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South Street (Philadelphia)

South Street is a street in Philadelphia, named "Cedar Street" in William Penn's original street grid, it is an east-west street forming the southern border of Center City and the northern border for South Philadelphia. The stretch of South Street between Front Street and Seventh Street is known for its "bohemian", "punk", "alternative" atmosphere and its diverse urban mix of shops and eateries, it is one of Philadelphia's largest tourist attractions. From west to east, South Street traverses the following neighborhoods: University City Schuylkill Grays Ferry Fitler Square Rittenhouse Square Avenue of the Arts South Street Headhouse District Society HillSouth Street begins at 33rd and Spruce Streets in University City, heading east-southeast past the University of Pennsylvania's Franklin Field and the University Museum, it crosses the Schuylkill River on the South Street Bridge, a fixed bridge built in 2010 to replace a former double bascule bridge dating from 1923. South Street heads east, becomes one-way eastbound from 27th Street all the way to Front Street.

South Street marks the 600 South block in the city's gridiron street system. In West Philadelphia, the 600 South is delineated between 45th and 63rd Streets by Cedar Avenue, the name being a relic of the original name for South Street in the original plan for Philadelphia as drafted by William Penn. South Street and Cedar Avenue are discontinuous with each other due to Woodland Cemetery, the University of Pennsylvania, the Schuylkill River. Named Cedar Street in William Penn's plan of Philadelphia, South Street was the traditional southern boundary of Philadelphia's city limits before the city annexed the townships of Passyunk and Southwark; until the 1950s, South Street was known as a garment district, with stores for men's suits and other clothing, while the more western areas around South Street served as a cultural and commercial center for South Philadelphia's African American community. Real estate values plummeted after city planner Edmund Bacon and others proposed the Crosstown Expressway, a short limited-access expressway connecting the Schuylkill Expressway and I-95 that would have required the demolition of many buildings on South Street and Bainbridge Street.

The cheap property attracted artists and counterculture-types. The proposed expressway was never built due to public opposition. South Street is traversed over its entire length by SEPTA's Route 40 bus, running eastbound on South and westbound on Lombard Street through Center City. During evenings and weekends, the 40 bus avoids the pedestrian congestion east of Broad Street by turning north on Broad and turning east on Pine Street all the way to Front Street. Several other transit routes cross South Street, most important being the subsurface Broad Street Line with its station at Lombard-South. History of Philadelphia South Street Tourism Page

Surface second harmonic generation

Surface second harmonic generation is a method for probing interfaces in atomic and molecular systems. In second harmonic generation, the light frequency is doubled converting two photons of the original beam of energy E into a single photon of energy 2E as it interacts with noncentrosymmetric media. Surface second harmonic generation is a special case of SHG where the second beam is generated because of a break of symmetry caused by an interface. Since centrosymmetric symmetry in centrosymmetric media is only disrupted in the first atomic or molecular layer of a system, properties of the second harmonic signal provide information about the surface atomic or molecular layers only. Surface SHG is possible for materials which do not exhibit SHG in the bulk. Although in many situations the dominant second harmonic signal arises from the broken symmetry at the surface, the signal in fact always has contributions from both the surface and bulk. Thus, the most sensitive experiments involve modification of a surface and study of the subsequent modification of the harmonic generation properties.

Second harmonic generation from a surface was first observed by Terhune and Savage at the Ford Motor Company in 1962, one year after Franken et al. First discovered second harmonic generation in bulk crystals. Prior to Terhune’s discovery, it was believed that crystals could only exhibit second harmonic generation if the crystal was noncentrosymmetric. Terhune observed that calcite, a centrosymmetric crystal, only capable of SHG in the bulk in the presence of an applied electric field which would break the symmetry of the electronic structure also produced a second harmonic signal in the absence of an external electric field. During the 1960s, SHG was observed for many other centrosymmetric media including metals, semiconductors and liquids. In 1968, Bloembergen et al. showed. Interest in this field waned during the 1970s and only a handful of research groups investigated surface SHG, most notably Y. R. Shen’s group at University of California at Berkeley. During the 70s and 80s, most of the research in this field focused on understanding the electronic response in metals.

In 1981, Chen et al. showed that SHG could be used to detect individual monolayers, since much research has gone into using and understanding SHG as surface probe of molecular adsorption and orientation. Just as bulk second harmonic generation, surface SHG arises out of the second-order susceptibility tensor χ. While the χ tensor contains 27 elements, many of these elements are reduced by symmetry arguments; the exact nature of these arguments depends on the application. When determining molecular orientation, it is assumed that χ is rotationally invariant around the z-axis; the number of tensor elements reduces from 27 to the following 7 independent quantities: χZZZ, χZXX = χZYY, χXZX = χYZY, χXXZ = χYYZ, χXYZ = -χYXZ, χXZY = -χYZX, χZXY = -χZYX. Second Harmonic Generation further restricts the independent terms by requiring the tensor is symmetric in the last two indices reducing the number of independent tensor terms to 4: χZZZ, χZXX, χXXZ, χXYZ. In order for χZXY = -χZYX to hold under this final condition, both terms must be 0.

The four independent terms are material dependent properties and can vary as the external conditions change. These four terms give rise to the second harmonic signal, allow for calculation of material properties such as electronic structure, atomic organization, molecular orientation. Detailed analysis of the second harmonic generation from surfaces and interfaces, as well as the ability to detect monolayers and sub-monolayers, may be found in Guyot-Sionnest et al, it may seem paradoxical at first that surface SHG which relies on a break in symmetry is possible in crystals which have an inherent symmetric structure. At a crystalline interface half of the atomic forces experienced in the bulk crystal are not present which causes changes in the atomic and electronic structures. There are two major changes that occur at the interface: 1) the interplanar distances of the top layers change and 2) the atoms redistribute themselves to a new packing structure. While symmetry is maintained in the surface planes, the break in symmetry out-of-plane modifies the second-order susceptibility tensor χ, giving rise to optical second harmonic generation.

Typical measurements of SHG from crystalline surfaces structures are performed by rotating the sample in an incident beam. The second harmonic signal will vary with the azimuth angle of the sample due to the symmetry of the atomic and electronic structure; as a result, surface SHG theory is dependent on geometry of the superstructure. Since electron interactions are responsible for the SHG response, the jellium model is numerically solved using Density Functional Theory to predict the SHG response of a given surface. SHG sensitivity to surface structure approach was demonstrated by Heinz and Thompson, working for IBM in 1985, they showed that the SHG signal from a freshly cleaved Si surface would alter its behavior as the temperature was raised and the superstructure changed from a 2x1 structure to the 7x7 structure. Noting the change in signal, they were able to verify the existence of one mirror plane in the 2x1 construction and 3 mirror planes in the 7x7 construction thereby providing new information to the bonding structure of the surface atoms.

Since surface SHG has been used to probe other many other metallic surfaces such as reconstructed go

Bryan Williams (professor)

Bryan Raymond George Williams Hon. FRSNZ, FAA is a molecular biologist from New Zealand, with expertise in innate immunity and cancer biology, he is Emeritus Director and Distinguished Scientist at the Hudson Institute of Medical Research in Melbourne and Professor in the Department of Molecular and Translational Science at Monash University. Williams graduated in 1973, from the University of Otago, New Zealand, with a Bachelor of Science in Microbiology, he was awarded his PhD from the Department of Microbiology, University of Otago in 1976. He moved to the UK to undertake postdoctoral training at the National Institute for Medical Research in Mill Hill, where he worked on the biochemistry of interferon action. In 1980, Williams relocated to Toronto, where he held positions at the Hospital for Sick Children and the University of Toronto, he continued to work on the mechanisms of interferon action and reported the sequence of the interferon-induced protein kinase R. He worked on the characterisation of the Wilms tumour gene.

He was recruited to the Lerner Research Institute at the Cleveland Clinic in Ohio, USA in 1991, where he led the Department of Cancer Biology until 2005. In 2003, the Williams research group published a cited paper on the innate immune stimulatory activities of small interfering RNAs, which has had important implications for the therapeutic development of small interfering RNAs. In January 2006, Williams was appointed as the Director of the Monash Institute of Medical Research in Melbourne, where he established the Centre for Cancer Research. Following the merger of the Monash Institute of Medical Research with Prince Henry’s Institute in 2014, he was appointed Director and CEO of the new organisation, renamed the Hudson Institute of Medical Research in 2015, his current research remains focused on cell signalling in innate cancer. From 2006 to 2013, Williams served as Chair of the Board of Directors of MEI Pharma, a cancer therapy company, he was a member of the Consultative Council of the Victorian Cancer Agency and served on the Board of Directors of Cancer Trials Australia.

Williams serves as Chair of the Board of BioGrid Australia Ltd, is a member of the Board of Directors of Pacific Edge Ltd, a cancer diagnostics company. He is a member of the Board of Trustees of the Hope Funds for Cancer Research and is Chair of the selection panel for the Premier's Award for Health and Medical Research, Victoria, he is an Editor of Journal of Virology and was Chair of the Publications Committee of the International Cytokine and Interferon Society from 2010 to 2016. 1990: Milstein Award, International Society for Interferon Research 1997: Honorary Fellow of the Royal Society of New Zealand 1998–1999: President of the International Society for Interferon and Cytokine Research 2005: Maurice Saltzman Award, The Mt Sinai Health Care Foundation 2006: Dolph Adams Award, Journal of Leukocyte Biology 2008: Boltzmann Award, International Society for Interferon and Cytokine Research 2013: Fellow of the American Academy of Microbiology 2013: Fellow of the Australian Academy of Science

History of the Jews in Hong Kong

Jews have been present in Hong Kong since the mid-19th century. As a major financial centre, much of Hong Kong's Jewish community is temporary in nature consisting of expatriates from countries with much larger Jewish populations, such as Israel, United States and other countries. Jews first arrived in Hong Kong when the territory was ceded to Great Britain by China in 1842; the Jews transferred their offices from neighboring Canton and Macau to Hong Kong and helped to develop this new port. The Hong Kong Jewish Community was first established in 1857; the first synagogue was set up in a rental house on Hollywood Street in 1870. A new synagogue in memory of Sir Jacob Sassoon's mother, replaced the older one in 1881; the Ohel Leah Synagogue was constructed in 1901, the communal cemetery was enlarged in 1904 to meet the needs of the community with assistance of Sir Matthew Nathan, the only Jewish governor of Hong Kong, the Jewish Club, built by the Kadoorie family, was created in 1904 and enlarged in 1909.

The Jewish population, which had totaled 60 Sephardim in 1882, grew to 100 in 1921, 250 in 1954. Growth slowed, the population numbered only 230 in 1959, 200 in 1968. Ho Fook and Robert Hotung's father was the Jewish Dutch man Charles Henri Maurice Bosman; the Jewish community did not grow as most Jewish merchants were attracted to Shanghai in the period from 1910 to 1936. However, the Japanese occupation of mainland China in the late 1930s caused many Jews to leave Shanghai and Harbin for Hong Kong; the outbreak of World War II and the consequent Japanese occupation of Hong Kong temporarily suspended all Jewish activities there. From the 1960s onwards, Hong Kong's development as a trade and finance centre attracted tens of thousands of foreigners, among them Jews from the United States, the UK, Australia and Canada, they revitalized the local Jewish community. Since the 1960s, Israel began to appoint Honorary Consuls to Hong Kong. There were 2,500 Jews living in Hong Kong according to the statistics of the Israeli embassy as of February 1998, up from 1000 around the 1980s.

It is estimated that about 5,000 Jews lived in Hong Kong in 2000, 6,000 in 2002. There are now four congregations, which have their own places of worship. There is a large Jewish Community Centre, recreational facilities and a kosher restaurant, is the leading venue of Jewish activities in the city. There are two Jewish schools, the Carmel school, providing a nursery school program and grades K-12, the Ezekiel Abraham school which provides after school learning for older children; the Ohel Leah Synagogue was first founded by Jacob Sasson and his brother on Hollywood Road in 1870, moved from place to place over the years. In 1899 they agreed that a new and permanent synagogue should be built, to search for the right field, Emmanuel Raphael, a successful Jewish merchant, a member of the board of the Hong Kong-Shanghai Bank found a place he thought was suitable for the construction of the new synagogue on Kennedy Street. Despite this, the synagogue was not built there because it was not possible to collect enough money to buy the land, because of differences of opinion with the rest of the community regarding how much of the land would be devoted to the construction of the synagogue.

It was decided to build a synagogue on Robinson Road at a cost of $26,000, paid by the Sassoon family. The cornerstone was laid by Avraham Haim Yaakov Rahamim and Sasson & Co. on 7 August 1901. The synagogue called "Ohel Leah" Memory mother of founder Yakov Eliyahu David Sassoon, who died in May 1878. Construction of the synagogue was completed in 1902. In the late 1980s, the synagogue's board of governors discussed the possibility of demolishing the synagogue and building it elsewhere; the land on which the synagogue was built cost much more than the price at which it was purchased, it seemed to them that it would be better to sell the land and to receive a new synagogue. The idea of demolishing the synagogue was dropped after one of the women, present insisted that a synagogue should not be destroyed. However, the idea of selling the land did not come out of the chapter, the land was sold, but only in half; the synagogue area remained intact, the synagogue was renovated, the second area was built with two tall residential buildings known as Robinson one.

The lower five floors are owned by the Jewish community, including a kosher restaurant, pool and other community needs. The synagogue was built by Iraqi merchants, over the years, the synagogue underwent many vicissitudes, today the style of the prayer is Sephardic with an Israeli accent. All prayers are held in the synagogue, except for Mincha and Arabic prayers on weekdays; the Shuva Israel community located on the Connaught road in Central was established in October 1991 by the Darwish family following differences of opinion between David Darwish head of the Jewish Community Department, other Jewish officials in Hong Kong. "Shuva Israel" was intended for a more ultra-Orthodox public. The first rabbi of the community was Rabbi David Avraham; the community operates kollel students and a kosher restaurant. The community had an ultra-Orthodox school, closed in 2006, when the founding family moved to Israel; the Chabad of Hong Kong was establishe

311 series

The 311 series is a DC suburban electric multiple unit train type operated by Central Japan Railway Company in Japan. Built jointly by Hitachi, Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Kinki Sharyo, the design was developed from the earlier 211 series, with the first five trains introduced from July 1989 to replace older 113 and 115 series EMUs. Eight more sets were introduced from the start of the new timetable in March 1990, a further two sets were introduced in March 1991; as of 1 October 2015, the fleet consists of all based at Ogaki Depot. The trainsets are formed as shown below with two non-powered trailer cars; the KuMoHa car is fitted with a single-arm pantograph. Between June 2006 and July 2008, all sets had their original lozenge pantographs replaced with single-arm pantographs. JR Central 311 series information

Micropoetry

Micropoetry is a genre of poetic verse including tweetku and captcha poetry, characterized by text generated through CAPTCHA anti-spamming software. The novelist W. G. Sebald may have been the first to use the term "micropoem", in reference to the poems of about 20 words in length that made up his 2004 work, Unrecounted; the more recent popularity of "micropoetry" to describe poems of 140 characters in length or shorter appears to stem from a separate coinage, as a portmanteau of "microblogging" and "poetry" in a notice on Identica on January 23, 2009, announcing the formation of a group for fans of poetry on that microblogging service. A subsequent notice linked to an example of micropoetry by another user, lyrical but didn't appear to fit any preexistent form such as haiku or tanka. While short poems are most associated with the haiku, the emergence of microblogging sites in the 21st century created a modern venue for epigrammatic verse. Daily haiku journal tinywords was one of the earliest proponents, publishing haiku via short message service starting in 2000.

Micropoetry shares the quality of found poetry, where poetic style is discovered in text not intended to be poetic. A famous early example of this was Alaskan Governor Sarah Palin's Twitter feed, which comedian Conan O'Brien and actor William Shatner spoofed as poetry. In order to fit the most meaning into few characters, micropoetry breaks traditional rules of grammar and lexicon, as in this example: evrywhr:i c mmnts crl'd back like lips frm ancnt teeth; the winning poem from that May 2009 contest was written by Simon Brake: beneath the Morning Sun, The city is painted gold, People move like bees through honey Flarf poetry Microblogging Monostich Spoetry Twitter