Sudan or the Sudan the Republic of the Sudan, is a country in Northeast Africa. It is bordered by Egypt to the north, the Red Sea to the northeast, Eritrea to the east, Ethiopia to the southeast, South Sudan to the south, the Central African Republic to the southwest, Chad to the west, Libya to the northwest, it has a population of 39 million people and occupies a total area of 1,886,068 square kilometres, making it the third-largest country in Africa. Sudan's predominant religion is Islam, its official languages are Arabic and English; the capital is Khartoum, located at the confluence of the White Nile. Since 2011, Sudan is the scene of ongoing military conflict in its regions South Kordofan and Blue Nile. Sudan's history goes back to the Pharaonic period, witnessing the kingdom of Kerma, the subsequent rule of the Egyptian New Kingdom and the rise of the kingdom of Kush, which would in turn control Egypt itself for nearly a century. After the fall of Kush the Nubians formed the three Christian kingdoms of Nobatia and Alodia, with the latter two lasting until around 1500.
Between the 14th and 15th centuries much of Sudan was settled by Arab nomads. From the 16th–19th centuries and eastern Sudan were dominated by the Funj sultanate, while Darfur ruled the west and the Ottomans the far north; this period saw Arabization. From 1820 to 1874 the entirety of Sudan was conquered by the Muhammad Ali dynasty. Between 1881 and 1885 the harsh Egyptian reign was met with a successful revolt led by the self-proclaimed Mahdi Muhammad Ahmad, resulting in the establishment of the Caliphate of Omdurman; this state was destroyed in 1898 by the British, who would govern Sudan together with Egypt. The 20th century saw the growth of Sudanese nationalism and in 1953 Britain granted Sudan self-government. Independence was proclaimed on January 1, 1956. Since independence, Sudan has been ruled by a series of unstable parliamentary governments and military regimes. Under Gaafar Nimeiry, Sudan instituted Islamic law in 1983; this exacerbated the rift between the Islamic north, the seat of the government and the animists and Christians in the south.
Differences in language and political power erupted in a civil war between government forces influenced by the National Islamic Front and the southern rebels, whose most influential faction was the Sudan People's Liberation Army concluding in the independence of South Sudan in 2011. In April 2019, following contentious protests that faced fierce resistance from the Omar al-Bashir regime, the Sudanese military, under the command of Ahmed Awad Ibn Auf, took control of the nation and established a Transitional Military Council; this move dissolved the constitution. The country's place name Sudan is a name given to a geographical region to the south of the Sahara, stretching from Western Africa to eastern Central Africa; the name derives from the Arabic bilād as-sūdān, or "the lands of the Blacks". The name is one of several toponyms sharing similar etymologies meaning "land of the blacks" or similar meanings, in reference to the dark skin of the inhabitants; the term "Sudanese" had a negative connotation in Sudan due to its association with black African slaves.
The idea of "Sudanese" nationalism goes back to the 1930s and 1940s, when it was popularized by young intellectuals. By the eighth millennium BC, people of a Neolithic culture had settled into a sedentary way of life there in fortified mudbrick villages, where they supplemented hunting and fishing on the Nile with grain gathering and cattle herding. During the fifth millennium BC, migrations from the drying Sahara brought neolithic people into the Nile Valley along with agriculture; the population that resulted from this cultural and genetic mixing developed a social hierarchy over the next centuries which became the Kingdom of Kush at 1700 BC. Anthropological and archaeological research indicate that during the predynastic period Nubia and Nagadan Upper Egypt were ethnically, culturally nearly identical, thus evolved systems of pharaonic kingship by 3300 BC; the Kingdom of Kush was an ancient Nubian state centered on the confluences of the Blue Nile and White Nile, the Atbarah River and the Nile River.
It was established after the Bronze Age collapse and the disintegration of the New Kingdom of Egypt, centered at Napata in its early phase. After King Kashta invaded Egypt in the eighth century BC, the Kushite kings ruled as pharaohs of the Twenty-fifth Dynasty of Egypt for a century before being defeated and driven out by the Assyrians. At the height of their glory, the Kushites conquered an empire that stretched from what is now known as South Kordofan all the way to the Sinai. Pharaoh Piye attempted to expand the empire into the Near East, but was thwarted by the Assyrian king Sargon II; the Kingdom of Kush is mentioned in the Bible as having saved the Israelites from the wrath of the Assyrians, although disease among the besiegers was the main reason for the failure to take the city. The war that took place between Pharaoh Taharqa and the Assyrian king Sennacherib was a decisive event in western history, with the Nubians being defeated in their attempts to gain a foothold in the Near East by Assyria.
Sennacherib's successor Esarhaddon went further, invaded Egypt itself, deposing Taharqa and driving the Nubians from Egypt entirely. Taharqa fled back to his homeland. Egypt became an Assyrian colony.
Comprehensive Peace Agreement
The Comprehensive Peace Agreement known as the Naivasha Agreement, was an accord signed on January 9, 2005, by the Sudan People's Liberation Movement and the Government of Sudan. The CPA was meant to end the Second Sudanese Civil War, develop democratic governance countrywide, share oil revenues, it set a timetable for a Southern Sudanese independence referendum. The peace process was encouraged by the Intergovernmental Authority on Development, as well as IGAD-Partners, a consortium of donor countries; the process resulted in the following agreements: The Machakos Protocol, signed in Machakos, Kenya on 20 July 2002. Agreement on broad principles of government and governance; the Protocol on Power Sharing, signed in Naivasha, Kenya on 26 May 2004 The Agreement on Wealth Sharing, signed in Naivasha, Kenya on 7 January 2004 The Protocol on the Resolution of the Conflict in Abyei Area, signed in Naivasha, Kenya on 26 May 2004 The Protocol on the Resolution of the Conflict in Southern Kordofan and Blue Nile States, signed in Naivasha, Kenya on 26 May 2004 The Agreement on Security Arrangements, signed in Naivasha, Kenya on 25 September 2003 The Permanent Ceasefire and Security Arrangements Implementation Modalities and Appendices, signed in Naivasha, Kenya on 30 October 2004 The Implementation Modalities and Global Implementation Matrix and Appendices, signed in Naivasha, Kenya on 31 December 2004The final, comprehensive agreement was signed on 9 January 2005 and marked the commencement of implementation activities.
On 11 October 2007, the SPLM withdrew from the government of national unity, accusing the central government of violating the terms of the CPA. In particular, the SPLM states that the Khartoum-based government, dominated by the National Congress Party, has failed to withdraw over 15,000 troops from southern oilfields and failed to implement the Protocol on Abyei; the SPLM stated that it was not returning to war, while analysts noted that the agreement had been disintegrating for some time, notably because of international focus on the conflict in nearby Darfur. The SPLM announced; the agreement states that the seat of government will rotate between Juba and Khartoum every three months, though it appears that this will be symbolic, as well as funding for a census and a timetable for the withdrawal of troops across the border. Northern Sudanese troops left Southern Sudan on 8 January 2008. A referendum was held from 9 to 15 January 2011 to determine if South Sudan should declare its independence from Sudan, with 98.83% of the population voting for independence.
It became independent as the Republic of South Sudan on 9 July 2011. Popular consultations for Blue Nile and South Kordofan have been suspended as part of the ongoing conflict in those regions between the northern wing of the SPLA and the Justice and Equality Movement against the central government. Assessment and Evaluation Commission Southern Sudanese independence referendum, 2011 Sudan–SPLM-N conflict UN Peacemaker Full text of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement, UN Peacemaker Read all peace agreements for Sudan, UN Peacemaker UNMIS.org, the official web site of the United Nations Mission in Sudan Updated Timeline of the Implementation of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement in Sudan, Center for International Peace Operations, April 2009 Sudan: Human Rights Accountability Must Be Part of North-South Peace Agreement, Human Rights Watch, November 2004 "Sudan after the Naivasha Peace Agreement: No Champagne Yet" by Denis M. Tull, German Institute for International and Security Affairs, 3 February 2005 The Khartoum-SPLM Agreement: Sudan's Uncertain Peace, International Crisis Group, 25 July 2005 Sudan’s Comprehensive Peace Agreement: The Long Road Ahead, International Crisis Group, 31 March 2006 Sudan’s Comprehensive Peace Agreement: Beyond the Crisis, International Crisis Group, 13 March 2008
Transport in South Sudan
Total: 248 km narrow gauge: 248 km 3 ft 6 in gauge. South Sudan has a total of 248 kilometers of narrow-gauge, single-track railroad line in the country; the only line in the country is used and it connects to Babonosa with Wau. Most of the line was badly destroyed during the Second Sudanese Civil War. Around January 27 2008. Sudan – yes – Babanusa to Wau line - Under Sudanese rule a number of main gravel roads radiating from Juba were improved; these included roads to the towns southwest of a road to the Ugandan border. In addition, the government built a gravel all-weather road east of Juba that reaches the Kenyan border. There it joined an all-weather Kenyan road to Lodwar connecting it to the Kenyan road system. However, all of these improvements radiating from Juba have been vitiated by the civil war, as the roads have been extensively mined by the SPLA and the bridges destroyed; because roads have not been maintained, they have deteriorated. Highways in South Sudan are entirely unpaved. Rehabilitation work is underway and the first paved highway between the country's capital Juba and Nimule in the Uganda border has opened.
The total road network in 2017, according to the UNJLC, consisted of: Total: 000 kilometres Paved: 000 kilometres Unpaved: 000 kilometres See also: Roads in South Sudan Juba-Nimule Road Gulu–Nimule Road The Nile river is navigable only on some stretches. A single pipeline leads from South Sudan's oil fields to Port Sudan; the busiest and most developed airport in South Sudan is Juba International Airport, which has regular international connections to Entebbe, Cairo, Addis Ababa, Khartoum. Juba Airport is the home base of Feeder Airlines Company. Other international airports include Malakal, with international flights to Addis Ababa and Khartoum. Southern Sudan Airlines serves Nimule and Akobo, the airstrips of which are unpaved. There are several smaller airports throughout South Sudan, the majority of which consist of little more than dirt airstrips. Total: over 3,047 m: 01,524 to 2,437 m: 0914 to 1,523 m: total: 01,524 to 2,437 m: 0914 to 1,523 m: 0under 914 m: 0 Ministry of Transport and Roads Lamu Port and Lamu-Southern Sudan-Ethiopia Transport Corridor
Oryx is a genus consisting of four large antelope species called oryxes. Three of them are native to arid parts of Africa, the fourth to the Arabian Peninsula, their fur is pale with contrasting dark markings in the face and on the legs, their long horns are straight. The exception is the scimitar oryx, which lacks dark markings on the legs, only has faint dark markings on the head, has an ochre neck, horns that are decurved; the Arabian oryx was only saved from extinction through a captive breeding program and reintroduction to the wild. The scimitar oryx, now listed as Extinct in the Wild relies on a captive breeding program for its survival. Small populations of several oryx species, such as the scimitar oryx, exist in Texas and New Mexico in wild game ranches. Gemsboks were released at the White Sands Missile Range and are managed by NMDGF; the term "oryx" comes from óryx, for a type of antelope. The Greek plural form is óryges. Herodotus mentions a type of gazelle in Libya called "Orus" related to the verb ¨oruttoo" or "orussoo", meaning "to dig".
White oryxes are known to dig holes in the sand for the sake of coolness. The Arabian oryx, became extinct in the wild in 1972 from the Arabian Peninsula, it was reintroduced in 1982 in Oman. One of the largest populations of Arabian oryx exists on Sir Bani Yas Island in the United Arab Emirates. Additional populations have been reintroduced in Qatar, Israel and Saudi Arabia; as of 2011, the total wild population is over 1000, 6000–7000 are being held in captivity. In 2011, the IUCN downgraded its threat category from Extinct in the Wild to Vulnerable, the first species to have changed back this way; the scimitar oryx called scimitar-horned oryx, of North Africa, is now listed as extinct in the wild. However, unconfirmed surviving populations have been reported in central Niger and Chad, a semiwild population inhabiting a fenced nature reserve in Tunisia is being expanded for reintroduction to the wild in that country. Several thousand are held in captivity around the world; the East African oryx inhabits eastern Africa and the related gemsbok inhabits southern Africa.
The gemsbok is monotypic and the East African oryx has two subspecies. In the past, both were considered subspecies of the gemsbok; the East African oryx is an endangered species. Between 1969 and 1977, the New Mexico Department of Game and Fish intentionally released 93 gemsbok into its state's White Sands Missile Range and that population is now estimated between 3,000 and 6,000 animals. Within the state of New Mexico, oryxes are classified as "big game" and can be harvested with the proper license, but the quality of the hunt may be affected by military regulation of the missile range. All Oryx species can survive without water for long periods, they live in herds of up to 600 animals. Newborn calves are able to run with the herd after birth. Both males and females possess permanent horns; the horns are narrow, straight except in the scimitar oryx, where they curve backwards like a scimitar. The horns are lethal — the oryx has been known to kill lions with them, oryxes are thus sometimes called the sabre antelope.
The horns make the animals a prized game trophy, which has led to the near-extinction of the two northern species. FAMILY BOVIDAE Subfamily Hippotraginae Genus Hippotragus Genus Oryx Scimitar oryx, O. dammah Gemsbok, O. gazella East African oryx, O. beisa Common beisa oryx, O. b. beisa Fringe-eared oryx, O. b. callotis Arabian oryx, O. leucoryx Oryx: Wildlife summary from the African Wildlife Foundation
A central bank, reserve bank, or monetary authority is the institution that manages the currency, money supply, interest rates of a state or formal monetary union, oversees their commercial banking system. In contrast to a commercial bank, a central bank possesses a monopoly on increasing the monetary base in the state, generally controls the printing/coining of the national currency, which serves as the state's legal tender. A central bank acts as a lender of last resort to the banking sector during times of financial crisis. Most central banks have supervisory and regulatory powers to ensure the solvency of member institutions, to prevent bank runs, to discourage reckless or fraudulent behavior by member banks. Central banks in most developed nations are institutionally independent from political interference. Still, limited control by the executive and legislative bodies exists. Functions of a central bank may include: implementing monetary policies. Setting the official interest rate – used to manage both inflation and the country's exchange rate – and ensuring that this rate takes effect via a variety of policy mechanisms controlling the nation's entire money supply the Government's banker and the bankers' bank managing the country's foreign exchange and gold reserves and the Government bonds regulating and supervising the banking industry Central banks implement a country's chosen monetary policy.
At the most basic level, monetary policy involves establishing what form of currency the country may have, whether a fiat currency, gold-backed currency, currency board or a currency union. When a country has its own national currency, this involves the issue of some form of standardized currency, a form of promissory note: a promise to exchange the note for "money" under certain circumstances; this was a promise to exchange the money for precious metals in some fixed amount. Now, when many currencies are fiat money, the "promise to pay" consists of the promise to accept that currency to pay for taxes. A central bank may use another country's currency either directly in a currency union, or indirectly on a currency board. In the latter case, exemplified by the Bulgarian National Bank, Hong Kong and Latvia, the local currency is backed at a fixed rate by the central bank's holdings of a foreign currency. Similar to commercial banks, central banks incur liabilities. Central banks create money by issuing interest-free currency notes and selling them to the public in exchange for interest-bearing assets such as government bonds.
When a central bank wishes to purchase more bonds than their respective national governments make available, they may purchase private bonds or assets denominated in foreign currencies. The European Central Bank remits its interest income to the central banks of the member countries of the European Union; the US Federal Reserve remits all its profits to the U. S. Treasury; this income, derived from the power to issue currency, is referred to as seigniorage, belongs to the national government. The state-sanctioned power to create currency is called the Right of Issuance. Throughout history there have been disagreements over this power, since whoever controls the creation of currency controls the seigniorage income; the expression "monetary policy" may refer more narrowly to the interest-rate targets and other active measures undertaken by the monetary authority. Frictional unemployment is the time period between jobs when a worker is searching for, or transitioning from one job to another. Unemployment beyond frictional unemployment is classified as unintended unemployment.
For example, structural unemployment is a form of unemployment resulting from a mismatch between demand in the labour market and the skills and locations of the workers seeking employment. Macroeconomic policy aims to reduce unintended unemployment. Keynes labeled any jobs that would be created by a rise in wage-goods as involuntary unemployment: Men are involuntarily unemployed if, in the event of a small rise in the price of wage-goods to the money-wage, both the aggregate supply of labour willing to work for the current money-wage and the aggregate demand for it at that wage would be greater than the existing volume of employment.—John Maynard Keynes, The General Theory of Employment and Money p11 Inflation is defined either as the devaluation of a currency or equivalently the rise of prices relative to a currency. Since inflation lowers real wages, Keynesians view inflation as the solution to involuntary unemployment. However, "unanticipated" inflation leads to lender losses as the real interest rate will be lower than expected.
Thus, Keynesian monetary policy aims for a steady rate of inflation. A publication from the Austrian School, The Case Against the Fed, argues that the efforts of the central banks to control inflation have been counterproductive. Economic growth can be enhanced by investment such as more or better machinery. A low interest rate implies that firms can borrow money to invest in their capital stock and pay less interest for it. Lowering the interest is therefore considered to encourage economic growth and is used to alleviate times of low economic growth. On the other hand, raising the interest rate is used in times of high economic growth as a contra-cyclical device to keep the economy from overheating and avoid market bubbles. Further goals of monetary policy are stability of interest rates, of the financial market, of the foreign exchange market. Goals cannot be separated fr
John Garang de Mabior was a Sudanese politician and revolutionary leader. From 1983 to 2005, he led the Sudan People's Liberation Army during the Second Sudanese Civil War, following a peace agreement he served as First Vice President of Sudan for 3 weeks until his death in a helicopter crash on 30 July 2005. A developmental economist by profession, Garang was a major influence on the movement that led to the foundation of South Sudan. A member of the Dinka ethnic group, Garang was born into a poor family in Wangulei village Twic East County in the upper Nile region of Sudan. An orphan by the age of ten, he had his fees for school paid by a relative, going to schools in Wau and Rumbek. In 1962 he joined the first Sudanese civil war, but because he was so young, the leaders encouraged him and others his age to seek an education; because of the ongoing fighting, Garang was forced to complete his secondary education in Tanzania. After winning a scholarship, he went on to earn a Bachelor of Arts degree in Economics in 1969 from Grinnell College in Iowa, United States.
He was offered another scholarship to pursue graduate studies at the University of California, but chose to return to Tanzania and study East African agricultural economics as a Thomas J. Watson Fellow at the University of Dar es Salaam. At UDSM, he was a member of the University Students' African Revolutionary Front. However, Garang soon decided to return to Sudan and join the rebels.. There is much erroneous reporting that Garang met and befriended Yoweri Museveni, future president of Uganda, at this time. In 1970, Garang was among one of the batches of Gordon Muortat Mayen's soldiers, the leader of the Anyanya liberation movement, sent to Israel for military training; the civil war ended with the Addis Ababa Agreement of 1972 and Garang, like many rebels, was absorbed into the Sudanese military. For eleven years, he was a career soldier and rose from the rank of captain to colonel after taking the Infantry Officers Advanced Course at Fort Benning, United States. During this period he took four years academic leave and received a Master's degree in agricultural economics from Iowa State University.
In 1981, he earned a PhD in Economics from Iowa State University. By 1983, Col. Garang was serving as a senior instructor in the military academy in Wadi Sayedna 21 km from the centre of Omdurman where he instructed the cadets for more than four years, he was nominated to serve in the military research department at Army HQ in Khartoum. Garang coined the philosophy of ‘Sudanism’ which would be the guiding philosophy to a secular and multiethnic New Sudan, he believed, for the people of Sudan to live in cohesion, they must not separate themselves into the many existing ethnic factions present within the nation but, rather, to collectively renounce the belief that Arabness, Black African-ness, Islam or Christianity were to be the ultimate defining characteristics of Sudan. Rather, he willed that citizens should embrace all cultures of Sudan, to unify under the one commonality they all share, being Sudanese. In 1983, Garang went to Bor, ostensibly to pacify 500 southern government soldiers in Battalion 105 who were resisting being rotated to posts in the north.
However, Garang was part of a conspiracy among some officers in the Southern Command arranging for the defection of Battalion 105 to the anti-government rebels. When the government attacked Bor in May and the battalion pulled out, Garang rode by an alternate route to join them in the rebel stronghold in Ethiopia. By the end of July, Garang had brought over 3000 rebel soldiers under his control through the newly created Sudan People's Liberation Army/Movement, opposed to military rule and Islamic dominance of the country, encouraged other army garrisons to mutiny against the Islamic law imposed on the country by the government; this action marked the agreed upon the beginning of the Second Sudanese Civil War, which resulted in one and a half million deaths over twenty years of conflict. Although Garang was Christian and most of southern Sudan is non-Muslim, he did not focus on the religious aspects of the war. Garang had been fighting for a "New Sudan" since 1983, he was a strong advocate for national unity: minorities together formed a majority and therefore should rule.
Together, Garang believed, they could replace President Omar al-Bashir with a government made up of representatives from “all tribes and religions in Sudan." His first real effort for the cause, under his command, occurred in July 1985 with the SPLA’s incursion into Kordofan. The SPLA gained the backing of Libya and Ethiopia. Garang and his army controlled a large part of the southern regions of the country, named New Sudan, he claimed. That is something North Sudan and its people don't have." Critics suggested financial motivations to his rebellion, noting that much of Sudan's oil wealth lies in the south of the country. In the spring of 1991, Mengistu Haile Mariam's regime was overthrown by the Khartoum backed Ethiopian rebels. Upon the rebels’ seizure of the government, they closed all SPLA training camps in Ethiopia and cut off the SPLA's arms supply, forcing the SPLA to return hundreds of thousands of Sudanese back to South Sudan; this disrupted military operations and leadership within the SPLA.
However, this caused the West to reconsider relations with the SPLA – justifying their providing the SPLA with "non-lethal help."Shortly after, there was an attempted coup to oust Garang by s
The Nubian giraffe is the nominate subspecies of giraffe. It is found in Ethiopia, Uganda, South Sudan and Sudan, it is extinct in the wild of the Democratic Republic of Congo and Eritrea. The Nubian giraffe used to be widespread everywhere on Northeast Africa; the subspecies was listed as Critically Endangered by the IUCN in 2018. The IUCN recognizes only one species of giraffe with nine subspecies, one of, the Nubian giraffe; the Nubian giraffe, along with the whole species, were first known by the binomen Cervus camelopardalis described by Swedish zoologist Carl Linnaeus in the Systema Naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, genera, cum characteribus, synonymis, locis in 1758. He described the giraffe from Sennar of Eastern Sudan. A 2016 analysis of giraffe subspecies proposed the Rothschild's giraffe could be considered a conspecific ecotype of the Nubian giraffe, however these results are not definitive. Following Linnaeus's description of the Nubian giraffe, several specimens were described by other naturalists and zoologists since the end of the 18th century under different scientific names, which are all considered synonyms of Giraffa camelopardalis camelopardalis today: G. c. aethiopicus by Ogilby, 1836 G. c. senaariensis by Trouessart, 1898 G. c. typica by Bryden, 1899 G. c. rothschildi by Lydekker, 1903 G. c. congoensis by Lydekker, 1903 The Nubian giraffe has defined chestnut-colored spots surrounded by white lines, while undersides lack spotting.
The median lump is developed in the male giraffe. Giraffes occurred everywhere in Africa; the giraffe lives in woodlands. The Nubian giraffe lives in eastern South Sudan and southwestern Ethiopia, isolated pockets in Uganda and Kenya, it was estimated in 2010. However, as of 2016, it was estimated that 2,150 Nubian giraffes live in the wild, 1,500 of those of the Rothschild's ecotype; the Nubian giraffe is, due to the introduction of the Rothschild's giraffe into its subspecies, is one of the most common giraffe types present in captivity, in conjunction with the reticulated giraffe. However, the original phenotype is rare, as the Al Ain Zoo from the United Arab Emirates is the only known zoo outside of Africa to be breeding the endangered original phenotype; the Nubian giraffe is breeding in captivity in Giza Zoo from Egypt. Zarafa, the most famous of three Nubian giraffes gifted from Muhammad Ali of Egypt to European rulers in 1827 Media related to Nubian Giraffes at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Giraffa camelopardalis camelopardalis at Wikispecies