In architecture a corbel is in medieval architecture a structural piece of stone, wood or metal jutting from a wall to carry a superincumbent weight, a type of bracket. A corbel is a solid piece of material in the wall, whereas a console is a piece applied to the structure. A piece of timber projecting in the same way was called a "bragger" in England; the technique of corbelling, where rows of corbels keyed inside a wall support a projecting wall or parapet, has been used since Neolithic times. It is common in medieval architecture and in the Scottish baronial style as well as in the vocabulary of classical architecture, such as the modillions of a Corinthian cornice, Hindu temple architecture and in ancient Chinese architecture. A console is more an "S"-shaped scroll bracket in the classical tradition, with the upper or inner part larger than the lower or outer. Keystones are often in the form of consoles. Whereas "corbel" is used outside architecture, "console" is used for furniture, as in console table, other decorative arts where the motif appears.
The word "corbel" comes from Old French and derives from the Latin corbellus, a diminutive of corvus, which refers to the beak-like appearance. The French refer to a bracket-corbel a load-bearing internal feature, as a corbeau. Norman corbels have a plain appearance, although they may be elaborately carved with stylised heads of humans, animals or imaginary "beasts", sometimes with other motifs. In the Early English period corbels were sometimes elaborately carved, as at Lincoln Cathedral, sometimes more so. Corbels sometimes end with a point growing into the wall, or forming a knot, are supported by angels and other figures. In the periods the carved foliage and other ornaments used on corbels resemble those used in the capitals of columns. Throughout England, in half-timber work, wooden corbels abound, carrying window-sills or oriel windows in wood, which are carved; the corbels carrying balconies in Italy and France were sometimes of great size and richly carved, some of the finest examples of the Italian "Cinquecento" style are found in them.
Taking a cue from 16th-century practice, the Paris-trained designers of 19th-century Beaux-Arts architecture were encouraged to show imagination in varying corbels. A corbel table is a projecting moulded string course supported by a range of corbels. Sometimes these corbels carry a small arcade under the string course, the arches of which are pointed and trefoiled; as a rule the corbel table carries the gutter, but in Lombard work the arcaded corbel table was utilized as a decoration to subdivide the storeys and break up the wall surface. In Italy sometimes over the corbels will form a moulding, above a plain piece of projecting wall forming a parapet; the corbels carrying the arches of the corbel tables in Italy and France were elaborately moulded, sometimes in two or three courses projecting over one another. In modern chimney construction, a corbel table is constructed on the inside of a flue in the form of a concrete ring beam supported by a range of corbels; the corbels can be either in-situ or pre-cast concrete.
The corbel tables described here are built at ten-metre intervals to ensure stability of the barrel of refractory bricks constructed thereon. Corbelling, where rows of corbels build a wall out from the vertical, has long been used as a simple kind of vaulting, for example in many Neolithic chambered cairns, where walls are corbelled in until the opening can be spanned by a slab. In medieval architecture the technique was used to support upper storeys or a parapet projecting forward from the wall plane to form machicolation; this became a decorative feature, without the openings. Corbelling supporting upper stories and supporting projecting corner turrets subsequently became a characteristic of the Scottish baronial style. Medieval timber-framed buildings employ jettying, where upper stories are cantilevered out on projecting wooden beams in a similar manner to corbelling. Atlas Dentil Eave Fireplace mantel Modillion Muqarna Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Corbel". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press.
The CRSBI website has many examples of James Stevens. A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture. Oxford University Press. Pp. 880 pages. ISBN 0-19-860678-8. Beyond-the-pale A discursive and richly-illustrated website showing corbels on hundreds of churches in the British Isles and Spain, depicting the sins of the flesh and their punishment An illustrated glossary of the terms used masonry construction
History of Pittsburgh's South Side
In 1763, King George III provided John Ormsby 2,400 acres along the south bank of the Monongahela River as payment for his services during the French and Indian War. The land was divided into four boroughs: South Pittsburgh, East Birmingham, Ormsby; the four boroughs were annexed into the City of Pittsburgh in 1872. These areas, provided for the foundation of the South Side as it is known today. General James O'Hara and Major Isaac Craig, the pioneers of the glass industry in Pittsburgh, opened the first glass factory in the county in South Side, near the present-day Duquesne Incline parking area. By the early-to-mid 19th century, South Side was known as the center of glass industry in the United States of America. In 1876, there were about 76 glass factories in the neighborhood; the location was so nationally recognized for production, Presidents Andrew Jackson and James Monroe ordered glass tableware for the White House from companies operating in the area. South Side factories produced myriad glass products such as goblets, window glass, tableware, etc.
By the 1920s, most of the glass factories had moved away from the area due to high taxes and lack of available real estate for expansion. In concordance with many Pittsburgh neighborhoods and steel mills in South Side became the workplaces of various immigrants from Eastern Europe. In 1854, Benjamin Franklin Jones and James Laughlin became business partners and formed American Iron Workers. Jones and Laughlin created the inaugural blast furnace and named it Eliza, located on the north side of the Monongahela River; this furnace was connected to South Side still in use for vehicle traffic. By 1916, J & L operated nine 200 -- 250 ton open furnaces. By 1929, J & L was producing 1.74 million tons of steel each year. However, the steel factories started to experience economic trouble in the 1960s. Due to these economic problems, there was a rapid decline of capital and J & L began to demolish the older buildings on their site. By 1989, the steel industry nationwide had entirely succumbed to international pressures and a changing market.
Today an open-air retail, office and residential complex named The Southside Works is located in the area occupied by the J&L steel mill. Before bridges were constructed in the area, the only way to cross the river was by ferry. Pittsburgh, deemed the “City of Bridges”, has a number of historic bridges that cross the Monongahela River into South Side; the Monongahela Bridge was built of wood and iron. During the Great Fire of Pittsburgh in 1845, the bridge was destroyed by fire in a swift, ten-minute blaze; the bridge was rebuilt in 1846 in an updated, wire rope Suspension Bridge construction, designed by John A. Roebling; the Liberty Bridge was designed by George S. Richardson; this bridge, which crosses over the South Side area, connects downtown Pittsburgh to the Liberty Tunnel. List of other bridges or located in the South Side area:> Wabash Bridge Panhandle Bridge South Tenth Street Bridge Birmingham Bridge Hot Metal Bridge Before cars or other ways of transportation were invented, horse-drawn trolleys were the only means of transportation in South Side.
After the horse-drawn trolleys came the cable traction cars, finally the electric trolley. Horse cars operated in South Side until 1923. In 1915, the horse-drawn trolleys and the electric trolley met at the corner of Eighteenth and Sarah Streets; the electric cars turned into. They were the most common means of travel around Pittsburgh and South Side, until the first incline was opened. In 1877, The Duquesne Incline ran from West Carson Street to Mount Washington. In 1870, the Monongahela Incline was built and it connected West Carson Street with Grandview Avenue; the Duquesne and Monongahela inclines are still in operation today. Some inclines that are not in operation today are: The Castle Shannon Incline No.1, The Knoxville Incline, The Mount Oliver Incline, The St. Clair Incline. Inclines were called Funiculars or Inclined Planes Southside today is a neighborhood of 10,000 people, it is home to one of the largest Victorian streets in the United States. East Carson Street in its entirety is designated as a historic district.
The Southside Flats and Slopes are. In recent years, Southside has become home to a large student population because of its proximity to the Monongahela River and three large universities. Boehmig, Stuart P. Pittsburgh’s South Side. Charleston: Arcadia Publishing, 2006
Weathering steel referred to by the genericized trademark COR-TEN steel and sometimes written without the hyphen as corten steel, is a group of steel alloys which were developed to eliminate the need for painting, form a stable rust-like appearance after several years exposure to weather. U. S. Steel holds the registered trademark on the name COR-TEN; the name COR-TEN refers to the two distinguishing properties of this type of steel: corrosion resistance and tensile strength. Although USS sold its discrete plate business to International Steel Group in 2003, it still sells COR-TEN branded material in strip-mill plate and sheet forms; the original COR-TEN received the standard designation A242 from the ASTM International standards group. Newer ASTM grades are A606 for thin sheet. All alloys are in common use; the surface oxidation of weathering steel takes six months, but surface treatments can accelerate the oxidation to as little as two hours. In 1933 the United States Steel Corporation developed and patented a steel with exceptional mechanical resistance for use in railroad hopper cars, for the handling of heavy bulk loads including coal, metal ores, other mineral products and grain.
The controlled corrosion for which this material is now best known was a welcome benefit discovered soon after, prompting USS to apply the trademarked name Cor-Ten. Because of its inherent toughness, this steel is still used extensively for bulk transport and storage containers. Railroad passenger cars were being built in Cor-Ten, albeit painted, by Pullman-Standard for the Southern Pacific from 1936, continuing through commuter coaches for the Rock Island Line in 1949. Weathering refers to the chemical composition of these steels, allowing them to exhibit increased resistance to atmospheric corrosion compared to other steels; this is because the steel forms a protective layer on its surface under the influence of the weather. The corrosion-retarding effect of the protective layer is produced by the particular distribution and concentration of alloying elements in it; the layer protecting the surface develops and regenerates continuously when subjected to the influence of the weather. In other words, the steel is allowed to rust.
The mechanical properties of weathering steels depend on how thick the material is. The original A242 alloy has a yield strength of 50 kilopounds per square inch and ultimate tensile strength of 70 ksi for light-medium rolled shapes and plates up to 0.75 inches thick. It has yield strength of 46 ksi and ultimate strength of 67 ksi for medium weight rolled shapes and plates from 0.75–1 inch thick. The thickest rolled sections and plates – from 1.5–4 in thick have yield strength of 42 ksi and ultimate strength of 63 ksi. ASTM A 242 is available in Type 1 and Type 2. Both have different applications based on the thickness. Type 1 is used in housing structures, construction industry and freight cars; the Type 2 steel, called Corten B is used majorly in urban furnishing, passenger ships or cranes. A588 has a yield strength of at least 50 ksi, ultimate tensile strength of 70 ksi for all rolled shapes and plate thicknesses up to 4 in thick. Plates from 4–5 in have yield strength at least 46 ksi and ultimate tensile strength at least 67 ksi, plates from 5–8 in thick have yield strength at least 42 ksi and ultimate tensile strength at least 63 ksi.
Weathering steel is popularly used in outdoor sculptures for its rustic antique appearance. One example is the large Chicago Picasso sculpture, which stands in the plaza of the Daley Center Courthouse in Chicago, constructed of weathering steel. Other examples include numerous works by Richard Serra, it is used in bridge and other large structural applications such as the New River Gorge Bridge, the second span of the Newburgh–Beacon Bridge, the creation of the Australian Centre for Contemporary Art and MONA. It is widely used in marine transportation, in the construction of intermodal containers as well as visible sheet piling along widened sections of London's M25 motorway; the first use of weathering steel for architectural applications was the John Deere World Headquarters in Moline, Illinois. The building was designed by architect Eero Saarinen, completed in 1964; the main buildings of Odense University, designed by Knud Holscher and Jørgen Vesterholt and built 1971–1976, are clad in weathering steel, earning them the nickname Rustenborg.
In 1977, Robert Indiana created a Hebrew version of the Love sculpture made from weathering steel using the four-letter word ahava for the Israel Museum Art Garden in Jerusalem, Israel. In Denmark, all masts for supporting the catenary on electrified railways are made of weathering steel for aesthetic reasons. Weathering steel was used in 1971 for the Highliner electric cars built by the St. Louis Car Company for Illinois Central Railroad; the use of weathering steel was seen as a cost-cutting move in comparison with the contemporary railcar standard of stainless steel. A subsequent order in 1979 was built to similar specs, including weathering steel bodies, by Bombardier; the cars were painted, a standard practice for weathering steel railcars. The durability of weathering steel did not live up to expectations, with rust holes appearing in the railcars. Painting may
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Arlington is a neighborhood in southern Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The zip code used by residents is 15210, the neighborhood has representation on Pittsburgh City Council by the council member for District 3; the Pittsburgh Bureau of Fire houses 22 engine in Arlington. The city has discussed the possibility of closing 22 engine completely. 22 engine is a vital key to third alarm firefighting in the city. Arlington has eight borders, six with the Pittsburgh neighborhoods of the South Side Slopes to the north, Arlington Heights to the northeast, South Side Flats to the far east, Hays to the southeast, St. Clair to the south, Mt. Oliver to the southwest; the other two borders are with the boroughs of Baldwin to the southeast and Mt. Oliver to the northwest Toker, Franklin. Pittsburgh: An Urban Portrait. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press. ISBN 0-8229-5434-6. List of Pittsburgh neighborhoods Interactive Pittsburgh Neighborhoods Map
Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well