Adelaide City Council has constructed wide footpaths and road markings to restrict traffic to a lesser number of lanes than the full width of the road could support; the street pairs, design widths, town acres in Light's Vision are illustrated in this diagram: The streets and squares were named by a committee of a number of prominent settlers after themselves, after early directors of the South Australian Company, after Commissioners appointed by the British government to oversee implementation of the acts that established the colony, after various notables involved in the establishment of the colony. The Street Naming Committee comprised: All members of the committee had one or more of the streets and squares in the Adelaide city centre and North Adelaide named after themselves.
Brown Street, named for John Brown, was subsequently subsumed as a continuation of Morphett Street in 1967. In the same year, Hanson Street, named for Richard Hanson, was subsumed as a continuation of Pulteney Street; the squares were named after: Victoria - the regent the monarch Queen Victoria Hindmarsh - Rear Admiral Sir John Hindmarsh, first Governor Hurtle - Sir James Hurtle Fisher, first Resident Commissioner Light - Colonel William Light, Surveyor General Whitmore - William Wolryche-Whitmore MP, a Colonial Commissioner in LondonThe east-west streets named on 22 December 1836 were: Rundle – John Rundle MP, Director of the South Australian Company Hindley – Charles Hindley MP, Director of South Australian Company Grenfell – Pascoe St Leger Grenfell MP, presented town acre for Holy Trinity Church and other country lands Currie – Raikes Currie MP, Director of South Australian Company Pirie – Sir John Pirie and Lord Mayor of London, Director of South Australian Company Waymouth – Henry Waymouth, Director South Australian Company Flinders – Matthew Flinders, explorer Franklin – Rear Admiral Sir John Franklin, midshipman under Flinders Wakefield – Daniel Bell Wakefield, bar
Morphett Vale, South Australia
Morphett Vale is a southern suburb of Adelaide, South Australia in the City of Onkaparinga. It is the largest suburb in the state, with a population of more than 23,000 and an area of 12.76 km², followed by Paralowie with nearly 10,000 fewer residents. There are 1,000 businesses in Morphett Vale; the suburb is bordered by Sheriffs/Pimpala Road, Panalatinga Road, Doctors/Beach Road, the Southern Expressway. Morphett Vale was the first major town south of Adelaide. In October 1840, a town called. By 1866, the town was said to have ‘a large number of neat residences, many of which have fine vineyards attached’. Morphett Vale was named after John Morphett; the town boasted churches and chapels, a brewery, wind flour mill, court house and police station. Agriculture consisted of mixed farms and vineyards. 1852 saw the formation of the Morphett Vale District council which merged with Noarlunga in 1932. During the second world war the district was a major producer of flax. Extensive land subdivision occurred during the 1960s, transforming the area from a rural region to a metropolitan suburb.
Some notable buildings and businesses include: Doctors House on the corner of Beach and Main South Roads, The Emu winery, demolished to make way for Wirreanda High School and a housing sub-division. The Heritage listed; the Willunga railway line ran through the town until 1969, but has since been replaced by a bicycle/pedestrian path. The old Station Master's Residence is now the Southern Districts Workingman's Club and has been remodelled to its current form; the last tenants of this building are still residents of the Local Onkaparinga Council area. The Morphett Vale CFS station is located on the corner of Doctors Road and States Road at Hackham, it is an volunteer based brigade which has an active fire-fighter membership of around 50 volunteers. They have 8 volunteers who assist with Operational Support duties and 9 cadets; the brigade is one of the busiest in the state, responding to between 300 and 400 emergencies each year on average. The suburbs covered by the brigade are Morphett Vale, Onkaparinga Hills and Woodcroft.
These suburbs include 25,000 residents as well as industrial zones and large areas of rural land. The Morphett Vale CFS brigade has three appliances. Morphett Vale Pumper and Morphett Vale 34 are supplied by the government, whilst Morphett Vale QRV is a brigade owned appliance and was designed and built by the brigade. Morphett Vale Pumper - This is the station's primary urban response vehicle, it was delivered to the brigade in December 2011, it is a two-wheel drive pumper built by Fraser Fire and Rescue in New Zealand, it is based on the New Zealand Fire Service Type 1 pumper design on an Iveco Eurocargo cab / chassis. Some of the specifications include. Morphett Vale 34 - The appliance is built on a four-wheel drive Isuzu FTS800 crew-cab chassis and carries 3000 litres of water; the pump is a GAAM MK450 coupled which provides simultaneous high pressure and volume stage operation, it is coupled to a Hatz diesel engine. Morphett Vale Quick Response Vehicle - This appliance is their quick rural response vehicle.
The appliance is built on a Holden Rodeo tray top utility to which we have fitted a 350-litre water tank and a Darley Snuffer Compressed Air Foam System pump. The CAFS pump is capable of producing a high quality foam with only minimal use of foam concentrate and water. With the CAFS pump operating it is possible to produce high quality foam for longer than 10 minutes using just the 400 litres of water in the tank, normal pumps would use a lot more water than 400 litres to produce the same result. Morphett Vale boasts a number of schools within its boundaries including: Antonio School Calvary Lutheran School Coorara Primary School Flaxmill Primary School Morphett Vale Primary School Morphett Vale East Primary School Morphett Vale West Primary School Pimpala Primary School Stanvac Primary School Sunrise Christian School John Morphett Primary School Prescott College Southern Southern Vales Christian College Woodcroft College Wirreanda High SchoolFormer Schools in the areaIn 2000, Morphett Vale South Primary School was closed.
The site, located on Elizabeth Road next to the Elizabeth Road local shops, has now been cleared and turned into a housing estate. Morphett Vale High School closed at the end of 2008. Original government plans for the site were to demolish the entire school and redevelop it into a new housing development, but after much objection from the community due to the school's oval being used for club sporting events predominately football, it is the home ground of the OSBLFC; the school has been renovated, transformed into a primary school, which opened in 2012. Morphett Vale Memorial Bowls Club - Morphett Vale Memorial Oval, Wheatsheaf Road Morphett Vale Football Club - Morphett Vale Memorial Oval, Wheatsheaf Road Morphett Vale Tennis Club - Morphett Vale Memorial Oval, Wheatsheaf Road Morphett Vale Netball Club - Morphett Vale Memorial Oval, Wheatsheaf Road Noarlunga Tigers Basketball Club - Wilfred Taylor Reserve, States Road Noarlunga United Soccer Club - Wilfred Taylor Reserve, States Road O'Sullivan Beach-Lonsdale Football Club - Morphett Vale Primary
Victor Harbor, South Australia
Victor Harbor is a town in the Australian state of South Australia located within the City of Victor Harbor on the south coast of the Fleurieu Peninsula, about 80 kilometres south of the state capital of Adelaide. The town is the largest population centre on the peninsula, with an economy based upon agriculture and various industries, it is a popular tourist destination, with the area's population expanded during the summer holidays by Adelaide locals looking to escape the summer heat. It is a popular destination with South Australian high school graduates for their end of year celebrations, known colloquially as schoolies. Traditionally home of the Ramindjeri clan of the Ngarrindjeri people, the bay on which Victor Harbor sits was discovered by Matthew Flinders in HMS Investigator on 8 April 1802; as part of the first circumnavigation of the continent, Flinders was surveying the unknown southern Australian coast from the west. He encountered Nicolas Baudin in Le Geographe near the Murray Mouth several kilometres to the east of the present day location of Victor Harbor.
Baudin was surveying the coast from the east for Napoleonic France. Although their countries were at war, each captain was given documents by the other nation's government, stating that the ships were on scientific missions, were therefore not to be regarded as ships of war. Together, the ships sheltered, while the captains compared notes. Flinders named the bay Encounter Bay after the meeting. In 1837 Captain Richard Crozier, en route from Sydney to the Swan River Colony in command of the Cruizer-class HMS Victor, anchored just off Granite Island and named the sheltered waters in the lee of the island'Victor Harbor' after his ship. About the same time two whaling stations were established, one at Rosetta Head and the other near the point opposite Granite Island. Whale oil became South Australia’s first export. From 1839 the whaling station was managed for a time by Captain John Hart, a Premier of South Australia; the town of Port Victor was laid out on the shores of Victor Harbor in 1863 when the horse-drawn tramway from Goolwa was extended to the harbour.
The last whale was caught off Port Victor in 1872. The town's name was changed to'Victor Harbor' in 1921, as a result, it is said, of a near shipwreck blamed on confusion with Port Victoria on the Yorke Peninsula. Despite harbour being spelt with a "u" in modern Australian English, the name of the city is spelt Victor Harbor; this spelling, found in several geographical names in South Australia, including Outer Harbor, coincided with the popularity in early Australian English of American spelling, for reasons that remain unclear. Victor Harbour railway station is spelt with the u. At the start of the 20th century, an attempt was made to make Port Victor, as it was called, a main stop of mail-steamers. On 26 December 1936, a one-off motor race meeting was held to the east of the town to commemorate the centenary of South Australia - the "South Australian Centenary Grand Prix"; the circuit was made of public roads, measured 12.6 kilometres in length and featured two long straights, two short straights, several corners, including the banked Nangawooka Hairpin.
Winner of the 240 mile Grand Prix, held as a handicap, was Les Murphy in an MG P-type, from Tim Joshua in another P-type and Bob Lea-Wright in a Terraplane Special. In 2016, the resident population of Victor Harbor was 4,233 but over the summer holiday season the population triples. At the 2016 Australian Census, the urban population for Victor Harbor together with nearby Goolwa was 25,503. Victor Harbor was declared a city in 2000; as a local government area, the City of Victor Harbor includes the surrounding rural area and the contiguous township of Encounter Bay as well as the town of Victor Harbor itself. It shares boundaries with the District Council of the Alexandrina Council; the city is in the federal Division of Mayo. A popular site for visitors is Granite Island, connected to the mainland by a short tram/pedestrian causeway; the tram service is provided by the Victor Harbor Horse Drawn Tram, one of the few horse-drawn tram routes remaining in public transit service. Granite island is home to a large colony of little penguins which are a popular attraction on the island.
These penguins shelter on the island during the night, departing in the morning to hunt for fish before returning at sunset. Sadly this colony of penguins is now gone. At the last count in 2012, only seven were found, it is suspected that an increase in New Zealand fur seals in the area may be to blame, however incidents such as those in 1998 where locals kicked several of them to death have contributed. The SteamRanger Heritage Railway runs train services, most notably The Cockle Train between Victor Harbor and Goolwa, along the Victor Harbor railway line. During the months of June to September, whale spotting is a popular attraction. Southern right whales come to the nearby waters to mate; the South Australian Whale Centre located at Victor Harbor provides hands-on interactive activities and presentations as well as information and whale watching tips. Greenhills Adventure Park offered activities including: waterslides, rock wall climbing, mini golf, go-karting, however this attraction has since closed down.
Victor Harbor is the centre of the surf zone known as the "South Coast" to Adelaide and local surfers. Popular surf beaches in the area include Parsons, Waitpinga and Goolwa; the Granite Island breakwater shields the town from waves. Victor Harbor offers numerous fishing opportuniti