Pittsburgh is a city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in the United States, is the county seat of Allegheny County. As of 2018, a population of 308,144 lives within the city limits, making it the 63rd-largest city in the U. S; the metropolitan population of 2,362,453, is the largest in both the Ohio Valley and Appalachia, the second-largest in Pennsylvania, the 26th-largest in the U. S. Pittsburgh is located in the south west of the state, at the confluence of the Allegheny and Ohio rivers. Pittsburgh is known both as "the Steel City" for its more than 300 steel-related businesses and as the "City of Bridges" for its 446 bridges; the city features 30 skyscrapers, two inclined railways, a pre-revolutionary fortification and the Point State Park at the confluence of the rivers. The city developed as a vital link of the Atlantic coast and Midwest, as the mineral-rich Allegheny Mountains made the area coveted by the French and British empires, Whiskey Rebels, Civil War raiders. Aside from steel, Pittsburgh has led in manufacturing of aluminum, shipbuilding, foods, transportation, computing and electronics.
For part of the 20th century, Pittsburgh was behind only New York and Chicago in corporate headquarters employment. S. stockholders per capita. America's 1980s deindustrialization laid off area blue-collar workers and thousands of downtown white-collar workers when the longtime Pittsburgh-based world headquarters moved out; this heritage left the area with renowned museums, medical centers, research centers, a diverse cultural district. Today, Apple Inc. Bosch, Uber, Autodesk, Microsoft and IBM are among 1,600 technology firms generating $20.7 billion in annual Pittsburgh payrolls. The area has served as the long-time federal agency headquarters for cyber defense, software engineering, energy research and the nuclear navy; the area is home to 68 colleges and universities, including research and development leaders Carnegie Mellon University and the University of Pittsburgh. The nation's eighth-largest bank, eight Fortune 500 companies, six of the top 300 U. S. law firms make their global headquarters in the area, while RAND, BNY Mellon, FedEx, Bayer and NIOSH have regional bases that helped Pittsburgh become the sixth-best area for U.
S. job growth. In 2015, Pittsburgh was listed among the "eleven most livable cities in the world"; the region is a hub for Environmental Design and energy extraction. In 2019, Pittsburgh was deemed “Food City of the Year” by the San Francisco-based restaurant and hospitality consulting firm af&co. Many restaurants were mentioned favorable, among them were Superior Motors in Braddock, Driftwood Oven in Lawrenceville, Spork in Bloomfield, Fish nor Fowl in Garfield and Bitter Ends Garden & Luncheonette in Bloomfield. Pittsburgh was named in 1758 by General John Forbes, in honor of British statesman William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham; as Forbes was a Scot, he pronounced the name PITS-bər-ə. Pittsburgh was incorporated as a borough on April 22, 1794, with the following Act: "Be it enacted by the Pennsylvania State Senate and Pennsylvania House of Representatives of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania... by the authority of the same, that the said town of Pittsburgh shall be... erected into a borough, which shall be called the borough of Pittsburgh for ever."
From 1891 to 1911, the city's name was federally recognized as "Pittsburg", though use of the final h was retained during this period by the city government and other local organizations. After a public campaign, the federal decision to drop the h was reversed; the area of the Ohio headwaters was long inhabited by the Shawnee and several other settled groups of Native Americans. The first known European to enter the region was the French explorer/trader Robert de La Salle from Quebec during his 1669 expedition down the Ohio River. European pioneers Dutch, followed in the early 18th century. Michael Bezallion was the first to describe the forks of the Ohio in a 1717 manuscript, that year European fur traders established area posts and settlements. In 1749, French soldiers from Quebec launched an expedition to the forks to unite Canada with French Louisiana via the rivers. During 1753–54, the British hastily built Fort Prince George before a larger French force drove them off; the French built Fort Duquesne based on LaSalle's 1669 claims.
The French and Indian War, the North American front of the Seven Years' War, began with the future Pittsburgh as its center. British General Edward Braddock was dispatched with Major George Washington as his aide to take Fort Duquesne; the British and colonial force were defeated at Braddock's Field. General John Forbes took the forks in 1758. Forbes began construction on Fort Pitt, named after William Pitt the Elder while the settlement was named "Pittsborough". During Pontiac's Rebellion, native tribes conducted a siege of Fort Pitt for two months until Colonel Henry Bouquet relieved it after the Battle of Bushy Run. Fort Pitt is notable as the site of an early use of smallpox for biological warfare. Lord Jeffery Amherst ordered blankets contaminated from smallpox victims to be distributed in 1763 to the tribes surrounding the fort; the disease spread into other areas, infected other tribes, killed hundreds of thousands. During this period, the powerful nations of the Iroquois Confederacy, based in New York, had maintained control of much of the Ohio Valley as hunting grounds by right of conquest after defeating other tribes.
By the terms of the 1768 Treaty of
Nine West is an American fashion wholesale and retail company. The corporate headquarters were located in New York. Nine West was named for its founding location in the Solow Building at 9 West 57th Street in New York City. In 1983, Nine West opened its first specialty retail store in Connecticut. In 1986, Nine West launched its first national ad campaign. Nine West first expanded internationally with the opening of a Hong Kong location in 1994, it has since become a brand located in over 800 global locations in 57 countries. Founded as a fashion footwear brand, Nine West expanded into handbags, legwear, jewelry, watches, cold weather accessories, hats and wraps, eyewear. After the launch of handbags in 1995, Nine West expanded to dresses and children's footwear. Through licensing agreements, it offers eyewear, legwear, belts, cold weather accessories and wraps. In March 1995, Nine West purchased the footwear division of the United States Shoe Corporation, which included the Easy Spirit brand. In 1999, Nine West was acquired by Jones Apparel Group.
In 2006, Nine West began collaborating with Vivienne Westwood and Sophia Kokosalaki on limited edition "capsule collections". In 2009, Nine West and New Balance collaborated to develop a collection of footwear. Fred Allard served as Creative Director starting in 2006. On July 7, 2015, the Canadian distributor and retailer of Nine West, the Sherson Group, filed for bankruptcy protection for the Canadian locations. In April 2018, it was announced that Nine West’s U. S. business closed all its stores. It was announced, it was announced that the Nine West brand would be acquired by Authentic Brands Group. In Gwyn Cready's comedic romance novel Tumbling Through Time, Seph Pyle is transported back in time to 1705 after trying on a pair of sandals at the Nine West store in the Pittsburgh airport. Official site
Mount Washington, Pittsburgh (neighborhood)
Mount Washington is a neighborhood in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania's south city area. It has a zip code of 15211 and has representation on Pittsburgh City Council by both the council members for District 3 and District 2, it is known for its steep hill overlooking the Pittsburgh skyline, rated the most beautiful vista in America by USA Weekend. One of the most famous examples of the early-twentieth century Garden City Movement communities is on Mt. Washington. Chatham Village is a compact neighborhood of townhomes and gardens on the far south end of Mt. Washington; the area is served by the Pittsburgh Bureau of Fire house number 27, equipped with a new 75-foot Pierce Quint engine. Mount Washington has six Pittsburgh neighborhood borders, including the South Shore at the bottom of the hillside to the north, Allentown to the east, Beltzhoover to the south, Bon Air to the southeast, Beechview to the west and southwest, Duquesne Heights to the west and northwest. List of Pittsburgh neighborhoods The MWCDC - Mount Washington Community Development Corporation Interactive Pittsburgh neighborhoods map 15211.org - A community blog about Mt. Washington
South Side Flats (Pittsburgh)
The South Side Flats is a neighborhood in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania's South Side area. It is located just south of the Monongahela River; the neighborhood has one of the City of Pittsburgh's largest concentrations of 19th-century homes, which has prompted outsiders to call the neighborhood the City's Georgetown. It includes many restaurants as well as residences; the main throughway in the South Side Flats is East Carson Street. The street is home to a significant portion of Pittsburgh's nightlife; the South Side was once composed of a number of smaller communities. These included Birmingham and East Birmingham, both named for the English Midlands industrial center, Birmingham; these boroughs were collectively annexed to the city in 1872. The South Side and much of the hillsides to its south had been granted to Major John Ormsby in 1763, in recognition his assistance in the building of Fort Pitt. By the 1770s, Ormsby had built an estate on these lands and established a ferry for connecting his home with the community in Pittsburgh.
In 1811, Ormsby's son-in-law, Dr. Nathaniel Bedford, laid out a town on the flats, naming it Birmingham in tribute to his native city. Bedford had come to Pittsburgh around 1770 and was the first practicing physician in the district known as Allegheny County, he named the streets after his Ormsby's children. Carson St. was named after a sea captain, a friend of Dr. Bedford. In the early days it was part of the main road to Washington, Pennsylvania; the nearby municipality of Mount Oliver would be named for John Ormsby's son Oliver Ormsby. The two areas were once connected by a coal incline run by the Keeling Coal Company, now the site of South Side Park. Birmingham became a sizable industrial center because of the easy access to river and rail transport; the region would first become a center of glass production, followed by a concentration of iron and steel manufacturing. In 1850, Benjamin Franklin Jones invested in a South Side iron works. During the depression of 1873, he formed a partnership with James H. Laughlin.
The firm of Jones and Laughlin Steel Company would become the South Side's largest employer. By 1910, it would employ over 15,000 workers; the expansion of the plant in 1950 would require the demolition of residential homes between 31st and 33rd streets. The majority of workers who had settled in the area were immigrants of Eastern Europe, they found home throughout the Flats and Slopes of South Side and had brought much of their culture and traditions to the area. Many of the Eastern European churches and bars are still present in the South Side; the decline of the steel industry was a major blow to the neighborhood. In addition to layoffs at the J&L Plant, the Levinson Steel Company, located on the South Side closed in 1981; the facility had been located along the river between 19th to 21st streets, was converted into a strip mall. A series of arsons hit the South Side neighborhood in the early 1980s. Prominent buildings on the corner of 18th and Carson Streets and the Arcade Theater on Carson St. were demolished by fire.
The Arcade Theater had opened in 1929 and was the first theatre outside of Downtown Pittsburgh to have sound and air-conditioning. A Rite Aid pharmacy sits on the site of the theater; the early 1980s saw the beginnings of redevelopment on the South Side. The Pittsburgh History and Landmarks Foundation helped establish and partner with the South Side Local Development Company in 1982. In 1985, the South Side's East Carson Street was selected to participate in the National Trust for Historic Preservation's Main Street Urban Demonstration Program. Community involvement played a major role in the redevelopment of the former J&L site; the Jones and Laughlin Company had merged with the Ling-Temco-Vought Corporation in 1974. The company would merge its J&L Steel subsidiary with Republic Steel to form LTV Steel in 1984; the South Side J&L/LTV plant shut down in 1986. Once closed, City of Pittsburgh Councilman Otis Lyon wanted the site's Bessemer converter building, an open hearth building, four smokestacks, a J&L sign to be preserved.
The plan fell through when it was determined that these structures posed a safety hazard, although the J&L sign is mothballed beneath the Panhandle Bridge for future use. Riverboat gambling was considered for the site and in 1993, the City of Pittsburgh Urban and Redevelopment Authority purchased the site with money loaned by a potential developer for $9.3 million. The URA redeveloped the site to be the Southside Works complex; the project has brought national retailers to the eastern end of the neighborhood. The South Side Flats covers 0.936 square miles. The South Side Riverfront Park runs the majority of the border of the Flats to the Monongahela River, it hosts a myriad of events, like the annual Pittsburgh Dragon Boat Festival. The Three Rivers Heritage Trail runs through the park; the east-west section of the South Side Flats are bordered by the Pittsburgh neighborhoods of South Shore to the west and South Side Slopes to the south. The Flats curve to follow a north-south direction; the Flats run adjacent to three Pittsburgh neighborhoods across the Monongahela River and are directly linked via bridges.
The Birmingham Bridge connects the Flats w
Pittsburgh City Council
The Pittsburgh City Council serves as the legislative body in the City of Pittsburgh. It consists of nine members. City council members are chosen by plurality elections in each of nine districts; the city operates under a strong-mayor-council system of local governance. The current members of the city council are: † Denotes Council President Darlene Harris 2010-2014 Doug Shields 2006-2010 Luke Ravenstahl 2005-2006 Gene Ricciardi 2002-2005 Bob O'Connor 1998-2002 Jim Ferlo 1994-1998 Jack Wagner 1990-1994 Ben Woods 1988-1990 Sophie Masloff 1988 Ben Woods 1985-1988 Robert Rade Stone 1985 Eugene "Jeep" DePasquale 1978-1984 Richard Caliguiri 1977-1978 Louis Mason Thomas Gallagher 1936-1959 Robert Garland c. 1934 James F. Malone c. 1928 John F. Counahan James Ross 1817 List of mayors of Pittsburgh Pittsburgh Mayoral Chief of Staff Pittsburgh City Council official city website
SouthSide Works is an open-air retail, office and residential complex located on the South Side of the city of Pittsburgh and just across the Monongahela River from the Pittsburgh Technology Center, the University of Pittsburgh and Carnegie Mellon University. The $300 million complex opened in stages between 2002 and 2004 and offers more than 34 acres of shops, offices and apartments, has a new urbanist design; the site has over 330,000 square feet of specialty retail, restaurant and apartment space. In addition, the site has 700,000 square feet of office space; the site first was a long time steel mill. Ling-Temco-Vought purchased Jones and Laughlin Steel Company in 1974 and merged with Republic Steel in 1985, which formed LTV Steel Co. LTV became the second largest steel producer in the nation. South Side Works was one of three LTV manufacturing facilities in Pittsburgh. One year following the merger, Republic Steel was forced to shut down as a result of foreign competition, high labor costs, a lack of modern equipment.
The property was abandoned until a city/county task force revitalized the area just south of downtown, Pittsburgh-based Oxford Development Company and the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center constructed the state-of-the-art UPMC Sports Performance Complex on the most eastern boundary of the site. The Pittsburgh Steelers, of the National Football League, the NCAA Division I University of Pittsburgh Panthers football teams both utilize the complex's cutting edge equipment and fields as their primary training facility. On December 15, 2012 the megaplex theater on site was host to Tom Cruise, Robert Duvall, Rosamund Pike & David Oyelowo for the world premier of Jack Reacher. There were environmental concerns associated with the site’s redevelopment; the contaminants were Iron and Cyanide Metals. The total actual cost of remediation was $265 million, the project was funded by both the private and public sector. In 1996–1997, the Urban Redevelopment Authority completed major remediation, yet continued to model and assess groundwater on the site for contamination.
As of 1998, most of the assessment had concluded, as a result the site was safe for redevelopment. Developers, were required to clean up any contamination discovered during construction, to implement a Health and Safety Plan. Tax Increment Financing was used, adopted by the City and School Districts, to raise public funds for public infrastructure development; the TIF generated $25 million and was used for road and infrastructure improvements along with filling budget gaps for public parking structures. The site is a mix of office, recreational and retail use; the site generated private investment of $250 million, has 5,400 employment opportunities, 400 housing units, 1,500 jobs were created during the initial development period. Project Financing $23,427,461 City/URA Funding $16,250,000 Private Garage Funding $16,992,000 State Funding $12,525,000 Pittsburgh Water and Sewer Authority $25,000,000 Tax Increment Financing $11,000,000 HUD Section 108 Loans $1,500,000 HUD Brownfields Economic Development Initiative Grant $1,000,000 HUD Economic Development Initiative Grant $7,245,039 Other Sources $103,666,500 Total American Eagle Outfitters Global Headquarters REI Sur La Table UPMC Sports Medicine ComplexAlso, there is an 11-screen multiplex movie theater with over 1,700 stadium-style seats.
Aerie Forever 21 Urban Outfitters BD's Mongolian Grill Claddagh Irish Pub Crazy Mocha Coffee Company Hofbräuhaus The Cheesecake Factory McCormick & Schmick's Qdoba Mexican Grill The Pita Pit A 38,000 sq ft fitness center is being considered as well as the completion of close to 350,000 sq ft of 2nd and 3rd floor office space above the complex. A riverfront pavilion is planned for hosting smaller concerts by touring groups as well as the local Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra. A 200-room hotel and 150 unit condo are planned for the site. New American Music Union Pittsburgh's Southside Works Pittsburgh Post-Gazette spotlight on Southside Work's apparel retailers Pittsburgh Tribune-Review detail of the overall project
A historic district or heritage district is a section of a city which contains older buildings considered valuable for historical or architectural reasons. In some countries or jurisdictions, historic districts receive legal protection from certain types of development considered to be inappropriate. Historic districts may or may not be the center of the city, they may be coterminous with the commercial district, administrative district, or arts district, or separate from all of these. In Canada, such districts are called "heritage conservation districts" or "heritage conservation areas" and are governed by provincial legislation. Many jurisdictions within the United States have specific legislation identifying and giving protection to designated historic districts; the term "Historic District" is not used in the United Kingdom. The equivalent urban areas are known as Conservation Areas. Iranian Heritage and Tourism organization has nominated and selected several cities for their valuable historical monuments and districts.
Baft-e Tarikhi is the name. Naein and Yazd are examples of Iranian cities with historic districts. Old City Old Town Downtown Central Business District Historic overlay district Media related to Historic districts at Wikimedia Commons