California State Legislature
The California State Legislature is a bicameral legislature consisting of a lower house, the California State Assembly, with 80 members. Both houses of the Legislature convene at the California State Capitol in Sacramento; the California State Legislature is one of just ten full-time state legislatures in the United States. The Democratic Party holds supermajorities in both houses of the California State Legislature; the Assembly consists of 61 Democrats and 19 Republicans, while the Senate is composed of 28 Democrats and 10 Republicans, with two vacancies. Except for a brief period from 1995 to 1996, the Assembly has been in Democratic hands since the 1970 election; the Senate, has been under continuous Democratic control since 1970. New legislators convene each new two-year session, to organize, in the Assembly and Senate Chambers at noon on the first Monday in December following the election. After the organizational meeting, both houses are in recess until the first Monday in January, except when the first Monday is January 1 or January 1 is a Sunday, in which case they meet the following Wednesday.
Aside from the recess, the legislature is in session year-round. Since California was given official statehood by the U. S. in September 9, 1850 as part of the Compromise of 1850, the state capital was variously San Jose and Benicia, until Sacramento was selected in 1854. The first Californian State House was a hotel in San Jose owned by businessman Pierre "Don Pedro" Sainsevain and his associates; the State Legislature meets in the California State Capitol in Sacramento. Members of the Assembly serve two-year terms. All 80 Assembly seats are subject to election every two years. Members of the Senate serve four-year terms; every two years, one half of the Senate is subject to election, with odd-numbered districts up for election during presidential elections, even-numbered districts up for election during midterm elections. Term limits were established in 1990 following the passage of Proposition 140. In June 2012, voters approved Proposition 28, which limits legislators to a maximum of 12 years, without regard to whether they serve those years in the State Assembly or the State Senate.
Legislators first elected on or before June 5, 2012 are restricted by the previous term limits, approved in 1990, which limited legislators to three terms in the State Assembly and two terms in the State Senate. The proceedings of the California State Legislature are summarized in published journals, which show votes and who proposed or withdrew what. Reports produced by California executive agencies, as well as the Legislature, were published in the Appendices to the Journals from 1849 to 1970. Since the 1990s, the legislature has provided a live video feed for its sessions, has been broadcast statewide on the California Channel and local Public-access television cable TV. Due to the expense and the obvious political downside, California did not keep verbatim records of actual speeches made by members of the Assembly and Senate until the video feed began; as a result, reconstructing legislative intent outside of an act's preamble is difficult in California for legislation passed before the 1990s.
Since 1993, the Legislature has hosted a web/ftp site in another. The current Website contains the text of all statutes, all bills, the text of all versions of the bills, all the committee analyses of bills, all the votes on bills in committee or on the floor, veto messages from the Governor. Before committees published reports for significant bills, but most bills were not important enough to justify the expense of printing and distributing a report to archives and law libraries across the state. For bills lacking such a formal committee report, the only way to discover legislative intent is to access the state archives in Sacramento and manually review the files of relevant legislators, legislative committees, the Governor's Office from the relevant time period, in the hope of finding a statement of intent and evidence that the statement reflected the views of several of the legislators who voted for the bill; the most sought-after legislative committee appointments are to banking and insurance.
These are sometimes called "juice" committees, because membership in these committees aids the campaign fundraising efforts of the committee members, because powerful lobbying groups want to donate to members of these committees. A bill is a proposal to repeal, or add to existing state law. An Assembly Bill is one introduced in the Assembly. Bills are designated in the order of introduction in each house. For example, AB 16 refers to the 16th bill introduced in the Assembly; the numbering starts afresh each session. There may be one or more "extraordinary" sessions; the bill numbering starts again for each of these. For example, the third bill introduced in the Assembly for the second extraordinary session is ABX2 3; the name of the author, the legislator who introduced the bill, becomes part of the title of the bill. The legislative procedure, is divided into distinct stages: Drafting; the procedure begins when a Assembly Member decides to author a bill. A legislator sends the idea for the bill to the California Office of the Legislative Counsel, which drafts it into bill form and returns the draft to the legislator for introduction.
Introduction or First Reading. A legislator introduces a bill for the first time by reading or having read: the bill number, name of
Schurr High School
Schurr High School is a public high school, part of the Montebello Unified School District, has an enrollment of 3,500 students in grades 9-12. Its campus is located in Montebello, United States, a suburb of the Los Angeles metropolitan area; the majority of students attending this school live in the Montebello and Monterey Park area, while some come from neighboring cities and communities such as Commerce, East Los Angeles, South El Monte and Rosemead. Schurr was established as a high school in 1971, with the campus having been the site of a junior high school; the school was named for George Miller Schurr, a former board member of the Montebello Unified School District. A placard honoring him is displayed in the main office on campus; the school served as Schurr Junior High School, but due to the growing population of students in the area and the significant distance from the two local public high schools at the time the school became a high school in 1971. The first principal was Walter Wohlheter.
Most of the students who attend Schurr come from either Jack F. Macy Intermediate School, located in the city of Monterey Park, or Eastmont Intermediate School, located in East Los Angeles, just a few blocks from the Montebello city border. Though Schurr and Macy are a few blocks apart, both schools are located on Wilcox Ave.. Due to Schurr sitting atop a hill, it is said that Macy students "climb the hill" upon graduation from middle school. While Macy and Eastmont students maintain a rivalry both academically and athletically, their differences are considered to be put to rest once they become acclimated to Schurr and one another. Schurr High School was built to accommodate 1,700 students. Today, Schurr's population has nearly doubled, school officials expect that during the 2015-2018 school years, the population will increase to around 3,700 students; the exponential growth in terms of student population has led to many students having to share lockers. The Alma Mater is based on the National Anthem of Russia and the words were written by music and history/government teacher David A. Lebow.
Band director, Barry Ulrich composed the official "unofficial" fight song, "Taco Mambo", played by the Spartan Legion at home athletic events and school rallies. The Schurr High School mascot is known as Sammy the Spartan, the school's students and alumni are referred to as Spartans. During the 2017-2018 school year, solar panels were added to portions of both the teacher and student parking lots, giving the school a new source of energy. Schurr offers and encourage students to participate in a variety of sports and after school programs that foster critical thinking and problems solving skills. Clubs and activitiesEdit Schurr High students take part in more than 30 clubs and activities, including Astronomy Club, Green Earth Club, Plant Posse, National Honor Society, Youth Community Service; the sports teams are referred to as the "Schurr High Spartans." The school official colors are white, with gold being an unofficial accent color. The school has an athletic rivalry with nearby Montebello High School.
The rivalry is intensified by several geographical reasons, such as the fact that both schools are located on N. Wilcox Ave. and are separated by only a few blocks, so close in fact that depending on where someone stands on either campus, the other school is visible. The campus is divided into two levels, with the upstairs level serving as the home for the physical education department as well as the home of all the athletic venues, such as Ken Davis field, two separate gymnasiums for basketball and volleyball which are shared between both sports, the baseball field, the softball field, enclosed tennis courts, the outdoor aquatics center, built in 2012 and has an Olympic sized pool; the school's most noteworthy athletic organizations are the football, cross country, track and field teams. The Spartans football team won the California Interscholastic Federation championship in Division 5A in 1980, 2006, with the win coming against Santa Fe High School; the 2006 game was played in Fullerton, CA.
During the 2016-2017 school year, the girl's water polo team won the CIF title by defeating Riverside Poly High School 6-4. A scoreboard for the baseball field was added in for the 2014 school year. In the year 2015, the football field began undergoing long-awaited renovations to transition to an artificial turf surface. Todd Spitzer, 1978: Orange County, California politician Catherine J. K. Sandoval, 1980: first Latina Rhodes Scholar and Associate Professor at Santa Clara University School of Law. Bobby Logan, 1973: writer and director of TV and films, including Meatballs 4 and Repossessed, starring Leslie Nielsen and Linda Blair Lorin Sklamberg, 1974: member of The Klezmatics and winner of a Grammy Award Ada Maris, 1975: actress Daryn Okada, 1978: cinematographer and director of photography Ramona Pagel, 1979: American record holder in the shot put Rodney Eastman, 1985: Canadian actor best known for playing Joey Crusel in A Nightmare on Elm Street 3: Dream Warriors and sequel A Nightmare on Elm Street 4: The Dream Master Myles Kovacs, 1991: founder/president of DUB Magazine Jay Hernandez, 1996: actor best known for his roles as Brian Chavez in the film Friday Night Lights and Chato Santana / El Diablo in the film Suicide Squad Sergio Mora, 1997: winner of television boxing show The Contender and former WBC light middleweight champion Darin Maki, 1997: a Japanese-American professional basketball p
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used in connection with national population and housing censuses; the United Nations defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory and defined periodicity", recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions and other useful information to co-ordinate international practice; the word is of Latin origin: during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. The modern census is essential to international comparisons of any kind of statistics, censuses collect data on many attributes of a population, not just how many people there are. Censuses began as the only method of collecting national demographic data, are now part of a larger system of different surveys.
Although population estimates remain an important function of a census, including the geographic distribution of the population, statistics can be produced about combinations of attributes e.g. education by age and sex in different regions. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the same level of detail but raise concerns about privacy and the possibility of biasing estimates. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, planning, as a baseline for designing sample surveys by providing a sampling frame such as an address register. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling. Stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations. In some countries, the census provides the official counts used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions.
In many cases, a chosen random sample can provide more accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a population rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population; this is the only way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on and individuals could be missed. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known and a new estimate is to be made by the analysis of primary data; the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is known. However, a census is used to collect attribute data on the individuals in the nation; this process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, a house to house process or the product of an imperial decree, the modern statistical project. The sampling frame used by census is always an address register.
Thus it is not known how many people there are in each household. Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, an enumerator calls, or administrative records for the dwelling are accessed; as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, this can be out of date and some dwellings may contain a number of independent households. A particular problem is what are termed'communal establishments' which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc; as these are not enumerated by a single householder, they are treated differently and visited by special teams of census workers to ensure they are classified appropriately. Individuals are counted within households and information is collected about the household structure and the housing. For this reason international documents refer to censuses of housing.
The census response is made by a household, indicating details of individuals resident there. An important aspect of census enumerations is determining which individuals can be counted from which cannot be counted. Broadly, three definitions can be used: de facto residence; this is important to consider individuals who have temporary addresses. Every person should be identified uniquely as resident in one place but where they happen to be on Census Day, their de facto residence, may not be the best place to count them. Where an individual uses services may be more useful and this is at their usual, or de jure, residence. An individual may be represented at a permanent address a family home for students or long term migrants, it is necessary to have a precise definition of residence to decide whether visitors to a country should be included in the population count. This is becoming more important as students travel abroad for education for a period of several years. Other groups causing problems of enumeration are new born babies, people away on holiday, people moving home around census day, people without a fixed address.
People having second homes because of working in another part of the country or retaining a holiday cottage are dif
Monterey Park, California
Monterey Park is a city located in the western San Gabriel Valley region of Los Angeles County, California in the Los Angeles metropolitan area, United States seven miles from the Downtown Los Angeles civic center. The city's motto is "Pride in the past, Faith in the future". Monterey Park is part of a cluster of cities with a growing Asian American population. According to the 2010 Census, the city had a total population of 60,269. Monterey Park has ranked as one of the country's best places to live due to its good schools, growing economy, central location. For at least seven thousand years the land was populated by the Tongva Native Americans; the Tongva lived in dome like structures with thatched exteriors, an open smoke hole for ventilation and light at the top. Both sexes tattooed their bodies. During warm weather the men wore little clothes but the women would wear minimal skirts made of animal hides. During the cold weather they would wear animal skin capes and wore sandals made from hide of yucca fiber.
With the arrival of the Spaniards, Old World diseases killed off many of the Tongva, by 1870 few Native-Americans had survived. In the early 19th century the area was part of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel mission system and the Rancho San Antonio. Following the Civil War, an Italian, Alessandro Repetto, purchased 5,000 acres of the rancho and built his ranch house on the hill overlooking his land, about a half-mile north of where Garfield Avenue crosses the Pomona Freeway, not far from where the Edison substation is now located on Garfield Avenue, it was at this time, Richard Garvey, a mail rider for the U. S. Army whose route took him through Monterey Pass, a trail, now Garvey Avenue, settled down in the King's Hills. Garvey began developing the land by bringing in spring water from near the Hondo River and by constructing a 54-foot-high dam to form Garvey Lake located where Garvey Ranch Park is now. To pay for his development and past debts, Garvey began selling portions of his property.
In 1906, the first subdivision in the area, Ramona Acres, was developed north of Garvey and east of Garfield Avenues. In 1916, the new residents of the area initiated action to become a city when the cities of Pasadena, South Pasadena, Alhambra proposed to put a large sewage treatment facility in the area; the community voted itself into cityhood on May 29, 1916, by a vote of 455 to 33. The City's new Board of Directors outlawed sewage plants within city boundaries and named the new city Monterey Park; the name was taken from an old government map showing the oak-covered hills of the area as Monterey Hills. In 1920, a large area on the south edge of the city broke away and the separate city of Montebello was established. By 1920, the white and Spanish-surname settlers were joined by Asian residents who began farming potatoes and flowers and developing nurseries in the Monterey Highlands area, they improved the Monterey Pass Trail with a road to aid in shipping their produce to Los Angeles. The nameless pass, used as a location for western movies, was called Coyote Pass by Pioneer Masami Abe.
In 1926, near the corner of Atlantic and Garvey Avenue, Laura Scudder invented the first sealed bag of potato chips. In an effort to maintain quality and freshness, Laura's team would iron sheets of wax paper together to form a bag, they would fill these bags with potato chips. Real estate became a thriving industry during the late 1920s with investors attracted to the many subdivisions under development and increasing commercial opportunities; the Midwick View Estates by Peter N. Snyder, a proposed garden community, designed to rival Bel Air and Beverly Hills. Known as the "Father of the East Side", Mr. Snyder was a key player in the vast undertaking in the 1920s of developing the East Side as part of the industrial base of Los Angeles, his efforts to build Atlantic Boulevard, his work with the East Side organization to bring industry to the East Side, his residential and commercial development projects along Atlantic Boulevard were a major influence to the surrounding communities. The focal point of the Midwick View Estates was "Jardin del Encanto", otherwise known as "El Encanto," a Spanish style building, to serve as the administration building and community center for Midwick View Estates.
The development included an observation terrace above Jardin del Encanto and the fountain with cascading water going down the hillside in stepped pools to De La Fuente. Now known as Heritage Falls Park or "the Cascades." The Great Depression brought an abrupt end to the real estate boom, as well as the Midwick proposal. From the late 1920s, the City had little development for nearly two decades; the end of World War II resulted in a revived growth trend with explosive population gains during the late 1940s and 1950s. Until this time, the population was concentrated in the northern and southern portions of the city, with the Garvey and Monterey Hills forming a natural barrier. With the renewed growth, many new subdivisions were developed, utilizing the undeveloped central area to allow for maximum growth potential. A series of annexations of surrounding land occurred. Many veterans continued through the 1950s. Around this time, Japanese Americans from the West Side, Chinese Americans from Chinatown, Latinos from East Los Angeles began settling in the
Montebello is a city in Los Angeles County, United States, located in the southwestern area of the San Gabriel Valley on 8.4 sq mi 8 mi east of downtown Los Angeles. It is considered part of the Gateway Cities, is a member of the Gateway Cities Council of Governments. In the early 20th century, Montebello was a well-known source for oil reserves. At the 2010 census, the population was 62,500; the estimated population as of July 1, 2013 was 63,495. Before the arrival of the Spaniards in the area known today as Montebello, the land along the Rio Hondo River was populated by the Tongva portion of the Uto-Aztecan family of Native Americans; the Tongva occupied much of the Los Angeles basin and the southern Channel Islands - Santa Catalina, San Nicolas, San Clemente and Santa Barbara. Because the language of the Tongva was different from the neighboring tribes it was called "Gabrielino" by the Spanish; as more non-natives arrived and settlements were established and disease came with them. By 1870, the area had few remaining indigenous inhabitants as disease brought by the Europeans killed many of the Tongva.
Father Angel Somera and Father Pedro Cambon, both Franciscan missionaries, founded the original Mission San Gabriel Arcangel on September 8, 1771. The establishment of the mission marked the beginning of the Los Angeles region's settlement by Spaniards and the fourth of twenty-one missions established along California's El Camino Real; the mission did well as a farm and cattle ranch. Six years after its founding, however, a destructive flood led the mission fathers to relocate the establishment farther north, to its current location in what is the present day city of San Gabriel; the original mission site is now memorialized as California Historical Landmark #158. During the early years of the mission's existence, the region operated under a "Rancho" land grant system; the current city of Montebello consists of land from Rancho San Antonio, Rancho La Merced, Rancho Paso de Bartolo. The Juan Matias Sanchez Adobe, built in 1844, still stands at the center of old Rancho la Merced in East Montebello.
Restored, Rancho la Merced is the city's oldest standing structure. On January 8, 1847, the Battle of Rio San Gabriel took place in what are today parts of the cities of Whittier, Pico Rivera and Montebello; the battle was a decisive victory for the U. S. Army, giving control of Los Angeles and Alta California to the United States, is viewed by historians as a critical juncture in the Mexican-American war. Today the site is California State Historical Landmark #385. Following the American Civil War, some 5,000 acres of the East Los Angeles area was owned by Alessandro Repetto, an Italian immigrant settler from Genoa, Italy. Following Repetto's death in 1885, his brother sold his rancho to a consortium of five Los Angeles businessmen including banker Isaias Hellman and wholesale grocer/historian Harris Newmark for $60,000 $12 per acre; the land was divided among the partners, one large parcel of 2,000 acres going to a partnership of Newmark and his nephew, banker Kaspare Cohn. It was out of the Newmark and Cohn share of 1,200 acres that city Montebello had its beginnings in May 1899.
After receiving the advice of hydraulic engineer William Mulholland for the drafting and building of the town's water system, the land was subdivided. In 1900 the completed water system was incorporated as the Montebello Water Company. An area of 200 acres adjacent to the tracks of what was the San Pedro, Los Angeles & Salt Lake Railroad was developed into a townsite called Newmark, bounded by Los Angeles Avenue on the south, 1st Street on the east, Cleveland Avenue on the north, & 5th Street on the west; the remainder of the land was subdivided into 5 acres lots suitable for small-scale agriculture. On Mulholland's suggestion, Montebello was adopted as the city's name, replacing the original name Newmark. An agricultural community, Montebello was known for its prolific production of flowers, berries and vegetables; the first public flower show was sponsored by the Montebello Women’s Club and held in the Montebello High School auditorium on Whittier Boulevard in 1912. The Montebello – El Carmel Improvement Association, the predecessor of the Montebello Chamber of Commerce, operated from September 1907 to April 1912.
With its stated purpose "to improve and beautify the community." Some of its early achievements included: seeing Whittier Boulevard paved, trees planted along the streets, establishment of the city's first high school, working to drop the name of "Newmark" and having the entire area incorporated as "The City of Montebello". On October 19, 1920, the city was incorporated and its name changed to "Montebello". In honor of Montebello's agricultural roots, the city's official seal contains a red poinsettia in the center. Much of south Montebello, was populated by Japanese American farmers who would lose their property during the WW II internment of US citizens. Many of the displaced residents were unable to return to their homes. Citation Executive Order 1066; the Family of M's Flowers can trace their history and participation In the growth of the all flower industry through their efforts. The Standard Oil Company discovered oil in the Montebello hills in 1917 on t
Judy May Chu 趙美心 is an American politician. She is the first Chinese American woman elected to the U. S. Congress, she serves as the U. S. Representative for California's 27th congressional district, serving in Congress since 2009, she is a member of the Democratic Party. Chu was Chair of the California Board of Equalization, representing the 4th District, she had served on the Garvey Unified School District Board of Education, the Monterey Park City Council and the California State Assembly. Chu ran in the 32nd congressional district special election for the seat, vacated by Hilda Solis after she was confirmed as Barack Obama's U. S. Secretary of Labor in 2009, she defeated Republican candidate Betty Tom Chu and Libertarian candidate Christopher Agrella in a runoff election on July 14, 2009. Chu was redistricted to the 27th District in 2012, but was still re-elected to a third term, defeating Republican challenger Jack Orswell. Judy Chu is the second of four children of Judson and May Chu, who were married in 1948 in their ancestral home of Xinhui, Guangdong.
They subsequently moved to Los Angeles, near 62nd Street and Normandie Avenue, where Chu was born and grew up until her early teen years, when the family moved to the Bay Area. Chu graduated with a B. A. in mathematics from the University of California, Los Angeles. She earned a Ph. D. in psychology from the California School of Professional Psychology of Alliant International University's Los Angeles campus. She taught psychology at the Los Angeles Community College District for 20 years, including 13 years at East Los Angeles College. Chu's first elected position was Board Member for the Garvey School District in Rosemead, California in 1985. In 1988 she was elected to the city council of Monterey Park, where she served as mayor for three terms, she ran for the California State Assembly in 1994, but lost the Democratic primary to Diane Martinez. Chu was elected to the State Assembly on May 15, 2001, following a special election after Romero was elected to the State Senate, she was elected to a full term in 2002 and was reelected in 2004.
The district includes Alhambra, El Monte, Monterey Park, San Gabriel, San Marino and South El Monte, within Los Angeles County. Barred by term limits from running for a third full term in 2006, Chu was elected to the State Board of Equalization from the 4th District, representing most of Los Angeles County. 2009 Chu decided to run for the 2009 special election for the California's 32nd congressional district after U. S. Congresswoman Hilda Solis was appointed to become President Barack Obama's U. S. Secretary of Labor. Chu led the field in the May 19 special election. However, due to the crowded nature of the primary she only got 32% of the vote, well short of the 50% vote needed to win outright. In the run-off election, she defeated Republican Betty Chu 62%–33%. 2010 Chu was favored due to the district's heavy Democrat tilt and with a Cook Partisan Voting Index of D+15, it is one of the safest Democratic districts in the nation. She won re-election to her first full term with 71% of the vote. 2012 In August 2011, Chu decided to run in the newly redrawn California's 27th congressional district.
The district has the second highest percentage of Asian Americans in the state with 37%, behind the newly redrawn 17th CD, 50% Asian. Registered Democrats make up 42% of the district. Obama won the district with 63% in the 2008 presidential. Jerry Brown won with 55% in the 2010 gubernatorial election. Representative Chu won re-election by defeating Republican Jack Orswell 64% to 36%. 2014 Chu won reelection over Republican Jack Orswell by a 59.4% to 40.6% margin. 2016 Chu won reelection over Republican Jack Orswell by a 67.4% to 32.6% margin. 2018 Chu won reelection over Democrat Bryan Witt by a 79.2% to 20.8% margin, in one of a handful of districts in California that featured only Democrats on its midterm ballot. Chu was sworn into office on July 16, 2009. ImmigrationChu believes, she has worked to pass the Border Security, Economic Opportunity, Immigration Modernization Act. She supports the DREAM Act and has worked for its passage, she has introduced the Protect Our Workers from Exploitation and Retaliation Act, introduced to stop disreputable employers from exploiting immigrants.
In July 2015, Chu went before Congress to speak out against what she sees as the "shocking" treatment of women and children held in for-profit detention facilities in the U. S. Comparing them to Japanese internment camps, Chu states the prolonged detention re-traumatizes families, breaks apart the parent-child relationship, has serious cognitive effects on children. On December 6, 2017, Chu was arrested during a protest outside of the U. S. Capitol. AbortionChu cosponsored the Global Sexual and Reproductive Health Act of 2010 which authorizes the President of the United States to support measures providing abortions and other reproduction assistance to women in developing countries. In 2010, Chu voting against measures proposed by the U. S. House of Representatives to strip government funding to Planned Parenthood, opposed restricting federal funding of abortions. Chu has received ratings of 100 from all Pro-Choice affiliates including Planned Parenthood Affiliates of California in 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006.
She has received ratings of 100 from the NARAL pro-choice California in 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006 while receiving low ratings given by Pro-Life organizations in 200