Hillcrest Country Club (Los Angeles)
Hillcrest Country Club is a Jewish country club located in the Cheviot Hills neighborhood of Los Angeles, United States. Located at 10000 Pico Boulevard across the street from Fox Studios, Hillcrest was the first Los Angeles country club for the city's Jewish community. In 1972, the Los Angeles Times referred to Hillcrest as "the leading Jewish country club in Southern California." The property includes an 18-hole golf course and tennis courts, serves as a meeting place for its members. The course was designed by Willie Watson and opened 99 years ago in 1920. In the 1950s, oil was discovered on Hillcrest's land, the club allowed drilling. Members who have shares in the club collect tax-sheltered dividends on their original initiation fees, "B. O." memberships became so valuable that they were willed from father to son. Hillcrest was the site of the PGA Championship in 1929, one of golf's major championships. A match play competition, it was held in early December and won by defending champion Leo Diegel.
It was the first major held in the western United States. Hillcrest hosted the Los Angeles Open on the PGA Tour in 1932 and 1942, won by Macdonald Smith and Ben Hogan, respectively. From the back tees in 2013, the course rating is 73.1 with a slope rating of 136. Adjacent to the southwest is Rancho Park Golf Course, a championship municipal course that hosted the Los Angeles Open seventeen times and was the site of events on the Senior PGA Tour and LPGA Tour; the courses are separated by Motor Avenue. In the early days of the movie industry in Hollywood, when Jews were not permitted to join non-Jewish country clubs, they instead joined Hillcrest, all of whose members were Jewish. In An Empire of Their Own, Neal Gabler described charity dinners of the 1930s where movie moguls would gather at Hillcrest and outbid one another with gifts to the United Jewish Welfare Fund and other Jewish causes. In the 1940s, Hillcrest remained Jewish and attracted many of Hollywood's biggest stars, including Milton Berle, Jack Benny, Danny Kaye, George Burns, George Jessel, Al Jolson, Eddie Cantor and the Ritz Brothers.
According to various accounts, mogul Louis B. Mayer punched producer Sam Goldwyn in the nose while they were either in the showers or the steam room at Hillcrest. In his book on the William Morris Agency, author Frank Rose described the prestige of Hillcrest as follows: Groucho Marx was a member of Hillcrest though he once famously proclaimed that he would not want to be a member of any club willing to have him as a member. Groucho once noted: "As you may recall, the Hillcrest is the only country club in all of Greater Los Angeles that will accept Talmudic scholars such as myself as members."His ad-libbing and joking with the staff at Hillcrest became legendary. Alistair Cooke told of having lunch with Groucho at Hillcrest Country Club. There were many others sitting at the famed Hillcrest Comedians Round Table, when the waiter came to take the dessert orders, he could not keep track of, having what. "Two éclairs and four coffees—no, four éclairs and two coffees—no, wait a minute—..." Groucho interrupted, "Four eclairs and seven coffees ago, our forefathers brought forth on this continent a new na-... oh, skip the rhetoric and bring the dessert!"
After lunch, Groucho lined up to pay his bill behind a fat, fussy lady fiddling around in her bag for change. The impatient comedian instructed the young cashier: "Shoot her when you see the whites of her eyes!" The woman was thrilled that her abuser was none other than Groucho. "Oh!" she said. "Would you be Groucho Marx?" The quick-as-a-flash response: "What do you mean'would I be Groucho Marx'? I am Groucho Marx! Who would you be if you weren't yourself? Marilyn Monroe no doubt. Well pay your bill, you'll never make it."Ultimately, Groucho considered his Hillcrest membership precious enough to pass on to his son in his will. For years, many of the city's top comedians, including Jack Benny, George Burns, George Jessel, Groucho Marx, Danny Kaye, Milton Berle and Don Rickles, got together for a regular Friday lunch at Hillcrest, where they would socialize, try new material out on their friends, talk "shop." Alan King said. In 1972, the Los Angeles Times referred to the comedians' table at Hillcrest as the "Round Table" in a corner of the main dining room.
The members of the Round Table included Al Jolson, Harpo Marx, Eddie Cantor, Lou Holtz and Irving Brecher. Milton Berle told a story about an incident at the "Round Table" involving George Jessel, known as the city's ultimate toastmaster: An elderly businessman approached the Round Table, timidly approached Jessel and said, "Mr. Jessel, my wife, had a little poodle she was crazy about who just died, it would much please her if you would do the eulogy at the dog's funeral."Comedian David Steinberg noted that Hillcrest “is a little like an inverted New York Athletic Club: there is no discrimination, but it sure helps if you’re Jewish and a comedian.” Milton Berle, a long-time member, described Hillcrest—known for its food—as “a dining club with golf."In December 1963, Los Angeles Dodgers pitcher Sandy Koufax was roasted at Hillcrest by the Round Table comedians, along with guest roasters Frank Sinatra and Dean Martin. In what the Los Angeles Times called just about the only printable comment of the evening, George Jessel called Koufax, "Without question, the most important Hebrew athlete since Samson."Hillcrest was Ge
Mikveh or mikvah is a bath used for the purpose of ritual immersion in Judaism to achieve ritual purity. After the destruction of the Temple, the mikveh's main uses remained as follows: by Jewish women to achieve ritual purity after menstruation and after childbirth before they and their husbands may resume marital relations. Most forms of impurity can be nullified through immersion in any natural collection of water. However, some impurities, such as a zav, require "living water", such as springs or groundwater wells. Living water has the further advantage of being able to purify while flowing, as opposed to rainwater which must be stationary in order to purify; the mikveh is designed to simplify this requirement, by providing a bathing facility that remains in ritual contact with a natural source of water. In Orthodox Judaism, these regulations are steadfastly adhered to, the mikveh is central to an Orthodox Jewish community; the existence of a mikveh is considered so important that a Jewish community is required to construct a mikveh before building a synagogue, must go to the extreme of selling Torah scrolls or a synagogue if necessary, to provide funding for its construction.
In the Hebrew Bible, the word is employed in its broader sense, but means a collection of water. Before the beginning of the first century BCE, neither written sources, nor archaeology gives any indication about the existence of specific installations used for ritual cleansing. Mikvoth appear at the beginning of the first century BCE, from on, ancient mikvoth can be found throughout the land of Israel, as well as in historic communities of the Jewish diaspora; the traditional rules regarding the construction of a mikveh are based on those specified in classical rabbinical literature. According to these rules, a mikveh must be connected to a natural spring or well of occurring water, thus can be supplied by rivers and lakes which have natural springs as their source. A cistern filled by the rain is permitted to act as a mikveh's water supply. Snow and hail are allowed to act as the supply of water to a mikveh, as long as it melts in a certain manner. A river that dries up on a regular basis cannot be used because it is presumed to be rainwater, which cannot purify while flowing.
Oceans for the most part have the status of natural springs. A mikveh must, according to the classical regulations, contain enough water to cover the entire body of an average-sized person; the exact volume referred to by a seah is debated, classical rabbinical literature specifies only that it is enough to fit 144 eggs. This volume of water could be topped up with water from any source, but if there were less than 40 seahs of water in the mikveh the addition of 3 or more pints of water from an unnatural source would render the mikveh unfit for use, regardless of whether water from a natural source was added to make up 40 seahs from a natural source. Although not accepted, at least one American Orthodox rabbi advocated a home mikvah using tap water; as water only flows through pipes open at both ends, the municipal and in-home plumbing would be construed as a non-vessel. So long as the pipes and fittings were all freestanding and not held in the hand, it could be used to fill a mikvah receptacle that met all other requirements.
There are classical requirements for the manner in which the water can be stored and transported to the pool. It was forbidden for the water to pass through any vessel which could hold water within it As a result, tap water could not be used as the primary water source for a mikveh, although it can be used to top the water up to a suitable level. To avoid issues with these rules in large cities, various methods are employed to establish a valid mikveh. One is that tap water is made to flow over the top of a kosher mikveh, through a conduit into a larger pool. A second method is to create a mikveh in a deep pool, place a floor with holes over that and fill the upper pool with tap water. In this way, it is considered as if the person dipping is "in" the pool of rain water. Most contemporary mikvoth are indoor constructions, involving rainwater collected from a cistern, passed through a duct by gravity into an ordinary bathing pool. A mikveh must be built as an essential part of a building. Portable receptacles, such as bathtubs, whirlpools or Jacuzzis, can therefore never function as mikvehs.
Traditionally, the mikveh was used by both men and women to regain ritual
History of Los Angeles
The written history of Los Angeles city and county began with a Spanish colony town, populated by 11 descendants of Spanish families which were known as "Los Pobladores" that established a settlement in Southern California that changed little in the three decades after 1848, when California became part of the United States. Much greater changes came from the completion of the Santa Fe railroad line from Chicago to Los Angeles in 1885. "Overlanders" flooded in, namely white Protestants from South. Los Angeles had a strong economic base in farming, tourism, real estate and movies, it grew with many suburban areas inside and outside the city limits. Hollywood made the city world-famous, World War II brought new industry high-tech aircraft construction. Politically the city was moderately conservative, with a weak labor union sector. Since the 1960s, growth has slowed—and traffic delays have become famous. Los Angeles was a pioneer in freeway development as the public transit system deteriorated. New arrivals from Mexico and Asia, have transformed the demographic base since the 1960s.
Old industries have declined, including farming, oil and aircraft, but tourism and high tech remain strong. By 3000 B. C. the area was occupied by the Hokan-speaking people of the Milling Stone Period who fished, hunted sea mammals, gathered wild seeds. They were replaced by migrants — fleeing drought in the Great Basin — who spoke a Uto-Aztecan language called Tongva; the Tongva people called the Los Angeles region Yaa in Tongva. By the time of the arrival of the Spanish in the 18th century A. D. there were 5,000 in the Los Angeles basin. Since contact with Europeans, the people in what became Los Angeles were known as Gabrielinos and Fernandeños, after the missions associated with them; the land used by the Gabrielinos covered about 4,000 square miles. It included the enormous floodplain drained by the Los Angeles and San Gabriel rivers and the southern Channel Islands, including the Santa Barbara, San Clemente, Santa Catalina, San Nicholas Islands, they were part of a sophisticated group of trading partners that included the Chumash to the west, the Cahuilla and Mojave to the east, the Juaneños and Luiseños to the south.
Their trade included slavery. The lives of the Gabrielinos were governed by a set of religious and cultural practices that included belief in creative supernatural forces, they worshipped Chinigchinix, a creator god, Chukit, a female virgin god. Their Great Morning Ceremony was based on a belief in the afterlife. In a purification ritual, they drank tolguache, a hallucinogenic made from jimson weed and salt water, their language was called Kizh or Kij, they practiced cremation. Generations before the arrival of the Europeans, the Gabrielinos had identified and lived in the best sites for human occupation; the survival and success of Los Angeles depended on the presence of a nearby and prosperous Gabrielino village called Yaanga. Its residents provided the colonists with seafood, bowls and baskets. For pay, they dug ditches, hauled water, provided domestic help, they intermarried with the Mexican colonists. In 1542 and 1602, the first Europeans to visit the region were Captain Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo and Captain Sebastián Vizcaíno.
It was. Although Los Angeles was a town, founded by Mexican families from Sonora, it was the Spanish governor of California who named the settlement. In 1777, governor Felipe de Neve toured Alta California and decided to establish civic pueblos for the support of the military presidios; the new pueblos reduced the secular power of the missions by reducing the dependency of the military on them. At the same time, they promoted the development of agriculture. Neve identified Santa Barbara, San Jose, Los Angeles as sites for his new pueblos, his plans for them followed a set of Spanish city-planning laws contained in the Laws of the Indies promulgated by King Philip II in 1573. Those laws were responsible for laying the foundations of the largest cities in the region, including Los Angeles, San Francisco and San Antonio—as well as Sonoma, Santa Fe, San Jose, Laredo; the Spanish system called for an open central plaza, surrounded by a fortified church, administrative buildings, streets laid out in a grid, defining rectangles of limited size to be used for farming and residences.
It was in accordance with such precise planning—specified in the Law of the Indies—that Governor Neve founded the pueblo of San Jose de Guadalupe, California's first municipality, on the great plain of Santa Clara on 29 November 1777. The Los Angeles Pobladores is the name given to the 44 original settlers, 22 adults and 22 children from Sonora, who founded the town. In December 1777, Viceroy Antonio María de Bucareli y Ursúa and Commandant General Teodoro de Croix gave approval for the founding of a civic municipality at Los Angeles and a new presidio at Santa Barbara. Croix put the California lieutenant governor Fernando Rivera y Moncada in charge of recruiting colonists for the new settlements, he was instructed to recruit 55 soldiers, 22 settlers with families and 1,000 head of livestock that included horses for the military. After an exhausting search that took him to Mazatlán, Durango, Rivera y Moncada only recruited 12 settlers and 45 soldiers. Like the people of most towns in New Spain, they were a mix of Spanish backgrounds.
The Quechan Revolt killed 95 soldiers, including Rivera y Moncada. In his Reglamento, the newly baptized India
La Cienega Boulevard
La Cienega Boulevard is a major north–south arterial road that runs between El Segundo Boulevard in Hawthorne, California on the south and the Sunset Strip/Sunset Boulevard in West Hollywood to the north. It was named for Rancho Las Cienegas "The Ranch Of The Swamps," an area of marshland south of Rancho La Brea. From south of Fairview and from north of Rodeo Road, La Cienega Boulevard is a regular surface street and one of Hollywood's major thoroughfares. Offices for A&E Network, The History Channel and the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences are located on La Cienega as are the studios of Citadel Broadcasting flagships KABC and KLOS, two of Los Angeles' biggest radio stations. A portion of La Cienega in and adjacent to Beverly Hills is known as "Restaurant Row" for its large number of upscale restaurants. South of Olympic, La Cienega runs through the Pico-Robertson and Crestview neighborhoods in West Los Angeles into Culver City and is known for its large number of automotive-related business including several used car dealerships and many body shops and auto mechanics.
It continues south passing Interstate 10, the Metro Expo Line. It is unusual among Southern California roadways to be built to freeway standards. South of Interstate 10, La Cienega was built to freeway standards in the late 1940s as part of the proposed Laurel Canyon Freeway, part of State Route 170; the SR 170 freeway was never completed south of U. S. Route 101, the stretch of La Cienega from just north of Fairview Blvd in Inglewood, through Baldwin Hills and along the Kenneth Hahn State Recreation Area to Rodeo Road in Los Angeles is a divided, limited access highway with few traffic signals; as such, emergency call boxes like those found along the area's freeways were installed along that stretch in the early 1970s. South of Fairview Blvd, La Cienega runs parallel to the 405 freeway and terminates at El Segundo Boulevard in Del Aire along the west side of the freeway. A non-contiguous segment named La Cienega Blvd runs along the East side of the 405 freeway between El Segundo Blvd and Rosecrans Avenue in Wiseburn, another unincorporated area adjacent to Del Aire.
The area of La Cienega Boulevard, from Beverly Boulevard to Santa Monica Boulevard, its satellite streets is known as the La Cienega Design Quarter. Its shops and galleries house many antiques, rugs and art. Art dealer Felix Landau operated his trend-setting gallery there in the 1960s. La Cienega in Beverly Hills, north of Wilshire Boulevard, is known as Restaurant Row because it features many upscale restaurants. From Wilshire in Beverly Hills traveling north the best known establishments include Benihana, The Stinking Rose, the original Lawry's the Prime Rib, Tokyo Table - Tokyo City Cuisine, Fogo de Chão, Gyu-Kaku, Woo Lae Oak, The Bazaar by José Andrés, Morton's. La Cienega Boulevard is named after Rancho Las Cienegas Mexican land grant in the region now called "West Los Angeles." The Spanish phrase la ciénaga translates into English as "the swamp" and the area named "Las Ciénegas" was a continual marshland due to the course of the Los Angeles River through that area prior to a massive southerly shift in 1825 to its present course.
The difference in spelling in Los Angeles between the Castilian Spanish word ciénaga and the name of the thoroughfare, common in other Iberian languages like Extremaduran, originated with the name of the rancho. Metro Local lines 105 and 217, Metro Rapid line 705 run on La Cienega Boulevard. An elevated light rail station for the Metro Expo Line is located at Jefferson Boulevard. An underground station for the Metro Purple Line at Wilshire Boulevard is under construction and is due to open in 2023; the entire route is in Los Angeles County. Southern California Unsigned Freeways – La Cienega Boulevard La Cienega Design Quarter
Century City is a 176-acre neighborhood and business district in Los Angeles' Westside. Outside Downtown Los Angeles, Century City is one of the metropolitan area's most prominent employment centers, its skyscrapers form a distinctive skyline on the Westside; the district was developed on the former backlot of film studio 20th Century Fox, its first building was opened in 1963. There are two private schools, but no public schools in the neighborhood. Important to the economy are the Westfield Century City shopping center, business towers, Fox Studios. According to the City of Los Angeles Department of City Planning, Century City constitutes census tract 2679.01. As shown on the map published on the Century City Chamber of Commerce website, Century City is bounded by Santa Monica Boulevard to the north, the city of Beverly Hills to the east, Pico Boulevard to the south, Century Park West to the west; these boundaries correspond with those recognized by the Century City Business Improvement District Association.
Neighboring Century City are Beverly Hills to the east, Cheviot Hills to the south, West Los Angeles to the west, Westwood to the north. The Mapping L. A. project of the Los Angeles Times extends Century City's western boundary to Beverly Glen Boulevard. However, this more expansive definition is not consistent with other L. A. Times reports: a 1999 article sets Century Park West as Century City's western boundary, a 2017 article refers to the neighborhood to the west of Century City as distinct from it. Two specific plans cover the neighborhood: "Century City North Specific Plan for the retail and entertainment functions in Century City," and "Century City South Specific Plan for multi-family homes, office tower and Fox Studios," according to the community plan set forth by the Los Angeles Department of City Planning; the land of Century City belonged to cowboy actor Tom Mix. It became a backlot of 20th Century Fox, which still has its headquarters just to the southwest; the area is named for the 20th Century Fox's Century Property.
In 1956, Spyros Skouras, who served as the President of 20th Century Fox from 1942–62, his nephew-in-law Edmond Herrscher, an attorney sometimes known as "the father of Century City", decided to repurpose the land for real estate development. The following year, in 1957, they commissioned a master-plan development from Welton Becket Associates, unveiled at a major press event on the "western" backlot that year. In 1961, after Fox suffered a string of expensive flops, culminating with the financial strain put on the studio by the expensive production of Cleopatra, the film studio sold about 180 acres to developer William Zeckendorf and Aluminum Co. of America known as Alcoa, for US$300 million. Herrscher had encouraged his uncle-in-law to borrow money instead, but once Skouras refused, he was out of the picture; the new owners conceived Century City as "a city within a city". In 1963, the first building, Gateway West Building, was completed; the next year, in 1964, Minoru Yamasaki designed the Century Plaza Hotel.
Five years in 1969, architects Anthony J. Lumsden and César Pelli designed the Century City Medical Plaza. Much of the shopping center's architecture and style can be seen in numerous sequences in the 1967 Fox film, A Guide for the Married Man, as well as in a sequence in another Fox film of the same year, Caprice. Century City's plaza as it appeared in the early 1970s can be viewed in several scenes of still another Fox film, Conquest of the Planet of the Apes; the following data applies to Century City within the boundaries set by the Mapping L. A. project: The 2000 U. S. census counted 5,513 residents in the 0.70-square-mile Century City neighborhood—or 7,869 people per square mile, an average population density for the city and county. The Southern California Association of Governments estimates that the daytime population amounts to 48,343 on a working day. In 2008, the city estimated that the resident population had increased to 5,934. In 2008, the median age for residents was 46, older than average for the county.
The percentage of residents aged 65 and older was the highest for any neighborhood in Los Angeles County. The percentages of widowed men and women and of divorced men were among the county's highest. Military veterans accounted for 11.9 % of the population, a high rate for the county. The neighborhood was considered "not diverse" ethnically, with a high percentage of white residents; the breakdown was whites, 82.5%. Iran and Canada were the most common places of birth for the 25.5% of the residents who were born abroad—a low percentage, compared to the city at large. The median yearly income in 2014 was a high figure for Los Angeles; the percentage of households that earned $125,000 and up was high for Los Angeles County. The average household size of 1.8 people was low for Los Angeles. Renters occupied 39.6% of the housing stock and apartment owners held 60.4%. Westfield Century City and Fox Studios occupy important acreage in the neighborhood; as of 2016, Westfield Century City is undergoing an $800 million renovation and expansion that aims to maintain the center's status as one of the Westside's premier shopping and entertainment destinations.
One tower, Constellation Place, has the headquarters of Houlihan Lokey, ICM Partners, International Lease Finance Corporation. Crystal Cruises is hea
Hispanic and Latino Americans
Hispanic Americans and Latino Americans are Americans who are descendants of people from Spain and Latin America, respectively. More it includes all Americans who speak the Spanish language natively, who self-identify as Hispanic or Latino, whether of full or partial ancestry. For the 2010 United States Census, people counted as "Hispanic" or "Latino" were those who identified as one of the specific Hispanic or Latino categories listed on the census questionnaire as well as those who indicated that they were "other Spanish, Hispanic or Latino." The national origins classified as Hispanic or Latino by the United States Census Bureau are the following: Argentine, Colombian, Puerto Rican, Mexican, Costa Rican, Honduran, Panamanian, Bolivian, Spanish American, Ecuadorian, Peruvian and Venezuelan. Brazilian Americans, other Portuguese-speaking Latino groups, non-Spanish speaking Latino groups in the United States are defined as "Latino" by some U. S. government agencies. The Census Bureau uses the terms Hispanic and Latino interchangeably."Origin" can be viewed as the ancestry, nationality group, lineage or country of birth of the person or the person's parents or ancestors before their arrival in the United States.
People who identify as Spanish, Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. As one of the only two designated categories of ethnicity in the United States, Hispanics form a pan-ethnicity incorporating a diversity of inter-related cultural and linguistic heritages. Most Hispanic Americans are of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Salvadoran, Guatemalan or Colombian origin; the predominant origin of regional Hispanic populations varies in different locations across the country. Hispanic Americans are the second fastest-growing ethnic group by percentage growth in the United States after Asian Americans. Hispanic/Latinos overall are the second-largest ethnic group in the United States, after non-Hispanic whites. Hispanics have lived within what is now the United States continuously since the founding of St. Augustine by the Spanish in 1565. After Native Americans, Hispanics are the oldest ethnic group to inhabit much of what is today the United States. Many have Native American ancestry. Spain colonized large areas of what is today the American Southwest and West Coast, as well as Florida.
Its holdings included present-day California, New Mexico, Nevada and Texas, all of which were part of the Republic of Mexico from its independence in 1821 until the end of the Mexican–American War in 1848. Conversely, Hispanic immigrants to the New York-New Jersey metropolitan area derive from a broad spectrum of Latin American states. A study published in 2015 in the American Journal of Human Genetics, based on 23andMe data from 8,663 self-described Latinos, estimated that Latinos in the United States carried a mean of 65.1% European ancestry, 18.0% Native American ancestry, 6.2% African ancestry. The study found that self-described Latinos from the Southwest those along the Mexican border, had the highest mean levels of Native American ancestry; the terms "Hispanic" and "Latino" refer to an ethnicity. Hispanic people may share some commonalities in their language, culture and heritage. According to the Smithsonian Institution, the term "Latino" includes peoples with Portuguese roots, such as Brazilians, as well as those of Spanish-language origin.
In the United States, many Hispanics and Latinos are of both Native American ancestry. Others are predominantly of European ancestry or of Amerindian ancestry. Many Hispanics and Latinos from the Caribbean, as well as other regions of Latin America where African slavery was widespread, may be of sub-Saharan African descent as well; the difference between the terms Hispanic and Latino is confusing to some. The U. S. Census Bureau equates the two terms and defines them as referring to anyone from Spain and the Spanish-speaking countries of the Americas. After the Mexican–American War concluded in 1848, term Hispanic or Spanish American was used to describe the Hispanos of New Mexico within the American Southwest; the 1970 United States Census controversially broadened the definition to "a person of Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin, regardless of race". This is now the common formal and colloquial definition of the term within the United States, outside of New Mexico.
The term Latino has developed a number of definitions. One definition of Latino is "a Latin male in the United States"; this is the oldest and the original definition used in the United States, first used in 1946. This definition encompasses Spanish speakers from both Europe and the Americas. Under this definition, immigrants from Spain and immigrants from Latin America are both Latino; this definition is consistent with the 21st-century usage by the U. S. Census Bureau and OMB, as the two agencies use Latino interchangeably. A definition of Latino is as a condensed form of the term "Latino-Americano", the Spanish word for Latin-American, or someone who comes from Latin America. Under this definition a Mexican American or Puerto Rican, for example, is both a Hispanic and a Latino. A Brazilian American is a Latino by this definition, which includes those of Portuguese-speaking origin from Latin America. However, an immigrant from Spain would be classified as European or White by American sta
Transportation in Los Angeles
Los Angeles has a complex multimodal transportation infrastructure, which serves as a regional and international hub for passenger and freight traffic. The system includes the United States' largest port complex. People in Los Angeles rely on cars as the dominant mode of transportation, but starting in 1990 Los Angeles Metro Rail has built over one hundred miles of light and heavy rail serving more and more parts of Los Angeles. In the Los Angeles metropolitan area there are five commercial airports and many more general-aviation airports; the primary Los Angeles airport is Los Angeles International Airport. The seventh busiest commercial airport in the world and the third busiest in the United States, LAX handled 61.9 million passengers, 1.884 million metric tons of cargo and 680,954 aircraft movements in 2007. Other major nearby commercial airports include: LA/Ontario International Airport; the world's busiest general-aviation airport is located in Los Angeles, Van Nuys Airport. Santa Monica Airport is located in Los Angeles.
Union Station is the major regional train station for Amtrak and Metro Rail. The station is Amtrak's fifth busiest station, having 1,464,289 Amtrak boardings and de-boardings in 2006. Amtrak operates eleven daily round trips between San Diego and Los Angeles, five of which continue to Santa Barbara via the Pacific Surfliner, the only service that runs through Los Angeles multiple times daily. Two of those trips continue to California; the Coast Starlight provides additional service on the route and beyond to the San Francisco Bay Area, on to Seattle, Washington. Amtrak motor coaches connect from Los Angeles to the San Joaquin Route in Bakersfield with frequent service through the Central Valley of California to Sacramento and Oakland, eastward to San Bernardino and Las Vegas. There is daily service to Chicago, Illinois on the Southwest Chief, three times a week to New Orleans, Louisiana on the Sunset Limited. Due to the effects from Hurricane Katrina, Sunset Limited service between New Orleans to Jacksonville, Florida has been discontinued, although Amtrak is required by current Federal Law to develop a plan to reinstate the service.
The Texas Eagle is a second train to Chicago. Sunset Limited and Texas Eagle trains operate on the same track between Los Angeles and San Antonio, Texas before splitting off towards their respective destinations. Amtrak Pacific Surfliner trains stop at several locations in Los Angeles County, including: Glendale, Bob Hope Airport in Burbank and Van Nuys. Due to the large volumes of import freight that flows into the city's port complex, Los Angeles is a major freight railroad hub. Freight is hauled by Union Pacific BNSF Railway; the now-defunct Southern Pacific Railroad once served the Los Angeles area before merging with Union Pacific. The Alameda Corridor, a below-grade rail corridor connects the port to the city's main rail yards and to points further north and east; the major highway routes providing intercity connections are Interstate 5, U. S. Route 101, Interstate 10. Greyhound, BoltBus and various smaller bus lines provide intercity bus services. Megabus and Boltbus departs from Union Station and directly connects Los Angeles to San Francsico and Las Vegas.
Greyhound connects smaller departs from various locations within metro Los Angeles. The main station is located in downtown Los Angeles. Greyhound Lines operates several stations within the city of Los Angeles: Hollywood Station Los Angeles Station Los Angeles Wall North Hollywood Station Greyhound Lines operates stations in the following cities and areas surrounding Los Angeles: Anaheim: Anaheim Station Compton: Compton Station East Los Angeles: Los Angeles Olympic Station El Monte El Monte Station El Monte AAU Glendale: Glendale Station Lancaster: Lancaster Station Long Beach: Long Beach Station Palmdale: Palmdale Transportation Center Pasadena: Pasadena Station Santa Ana Santa Ana Station Santa Ana Main StreetGreyhound Lines services bus stops at: Huntington Park Los Angeles: Union Station The Port of Los Angeles is located in San Pedro Bay in the San Pedro neighborhood 20 miles south of Downtown. Called Los Angeles Harbor and WORLDPORT L. A. the port complex occupies 7,500 acres of water along 43 miles of waterfront.
It adjoins the separate Port of Long Beach. The sea ports of the Port of Los Angeles and Port of Long Beach together make up the Los Angeles–Long Beach Harbor. There are smaller, non-industrial harbors along L. A.'s coastline. Most of these like Redondo Beach and Marina del Rey are used by sailboats and yachts; the Port of Los Angeles and Port of Long Beach comprise the largest seaport complex in the United States and the fifth busiest in the world. Over 11 percent of United States international trade passes through the Los Angeles region and it the Los Angeles customs district collects over 37 percent of the nation’s import duties; the port includes four bridges: the Vincent Thomas Bridge, Henry Ford Bridge, Gerald