Augustana University is a private, Norwegian-heritage liberal arts university affiliated with the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America. Located in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, the school is the largest private university in the state; the institution derives its name from the Confessio Augustana, or Augsburg Confession, a foundational document of Lutheranism. Students, friends and those who know the college casually refer to it as "Augie." Prior to September 2015, the university was known as Augustana College. The university identifies 1860 as the year of its founding, the same as its Rock Island, Illinois Swedish-heritage sister-school, Augustana College, it celebrated its sesquicentennial during the 2010–2011 academic year. Augustana offers Bachelor of Arts degrees in more than 50 major fields of study, as well as several pre-professional programs, most notably nursing. Students participate in a variety of extracurricular activities, including musical ensembles and NCAA athletic programs; the institution traces its origin to 1835 when Scandinavian immigrants established the Hillsboro Academy in Hillsboro, Illinois.
In 1846, the Academy became the Literary and Theological Institute of the Lutheran Church of the Far West before moving to Springfield, Illinois under the name Illinois State University. In 1860, after church leaders formed the Scandinavian Evangelical Lutheran Augustana Synod, Professor Lars Paul Esbjörn and a group of followers moved to Chicago to create their own institution. There they established the Augustana College and Seminary, marking the date that the college identifies as the year of its founding; as the United States expanded westward during and after the American Civil War, pioneers moved the school to Paxton, Illinois in 1863. There, a split occurred: the Norwegian leadership, desiring to create their own school, relocated to Marshall, Wisconsin in 1869, while the Swedes moved to Rock Island, establishing Augustana College; the school at Marshall moved to Beloit, Iowa in 1881, to Canton, South Dakota in 1888. The Lutheran Normal School opened in 1889 in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, housed in what is now known as Old Main, with the purpose of educating teachers.
City and business leaders lobbied for Augustana to relocate to Sioux Falls, church leaders in 1918 merged the Lutheran Normal School and Augustana College in Canton under the name Augustana College and Normal School. In 1926, "and Normal School" was dropped from the name and the site in Canton became Augustana Academy. Despite the similarities in name, the Academy was no longer affiliated with the College and closed in 1971; the 2010–2011 academic year marks Augustana University's sesquicentennial. Augustana draws its name from the origin of the Lutheran Church in the Augsburg Confession, written in 1530 during the Protestant Reformation. "Augustana" stems from Confessio Augustana. On August 21, 2015, the school announced that it would change its name from Augustana College and instead be known as Augustana University as of September 1, 2015. Hillsboro Academy Literary and Theological Institute of the Lutheran Church of the Far West Illinois State University Augustana College and Seminary Lutheran Normal School Augustana College and Normal School Augustana College Augustana University offers 53 majors, 34 minors, 15 pre-professional programs.
The top five most popular majors are nursing, business administration, elementary education and psychology. The university's curriculum is based on a calendar divided into two 15-week semesters, separated by an interim period of four weeks during January, as well as an optional summer term of eight weeks. Classes may be taken during the month of January; the school offers a 12:1 student-to-faculty ratio, notable professors include L. Adrien Hannus and V. R Nelson. Graduation requires completion of 124 total credit hours, 59 of which are general education courses, with a minimum cumulative grade point average of 2.0. "The Augustana Plan," the name of the 59 credit core curriculum, is "designed to develop articulate communicators, competent writers, creative thinkers, skilled problem solvers, ethically minded, responsible citizens of the world." Extensive internship, study-abroad, undergraduate research and Civitas, the university's honors program, supplement the curriculum. Between 2007 and 2008, 285 students participated in an international educational experience, 44% of students study abroad before graduation.
US News & World Report values Augustana's financial endowment at $67.2 million. Donations have allowed the school to expand its academic facilities, such as the recent $7 million renovation of the Mikkelsen Library and the planned $45 million reconstruction of the Gilbert Science Complex; as of 2016, Augustana's student body consists of 1,825 undergraduates, 99% of whom are full-time students and 1% part-time, 59% were female. The acceptance rate stands at 61%. US News & World Report classifies Augustana as a "more selective" school, with 62% of the students enrolled having graduated from high school in the top quartile of their class, the average GPA being 3.7. ACT test score submissions had a 23–28 middle 50% range, with an average ACT composite score of 26. Eight percent of incoming students in 2014 submitted SAT scores, with the middle 50% range for the mathematical and critical reading components being 500–650 and 510–580, respectively; the school's retention rate of freshmen returning as sophomores was 80% between 2013 and 2014.
Those enrolled are from South Dakota and Minnesota, followed by Iowa and Nebraska. In the fall of the 2010–2011 academic year, Augustana reported its largest incoming class of intern
Richard F. Pettigrew
Richard Franklin Pettigrew was an American lawyer and land developer. He represented the Dakota Territory in the U. S. Congress and, after the Dakotas were admitted as States, he was the first U. S. Senator from South Dakota. Pettigrew was born in Ludlow, Windsor County and moved with his parents to Wisconsin in 1854; the family settled near Union, Wisconsin. He studied law in Iowa, entered the law department of the University of Wisconsin Law School in 1867, he moved to Dakota in 1869 to work with a United States deputy surveyor. Pettigrew engaged in surveying and real estate, he served on the Territorial council. He was elected as a Republican to the U. S. House, serving from March 4, 1881 to March 3, 1883, he was an unsuccessful candidate for reelection in 1882, but returned to the territorial council from 1885 to 1889. When South Dakota was admitted as a state, Pettigrew was elected as South Dakota's first Senator to the United States Senate, he served from November 2, 1889 to March 3, 1901. He introduced a bill to fund the structure, recommending that native Sioux quartzite be used for construction of the state's first Federal building.
He was re-elected in 1894, but left the Republican party on June 17, 1896 to join the Silver Republicans, a faction of the Republican Party which opposed the party's position in support of the monetary gold standard. He was an unsuccessful candidate for reelection in 1900. Pettigrew was a strong opponent of President William McKinley's attempt to annex the Republic of Hawaii against the wise of its many native residents. In a congressional speech, he stated: The American flag went up on Hawaii in dishonor. In the Presidential Election of 1900, while still in the Senate, he was a delegate and a major figure in the national political convention of the Populist Party held in Sioux Falls that convened on May 9, 1900 and lasted three days; the party endorsed William Jennings Bryan as its candidate. After his time in the Senate, Pettigrew first practiced law in New York City, but soon returned to Sioux Falls and was active in politics and business until his death in that city, he was interred in Woodlawn Cemetery in Sioux Falls.
Pettigrew left his home to the city of Sioux Falls in his will. Pettigrew's home is maintained by the city of Sioux Falls to this day; the Pettigrew museum is designed to emulate how a person of Pettigrew's stature would have lived at the turn of the century. The house is filled with antiques from the early 1900s and Pettigrew's personal collection of artifacts; the latter because Pettigrew was an amateur archaeologist. Pettigrew was instrumental in the founding of many local communities around Sioux Falls, by donating land. Pettigrew and his wife, donated land in 1886 to the founding and development of Granite, Iowa in Lyon County. In 1888, he and S. L. Tate both were responsible for the founding of South Sioux Falls, he wanted to build a suburb of Sioux Falls to the west. Announced January 12, 2009, Richard F. Pettigrew Elementary School will open fall of 2009 in southwest Sioux Falls. In 1917, while being interviewed by a journalist from the Argus Leader, Pettigrew offered his opinion that the First World War was a capitalist scheme intended to further enrich the wealthy, he urged young men to evade the draft.
The local United States Attorney secured a felony indictment of Pettigrew for suspicion of violating the Espionage Act of 1917, the same charge for which Socialist leader Eugene V. Debs was presently serving a ten-year Federal prison sentence. Pettigrew assembled a high-powered legal defense team headed up by his close personal friend, prominent attorney Clarence Darrow; the trial was delayed, the charge against him was dropped. Pettigrew had the formal document of indictment framed, prominently displayed in his home next to a framed copy of the United States Declaration of Independence, where it remains to this day as part of the exhibits of the Pettigrew House & Museum; the Course of Empire. New York: Boni & Liveright, 1920. Imperial Washington: The Story of American Public Life from 1870 to 1920. 1922. Reprint. New York: Arno Press, 1970. Published as Triumphant Plutocracy: The Story of American Public Life from 1870 to 1920. All quotes are from Pettigrew's book Triumphant Plutocracy "Capital is stolen labor and its only function is to steal more labor" "The early years of the century marked the progress of the race toward individual freedom and permanent victory over the tyranny of hereditary aristocracy, but the closing decades of the century have witnessed the surrender of all, gained to the more heartless tyranny of accumulated wealth" "Under the ethics of his profession the lawyer is the only man who can take a bribe and call it a fee" "The sum and substance of the conquest of the Philippines is to find a field where cheap labor can be secured, labor that does not strike, that does not belong to a union, that does not need an army to keep it in leading strings, that will make goods for the trusts of this country" "It had come into being as a protest against slavery and as the special champion of the Declaration of Independence, it would go out of being and out of power as the champion of slavery and the repudiator of the Declaration of Independence."
--–On the Republican Party. "The Russian Revolution is the greatest event of our times. It marks the beginning of the epoch when the working people will assume the task of directing and controlling
Minnehaha County, South Dakota
Minnehaha County is a county on the eastern border of the state of South Dakota. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 169,468, making it the most populous county in South Dakota, its county seat is the largest city in the state. The county was created in 1862 and organized in 1868, its name was derived from the Sioux word Mnihaha, meaning "rapid water," or "waterfall". Minnehaha County is part of the Sioux Falls, SD Metropolitan Statistical Area, the largest in the state, it is the site of a former listed Superfund site, the Williams Pipeline Company Disposal Site, cleaned up under direction of the US Environmental Protection Agency to contain and remove environmental hazards. Minnehaha County lies on the east side of South Dakota, its east boundary line abuts the west boundary line of the state of Minnesota as well as the north and west boundary lines of the state of Iowa. The Big Sioux River flows south-southeasterly through the east central part of the county, its terrain consists of rolling hills, devoted to agriculture except around built-up areas, dotted with lakes and ponds in its western portion.
Its terrain slopes to the south, in addition the east and west edges slope to the river valley through the center of the county. Its highest point is in the NW corner, at 1,752' ASL. Minnehaha County has a total area of 814 square miles, of which 807 square miles is land and 6.7 square miles is water. Sioux Falls Regional Airport Wheelborg Landing Field, a small airport in Dell Rapids As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 148,281 people, 57,996 households, 37,581 families in the county; the population density was 183 people per square mile. There were 60,237 housing units at an average density of 74 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 93.03% White, 1.51% Black or African American, 1.85% Native American, 1.01% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 1.04% from other races, 1.51% from two or more races. 2.15% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 57,996 households out of which 33.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.80% were married couples living together, 9.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.20% were non-families.
27.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.60% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.46 and the average family size was 3.04. The county population contained 26.20% under the age of 18, 10.80% from 18 to 24, 32.00% from 25 to 44, 20.00% from 45 to 64, 11.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.40 males. The median income for a household in the county was $42,566, the median income for a family was $52,031. Males had a median income of $32,208 versus $24,691 for females; the per capita income for the county was $20,713. About 5.00% of families and 7.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.90% of those under age 18 and 7.20% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 169,468 people, 67,028 households, 42,052 families in the county; the population density was 210.0 inhabitants per square mile.
There were 71,557 housing units at an average density of 88.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 88.1% white, 3.8% black or African American, 2.5% American Indian, 1.5% Asian, 0.1% Pacific islander, 1.8% from other races, 2.3% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 4.1% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 43.8% were German, 17.7% were Norwegian, 11.6% were Irish, 6.8% were Dutch, 6.3% were English, 3.2% were American. Of the 67,028 households, 32.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.7% were married couples living together, 10.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.3% were non-families, 29.3% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 3.03. The median age was 34.5 years. The median income for a household in the county was $51,799 and the median income for a family was $64,645. Males had a median income of $40,187 versus $31,517 for females.
The per capita income for the county was $26,392. About 6.9% of families and 9.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.2% of those under age 18 and 7.6% of those age 65 or over. Minnehaha is a Republican county with only one Democratic presidential candidate, Michael Dukakis in 1988, receiving an absolute majority in the last fifty years. Humboldt Sherman Anderson Meadow View Addition Pine Lakes Addition Renner Corner East Sioux Falls Eminija South Sioux Falls West Sioux Falls Wingert National Register of Historic Places listings in Minnehaha County, South Dakota Minnehaha County, SD government website Envision 2035 Comprehensive Plan webpage Capture Minnehaha County website "Minnehaha"; the American Cyclopædia. 1879
Sioux Falls, South Dakota
Sioux Falls is the most populous city in the U. S. state of South Dakota and the 143rd-most populous city in the United States. It is the county seat of Minnehaha County and extends into Lincoln County to the south, proximate with the Minnesota state line, it is the 47th-fastest-growing city in the United States and the fastest-growing metro area in South Dakota, with a population increase of 22% between 2000 and 2010. As of 2019, Sioux Falls had an estimated population of 187,200; the metropolitan population of 259,094 accounts for 29% of South Dakota's population. It is the primary city of the Sioux Falls-Sioux City Designated Market Area, a larger media market region that covers parts of four states and has a population of 1,043,450. Chartered in 1856 on the banks of the Big Sioux River, the city is situated in the rolling hills at the junction of Interstate 90 and Interstate 29; the history of Sioux Falls revolves around the cascades of the Big Sioux River. The falls were created about 14,000 years ago during the last ice age.
The lure of the falls has been a powerful influence. Ho-Chunk, Otoe, Omaha, Kansa, Arikira and Cheyenne people inhabited and settled the region previous to Europeans and European descendants. Numerous burial mounds still exist on the high bluffs near the river and are spread throughout the general vicinity. Indigenous people maintained an agricultural society with fortified villages, the arrivals rebuilt on many of the same sites that were settled. Lakota populate urban and reservation communities in the contemporary state and many Lakota and numerous other Indigenous Americans reside in Sioux Falls today. French voyagers/explorers visited the area in the early 18th century; the first documented visit by an American was by Philander Prescott, who camped overnight at the falls in December 1832. Captain James Allen led a military expedition out of Fort Des Moines in 1844. Jacob Ferris described the Falls in his 1856 book "The States and Territories of the Great West". Two separate groups, the Dakota Land Company of St. Paul and the Western Town Company of Dubuque, Iowa organized in 1856 to claim the land around the falls, considered a promising townsite for its beauty and water power.
Each worked together for mutual protection. They built a temporary barricade of turf which they dubbed "Fort Sod", in response to hostilities threatened by native tribes. Seventeen men spent "the first winter" in Sioux Falls; the following year the population grew to near 40. Although conflicts in Minnehaha County between Native Americans and white settlers were few, the Dakota War of 1862 engulfed nearby southwestern Minnesota; the town was evacuated in August of that year when two local settlers were killed as a result of the conflict. The settlers and soldiers stationed here traveled to Yankton in late August 1862; the abandoned townsite was burned. Fort Dakota, a military reservation established in present-day downtown, was established in May 1865. Many former settlers returned and a new wave of settlers arrived in the following years; the population grew to 593 by 1873, a building boom was underway in that year. The Village of Sioux Falls, consisting of 1,200 acres, was incorporated in 1876 and was granted a city charter by the Dakota Territorial legislature on March 3, 1883.
The arrival of the railroads ushered in the great Dakota Boom decade of the 1880s. The population of Sioux Falls mushroomed from 2,164 in 1880 to 10,167 at the close of the decade; the growth transformed the city. A severe plague of grasshoppers and a national depression halted the boom by the early 1890s; the city grew by only 89 people from 1890 to 1900. But prosperity returned with the opening of the John Morrell meat packing plant in 1909, the establishment of an airbase and a military radio and communications training school in 1942, the completion of the interstate highways in the early 1960s. Much of the growth in the first part of the 20th century was fueled by agriculturally based industry, such as the Morrell plant and the nearby stockyards. In 1955 the city decided to consolidate the neighboring incorporated city of South Sioux Falls. At the time South Sioux Falls had a population of nearly 1,600 inhabitants, according to the 1950 census, it was third largest city in the county after Sioux Dell Rapids.
By October 18, 1955 South Sioux Falls residents voted 704 in favor and 227 against to consolidate with Sioux Falls. On the same issue, Sioux Falls residents voted on November 15 by the vote 2,714 in favor and 450 against. In 1981, to take advantage of relaxed state usury laws, Citibank relocated its primary credit card center from New York City to Sioux Falls; some claim that this event was the primary impetus for the increased population and job growth rates that Sioux Falls has experienced over the past quarter century. Others point out that Citibank's relocation was only part of a more general transformation of the city's economy from an industrially based one to an economy centered on health care and retail trade. Sioux Falls has grown at a rapid pace since the late 1970s, with the city's population increasing from 81,000 in 1980 to 183,200 in 2018. Sioux Falls is located at 43°32'11" North, 96°43'54" West. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 73.47 square miles, of which 72.96 square miles is land and 0.51 square miles is water.
The city is in extreme eastern South Dakota, about 15 miles west of the Minnesota border. Sioux Falls has been assigned
South Dakota is a U. S. state in the Midwestern region of the United States. It is named after the Lakota and Dakota Sioux Native American tribes, who compose a large portion of the population and dominated the territory. South Dakota is the seventeenth largest by area, but the fifth smallest by population and the 5th least densely populated of the 50 United States; as the southern part of the former Dakota Territory, South Dakota became a state on November 2, 1889 with North Dakota. Pierre is the state capital and Sioux Falls, with a population of about 187,200, is South Dakota's largest city. South Dakota is bordered by the states of North Dakota, Iowa, Nebraska and Montana; the state is bisected by the Missouri River, dividing South Dakota into two geographically and distinct halves, known to residents as "East River" and "West River". Eastern South Dakota is home to most of the state's population, the area's fertile soil is used to grow a variety of crops. West of the Missouri, ranching is the predominant agricultural activity, the economy is more dependent on tourism and defense spending.
Most of the Native American reservations are in West River. The Black Hills, a group of low pine-covered mountains sacred to the Sioux, are in the southwest part of the state. Mount Rushmore, a major tourist destination, is there. South Dakota has a temperate continental climate, with four distinct seasons and precipitation ranging from moderate in the east to semi-arid in the west; the state's ecology features species typical of a North American grassland biome. Humans have inhabited the area for several millennia, with the Sioux becoming dominant by the early 19th century. In the late 19th century, European-American settlement intensified after a gold rush in the Black Hills and the construction of railroads from the east. Encroaching miners and settlers triggered a number of Indian wars, ending with the Wounded Knee Massacre in 1890. Key events in the 20th century included the Dust Bowl and Great Depression, increased federal spending during the 1940s and 1950s for agriculture and defense, an industrialization of agriculture that has reduced family farming.
While several Democratic senators have represented South Dakota for multiple terms at the federal level, the state government is controlled by the Republican Party, whose nominees have carried South Dakota in each of the last 13 presidential elections. Dominated by an agricultural economy and a rural lifestyle, South Dakota has sought to diversify its economy in areas to attract and retain residents. South Dakota's history and rural character still influence the state's culture. South Dakota is in the north-central United States, is considered a part of the Midwest by the U. S. Census Bureau; the culture and geography of western South Dakota have more in common with the West than the Midwest. South Dakota has a total area of 77,116 square miles, making the state the 17th largest in the Union. Black Elk Peak named Harney Peak, with an elevation of 7,242 ft, is the state's highest point, while the shoreline of Big Stone Lake is the lowest, with an elevation of 966 ft. South Dakota is bordered to the north by North Dakota.
The geographical center of the U. S. is 17 miles west of Castle Rock in Butte County. The North American continental pole of inaccessibility is between Allen and Kyle, 1,024 mi from the nearest coastline; the Missouri River is the longest river in the state. Other major South Dakota rivers include the Cheyenne, Big Sioux, White Rivers. Eastern South Dakota has many natural lakes created by periods of glaciation. Additionally, dams on the Missouri River create four large reservoirs: Lake Oahe, Lake Sharpe, Lake Francis Case, Lewis and Clark Lake. South Dakota can be divided into three regions: eastern South Dakota, western South Dakota, the Black Hills; the Missouri River serves as a boundary in terms of geographic and political differences between eastern and western South Dakota. The geography of the Black Hills, long considered sacred by Native Americans, differs from its surroundings to such an extent it can be considered separate from the rest of western South Dakota. At times the Black Hills are combined with the rest of western South Dakota, people refer to the resulting two regions divided by the Missouri River as West River and East River.
Eastern South Dakota features higher precipitation and lower topography than the western part of the state. Smaller geographic regions of this area include the Coteau des Prairies, the Dissected Till Plains, the James River Valley; the Coteau des Prairies is a plateau bordered on the east by the Minnesota River Valley and on the west by the James River Basin. Further west, the James River Basin is low, flat eroded land, following the flow of the James River through South Dakota from north to south; the Dissected Till Plains, an area of rolling hills and fertile soil that covers much of Iowa and Nebraska, extends into the southeastern corner of South Dakota. Layers deposited during the Pleistocene epoch, starting around two million years ago, cover most of eastern South Dakota; these are the youngest rock and sediment layers in the state, the product of several successive periods of glaciation which deposited a large amount of rocks and soil, known as till, over the area. The Great Plains cover most of the western two-thirds of South Dakota.
West of the Missouri Rive
South Dakota Highway 115
South Dakota Highway 115 was created from the routing of US 77, "Old 77", when its alignment was moved west to become Interstate 29 around 1980 and SD 15's route from US 18 to Sioux Falls. SD 115 routes from its intersection with US 18 about 13 miles south of Sioux Falls to Interstate 29 three miles west of Dell Rapids, it is about 40.5 miles in length. SD 115 was designated a POW/MIA Memorial Highway in 2000; the segment south of Sioux Falls to US 18 was designated part of the Custer Battlefield Highway when it was designated SD 15. South Dakota Highway 115 begins at an intersection with US 18 west of Canton and heads due north through rural Lincoln County; the highway runs about a mile west of Harrisburg, South Dakota. Three miles north of the Harrisburg intersection, SD 115 intersects 85th Street and enters Sioux Falls from the south, it runs along Minnesota Avenue in the southern portion of Sioux Falls and enters Minnehaha County upon crossing 57th Street. Just south of 41st Street, SD 115 meets Interstate 229.
SD 115 travels farther north through the downtown section of Sioux Falls, meeting SD 42 eastbound at 11th Street and westbound at 10th Street. North of downtown Sioux Falls, the route turns east on Benson Road north again on Cliff Avenue, it meets Interstate 90 just before exiting Sioux Falls. North of Sioux Falls, SD 115 travels through rural, sparsely populated areas of Minnehaha County, it passes through east of Baltic before entering Dell Rapids. In Dell Rapids, the highway turns west at 4th Street and travels about three miles west to its terminus at Interstate 29. Unofficial SD Highway Website
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government