The Biafran pound was the currency of the breakaway Republic of Biafra between 1968 and 1970. The first notes denominated in 5 shillings and £1 were introduced on January 29, 1968. A series of coins was issued in 1969. In February 1969, a second family of notes was issued consisting of 5 shilling, 10 shilling, £1, £5 and £10 denominations. Despite not being recognised as currency by the rest of the world when they were issued, the banknotes were afterwards sold as curios and are now traded among banknote collectors at well above their original nominal value; the most common note is the 1968 and 1969 1 pound notes, with the 10 pound note and all coins being rare. Nigerian pound Nigerian naira Postage stamps and postal history of Biafra Banknotes of Biafra."Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-06-29. Retrieved 2006-01-13. CS1 maint: Archived copy as title CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown Coins with Nigerian naira Information from Biafraland. A detailed article on the banknotes of the Biafran pound pjsymes.com.au Coins from Biafra - Online Coin Club
The Manx pound is the currency of the Isle of Man, in parity with the pound sterling. The Manx pound is divided into 100 pence. Notes and coins, denominated in pounds and pence, are issued by the Isle of Man Government; the Isle of Man is in a one-sided de facto currency union with the United Kingdom: the Manx government has decided to make UK currency legal tender on the island, to back its own notes and coins with Bank of England notes. Manx government notes may, on demand, be exchanged at par for Bank of England notes of equivalent value at any office of the Isle of Man Bank. All notes and coins which are legal tender in any part of the United Kingdom are legal tender within the Isle of Man. Unlike Northern Irish and Scottish notes, the UK does not require the Isle of Man government to back the Manx notes and coins with Bank of England notes or securities. There is no restriction under UK law on the number of coins they may issue; the notes and coins are not underwritten by the UK government, there is no guarantee of convertibility beyond that given by the Manx authorities.
However, the requirement in the island's Currency Act 1992 for the Isle of Man Treasury to exchange Manx Pound banknotes on demand for Bank of England notes in practice restricts the issue of unbacked currency, the aggregate total of notes issued must be pre-approved by Tynwald. ISO 4217 does not include a separate currency code for the Manx pound, but where code distinct from GBP is desired, IMP is used. UK notes and coins are accepted in the Isle of Man, but Manx notes and coins are not accepted in the UK. To assist those travelling, the ATMs at the Sea Terminal, at Isle of Man Airport issue Bank of England notes only. A number of businesses accept euros; the first Manx coinage was issued in 1668 by John Murrey, a Douglas merchant, consisting of pennies equal in value to their English counterparts. These "Murrey Pennies" were made legal tender in 1679, when the Court of Tynwald outlawed the unofficial private coinage, circulating prior to and alongside John Murrey's pennies. Due to the difficulty of maintaining the supply of coins on the island, in 1692, the value of the Manx coinage was decreased, with English crowns circulating at 5 shillings 4 pence, half-crowns at 2 shillings 8 pence and guineas at 22 shillings.
At that time, Tynwald forbade the removal of money from the island, in an attempt to maintain supply. In 1696, a further devaluation occurred, with all English silver and gold coins valued at 14 Manx pence for every shilling. Between 1696 and 1840, Manx copper coins circulated alongside first English, British silver and gold coins at the rate of 14 pence to 1 shilling; as in England, there were 20 shillings to the pound. Thus, after 1696, £100 sterling was worth £116 13s 4d Manx. In 1708, the Isle of Man Government approached the Royal Mint, requested that coinage be issued for the island; the Master of the Mint, Sir Isaac Newton, refused. As a result, the first Government issue of coins on the island was in 1709; this coinage was made legal tender on 24 June 1710. In 1733 Tynwald prohibited the circulation of any "base" coinage other than that issued by the Government; because of the similarity between Manx and British coins, it was profitable to change shillings to Manx coinage and pass it off as British currency in Great Britain, making a profit of £2 for every £12 in Manx coinage so transferred.
This happened on such a scale that by 1830 the island was totally deprived of copper coinage. In an attempt to resolve this problem, a proposal was introduced to abandon the separate Manx coinage in favour of British coins; this was rejected by the House of Keys in 1834, but they were overruled by the British Government in 1839. An Act was passed declaring that "... the currency of Great Britain shall be and become, is hereby declared to be, the currency of the Isle of Man", this remains Manx law to this day. This change was resented: some islanders felt defrauded, there was serious rioting in Douglas and Peel; these were known as the "Copper Row" riots, were put down by the Manx militia. The Royal Mint issued a total of £1,000 in copper coins. Following an Act in 1840, these were valued at 12 pence to the shilling. All coins issued before 1839 were declared by this law to be no longer current, were recalled by the Board of Customs and exchanged by the Royal Mint at their original nominal value for the new coinage.
After 1839, no further Manx coins were issued, they became scarce and were replaced in general circulation on the island by the coinage of the United Kingdom. They did not cease to be legal coinage on Mann until decimalisation in 1971. Banknotes had been issued for the island since 1865. In 1971 the United Kingdom moved with the pound subdivided into 100 pence; the Isle of Man Government, having issued its own banknotes for ten years, took the opportunity to approach the Royal Mint and request its own versions of the decimal coins, which were introduced in 1971. The "Murrey Pennies" of 1668 were the first to depict the'triskeles' symbol and the Island motto "Quocunque Gesseris Stabit", both of which have continued to feature on Manx coinage until the present day. In 1709, pennies and halfpennies were introduced. More of these coins were issued in 1733; these issues of coins have the crest of the Stanley family, Lords of Mann, on the obverse, together
The Sudanese pound (Arabic: جنيه سوداني is the basic unit of the Sudanese currency. The pound consists of 100 piasters; the pound is issued by the Central Bank of Sudan. Its value is linked to gold and convertible into foreign currencies. There are no restrictions on money transfers to and from Sudan; the Sudanese pound is equivalent to $0.021. It has been pegged to the United States dollar since around 1984; the pound fell for the first time since 1997 after the United States imposed economic sanctions on Sudan. The Sudanese pound continued its decline to an unprecedented number, falling to 53 pounds against the dollar; this situation, which drained all economic measures, led to heavy losses in the external repercussions of the Sudan as a whole, in the light of the government cut, interrupted by some of the failed actions announced by the Central Bank of Sudan, a severe shortage of liquidity. The Sudanese pound fell against the US dollar after the Central Bank of Sudan announced the lifting of the cash reserve to counter inflation.
Since the Secession of South Sudan in 2011, Sudan has suffered from a scarcity of foreign exchange for the loss of three quarters of its oil resources and 80% of foreign exchange resources. The Sudanese government quoted the official price of the dollar from 6.09 pounds to 18.07 pounds in the budget of 2018. The first pound to circulate in Sudan was the Egyptian pound; the late 19th century rebels Muhammad ibn Abdalla and Abdallahi ibn Muhammad both issued coins which circulated alongside the Egyptian currency. When Anglo-Egyptian rule in Sudan ceased on January 1, 1956 and Sudan became an independent country, a distinct Sudanese currency was created, replacing the Egyptian pound at par; the Egyptian pound was subdivided into 100 qirush. The qirsh used to be subdivided into 40 para, but decimalisation following the 1886 Egyptian currency reform established a 1/10 qirsh, which came to be known as a millim. Due to this legacy, the post 1956 Sudanese pound was divided into 100 qirush, subdivided into 10 millims.
During 1958-1978 the pound was pegged to the U. S. dollar at a rate of $2.87156 per Sudanese pound. Thereafter, the pound underwent successive devaluations; the pound was replaced in 1992 by the dinar at a rate of 1 dinar. While the dinar circulated in northern Sudan, in Southern Sudan, prices were still negotiated in pounds, whilst in Rumbek and Yei, the Kenyan shilling was used and accepted more within the transport sectors as well as for hotels/accommodation. According to the Comprehensive Peace Agreement between the government of the Republic of the Sudan and the Sudan People's Liberation Movement, the Central Bank of Sudan shall adopt a program to issue a new currency as soon as is practical during the Interim Period; the design of the new currency shall reflect the cultural diversity of Sudan. Until a new currency has been issued with the approval of the Parties on the recommendations of the CBOS, the circulating currencies in Southern Sudan shall be recognised; the second pound began introduction on 9 or 10 January 2007, became the only legal tender as of July 1, 2007.
It replaced the dinar at a rate of 1 pound = 1000 pounds. The third edition of the Sudanese pound was established on 24 July 2011 following the secession of South Sudan from the Republic of Sudan. For a wider history surrounding currency in the region, see The History of British Currency in the Middle East. In 1885, the Mahdi issued 20 qirush and gold 100 qirush; these were followed by issues of the Khalifa in denominations of 10 para, 1, 2, 2½, 4, 5, 10 and 20 qirush. These coins were minted in silver in 1885. Over the following eleven years, severe debasement occurred, leading to billon silver-washed copper and copper coins being issued; the coinage ceased in 1897. During 1908-1914, a local coinage was issued in Darfur in western Sudan; these were issued under the authority of resembled contemporary Egyptian coins. In 1956, coins were introduced in denominations of 2, 5 and 10 millim, 2, 5 and 10 qirush; the millim denominations were struck in bronze, whilst the qirush denominations were in cupro-nickel.
The 2, 5 and 10 millim were scallop shaped, although a round 5 millim was introduced in 1971. The 1 and 2 millim were last struck in 1969, the last 5 millim in 1978. In 1983, brass 1, 2 and 5 qirush, a reduced size 10 qirush and a cupro-nickel 20 qirush were introduced. In 1987, aluminium-bronze 1, 5, 10, 20, 25 and 50 qirush and 1 pound were introduced, with the 25 and 50 qirush square and octagonal in shape, respectively. In 1989, stainless-steel 25 and 50 qirush and 1 pound were issued; this is the general pattern, in addition to these coins there are collector-oriented issues and various oddities. See popular coin catalogues for details. See Sudanese dinar. Coins in denominations of 1, 5, 10, 20 and 50 qirush were introduced alongside the circulating dinar coins; the Central Bank of Sudan states that the 5 qirush coins are yellow coloured and the 10 qirush is silver coloured. The 20 and 50 qirush coins are bi-metallic, with the 20 qirush yellow ringed with a silver coloured centre and the 50 qirush the opposite.
This is thought to be in development. In April 1957, the Sudan Currency Board introduced notes for 1, 5 and 10 pounds. Note production was taken over by the Bank of Sudan in 1961. 20-pound notes were introduced in 1981, followed by 50 pounds in 1984 and 100 pounds in 1988.. When introduced on 8 June 1992, the Sudanese dinar replaced the first Sudanese pound at a rate of 1:10. In 2005, the National Public Rad
The Jamaican pound was the official currency of Jamaica between 1840 and 1969. It circulated as a mixture of British currency and local issues and was always equal to the British pound; the Jamaican pound was used by the Cayman Islands and Turks and Caicos Islands. The history of currency in Jamaica should be considered in the wider picture of the currencies of the British West Indies. Jamaica was the only British West Indies territory to use special regional issues of the sterling copper coinage; the earliest money in Jamaica was Spanish copper coins called maravedíes. For nearly four hundred years Spanish dollars, known as pieces of eight were in widespread use on the world's trading routes, including the Caribbean Sea region. However, following the revolutionary wars in Latin America, the source of these silver trade coins dried up; the last Spanish dollar was minted at the Potosi mint in 1825. The United Kingdom had adopted the gold standard in 1821, so 1825 was an opportune time to introduce the British sterling coinage into all the British colonies.
An imperial order-in-council was passed in that year for the purposes of facilitating this aim by making sterling coinage legal tender in the colonies at the specified rate of $1 = 4s 4d. As the sterling silver coins were attached to a gold standard, this exchange rate did not realistically represent the value of the silver in the Spanish dollars compared to the value of the gold in the British gold sovereign; therefore the order-in-council had, in many colonies, the effect of driving sterling coinage out rather than encouraging its circulation. Remedial legislation had to be introduced in 1838 so as to change to the more realistic rate of $1 = 4s 2d. However, in Jamaica, British Honduras, in the Bahamas the official rating was set aside in favour of what was known as the'Maccaroni' tradition in which a British shilling, referred to as a'Maccaroni', was treated as one quarter of a dollar; the common link between these four territories was the Bank of Nova Scotia which brought in the'Maccaroni' tradition, resulting in the successful introduction of both sterling coinage and sterling accounts.
In 1834 silver coins of threepence and three halfpennies were introduced, valued at 1⁄2 real and 1⁄4 real. The three halfpenny came to be called "quartile" or "quatties". These, in particular, were used in church collections due to a feeling by the black population that copper coins were inappropriate for that purpose. Hence, they came to be called "Christian quatties". In 1839 an act was passed by Parliament declaring that as of December 31, 1840, only British coinage would be legal tender in Jamaica, demonetizing all of the Spanish coins, with the exception of the gold doubloon, valued at £3 4s. Coins in use were thus the farthing, penny, three halfpenny, sixpence, florin, half-crown, crown; the emancipation of the slaves in 1838 increased the need for coinage in Jamaica low denomination coins, but the blacks were still reluctant to use copper. The solution was to use cupronickel, adopted in 1869. Penny and halfpennies were minted for use in Jamaica, becoming the first Jamaican coins. Beginning in 1880, the farthing was minted in cupronickel.
In 1904, the Currency Notes Law was passed, “constituting a Board of Commissioners to issue notes called currency notes for the value of 10 shillings each,” although no such notes were issued at that time. This law was amended by Law 17 of 1918 which authorized “the issue of currency notes for such denominations as may be approved.” The Commissioners of Currency issued the first notes under these laws on 15 March 1920, in the denominations of 2 shillings 6 pence, 5 shillings, 10 shillings, with each note carrying the inscription that they were “Issued under the authority of Law 27 of 1904 & Law 17 of 1918.” Only these three smaller denominations were issued by the Board of Commissioners. In 1940, the government bank began producing £ £ 5 notes. In October 1960, the Bank of Jamaica was given the sole right to mint coins and produce banknotes in Jamaica, their notes were issued on May 1, 1961, in denominations of 5s, 10s, £1 and £5. On January 30, 1968, the Jamaican House of Representatives voted to decimalize the currency, introducing a new dollar worth 10s, divided into 100 cents.
At the time, coins of 1 cent, 5 cents, 10 cents, 20 cents and 25 cents were produced and banknotes of 50 cents, $1, $2, $10. These coins and banknotes went into circulation on September 8, 1969; the new Jamaican dollar differed from all the other dollars in the British West Indies in that it was a half-pound sterling.
The pound known as the lira, was the currency of Cyprus, including the Sovereign Base Areas in Akrotiri and Dhekelia, until 31 December 2007, when the Republic of Cyprus adopted the euro. However, the self-proclaimed Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus used and still uses on the official level the Turkish lira; the Cypriot pound was replaced by the euro as official currency of the Republic of Cyprus on 1 January 2008 at the irrevocable fixed exchange rate of CYP 0.585274 per EUR 1.00. The British introduced the pound sterling unit to Cyprus in 1879 at a rate of one pound to 180 Turkish piastres, it remained equal in value to the pound sterling until 1972, some twelve years after Cyprus gained independence from the United Kingdom. The Cyprus pound was divided into 20 shillings, in common with its United Kingdom counterpart. However, unlike the United Kingdom shilling, the Cyprus shilling was divided into 9 piastres, thus establishing a nomenclature link to earlier Ottoman currency; the piastre was itself divided into 40 para.
The para denomination was used on postage stamps. However, the 1⁄4-piastre coin was equal to 10 para and called δεκάρα in Greek and the 1⁄2-piastre coin was equal to 20 para and called εικοσάρα; the introduction of the British currency into Cyprus was controversial from its inception in 1879 as technically the island remained a province of the Ottoman Empire and the right to issue currency within the Ottoman Empire rested with the Ottoman Sultan. A question on the legality of introducing the pound in Cyprus was raised by the British Member of Parliament, Mr. Thomson Hankey in the United Kingdom parliament in 1879, but concerns were dismissed by the British government, they ceased to be an issue on the island following its full annexation by Britain in 1914. In 1955, a decision was made by the British colonial authorities to decimalise the Cypriot pound, in this they used the system proposed by William Brown, a member of the United Kingdom parliament, who suggested in 1855 that the pound sterling in the United Kingdom should be divided into one-thousand parts, each called a mil.
Although this system was never adopted in the United Kingdom, it was used in several British colonies, including Hong Kong from 1863 to 1866. This latter example may have been the impetus to use a pound-mil system in Cyprus as the Palestinian pound was for a brief period accepted as legal tender in Cyprus. Cyprus decimalized in 1955 with 1,000 mils to the pound. Colloquially, the 5-mil coin was known as a "piastre" and the 50-mil coin as a "shilling"; the subdivision was changed to 100 cents to the pound on 3 October 1983. At that time, the smallest coin still in circulation was that of 5 mils; this soon was abolished. Mil-denominated coins are no longer legal tender. Towards the end of the Cypriot pound era, some cashiers omitted the 1- and 2-cent coins from the change they gave. Owner-operated businesses rounded down the net amount to be paid to the nearest multiple of 5 cents; the Cypriot national currency was replaced by the euro on 1 January 2008. The currency entered the Exchange Rate Mechanism II on 2 May 2005 and it was limited within the band of CYP 0.585274 ±15% per euro.
A formal application to adopt the euro was submitted on 13 February 2007. On May 16, 2007, along with Malta, received the European Commission's approval for this and was confirmed by the European Parliament on 20 June 2007 and the EU leaders on 21 June 2007; the permanent exchange rate, EUR 1.00 = CYP 0.585274, was decided by the EU Finance Ministers on 10 July 2007. From 12 July 2007 to 5 December 2007, the exchange rate remained at 0.5842. Since 7 December 2007, the rate has been fixed at the irrevocable rate, € = £0.585274. In summer 2006, the Bank of Cyprus started including on its statements the indicative balance in euros; the Cyprus Telecommunications Authority followed suit with its bills two months later. A small number of shops showed indicative euro totals on their receipts. By late autumn 2006, the number of banks and shops offering indicative euro equivalents on their statements and pricing had increased significantly; the Cypriot pound was replaced by the euro as official currency of the Republic of Cyprus on 1 January 2008 at the irrevocable fixed exchange rate of CYP 0.585274 per €1.
However, pound banknotes and coins continued to have legal tender status and were accepted for cash payments until 31 January 2008. Cypriot pounds were convertible free of charge at Cypriot credit institutions until 30 June 2008. CYP coins were convertible at the Central Bank of Cyprus until 31 December 2009 and CYP banknotes were convertible until 31 December 2017. For a wider history surrounding currency in the region, see The History of British Currency in the Middle East. In 1879, copper coins were introduced in denominations of 1⁄4, 1⁄2, 1 piastre; the Greek-Cypriots called the first of these coins the δεκάρα, referring to its equivalence to 10 para. The Greek name for the 1⁄2-piastre coin was εικοσάρα; these coins were followed, in 1901, by silver 3, 4 1⁄2, 9 and 18 piastres, the last two being equal to 1 and 2 shillings. The 3 piastres was only issued that year; the 1⁄4 piastre was last struck in 1926. In 1934, scalloped-shaped 1⁄2 and 1 piastre coins were introduced struck in cupro-nickel, changing to bronze in 1942.
In 1947, cupro-nickel 1 and 2 shil
The Lebanese pound is the currency of Lebanon. It used to be divided into 100 piastres but high inflation in the Lebanese Civil War has eliminated the subdivisions; the plural form of lira, as used on the currency, is either lirat or the same, whilst there were four forms for qirsh: the dual qirshan, the plural qirush used with numbers 3–10, the accusative singular qirsha used with 11–99, or the genitive singular qirshi used with multiples of 100. In both cases, the number determines. Before the Second World War, the Arabic spelling of the subdivision was غرش. All of Lebanon's coins and banknotes are bilingual in French. Before World War I, the Ottoman lira was used. In 1918, after the fall of the Ottoman Empire, the currency became the Egyptian pound. Upon gaining control of Syria and Lebanon, the French replaced the Egyptian pound with a new currency for Syria and Lebanon, the Syrian pound, linked to the French franc at a value of 1 pound = 20 francs. Lebanon issued its own coins from 1924 and banknotes from 1925.
In 1939, the Lebanese currency was separated from that of Syria, though it was still linked to the French franc and remained interchangeable with Syrian money. In 1941, following France's defeat by Nazi Germany, the currency was linked instead to the British pound sterling at a rate of 8.83 Lebanese pounds = 1 pound sterling. A link to the French franc was restored after the war but was abandoned in 1949. Before the Lebanese Civil War, 1 U. S. dollar was worth 3 pounds. During the civil war the value decreased until 1992, when one dollar was worth over 2500 pounds. Subsequently the value increased again, since December 1997 the rate of the pound has been fixed at 1507.5 pounds per US$. Lebanon's first coins were issued in 1924 in denominations of 2 and 5 girush with the French denominations given in "piastres syriennes". Issues did not include the word "syriennes" and were in denominations of 1⁄2, 1, 2, 2 1⁄2, 5, 10, 25 and 50 girsha. During World War II, rather crude 1⁄2, 1 and 2 1⁄2 girsh coins were issued.
After the war, the Arabic spelling was changed from girsh to qirsh. Coins were issued in the period 1952 to 1986 in denominations of 1, 2 1⁄2, 5, 10, 25 and 50 qirsh and 1 lira. No coins were issued between 1994, when the current series of coins was introduced. Coins in current use are: Lebanon's first banknotes were issued by the Banque du Syrie et Grand-Liban in 1925. Denominations ran from 25 girsha through to 100 pounds. In 1939, the bank's name was changed to the Bank of Lebanon; the first 250-pound notes appeared that year. Between 1942 and 1950, the government issued "small change" paper money in denominations of 5, 10, 25 and 50 girsh or qirsh. After 1945, the Bank of Syria and Lebanon continued to issue paper money for Lebanon but the notes were denominated in "Lebanese pounds" to distinguish them from Syrian notes. Notes for 1, 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 pounds were issued; the Banque du Liban was established by the Code of Money and Credit on 1 April 1964. On 1 August 1963 decree No. 13.513 of the “Law of References: Banque Du Liban 23 Money and Credit” granted the Bank of Lebanon the sole right to issue notes in denominations of 1, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, 250 pounds, expressed in Arabic on the front, French on the back.
Higher denominations were issued in the 1980s and 1990s as inflation drastically reduced the currency's value. Banknotes in the current use are: All current notes feature an Arabic side with the value in Arabic script numerals of large size; the other side is in French with the serial number in both Arabic and Latin script and in bar code below the latter one. Economy of Lebanon Banque du Liban Historical and current banknotes of Lebanon
The livre tournois, French for the "Tours pound", was: one of numerous currencies used in France in the Middle Ages. The denier tournois coin was minted by the abbey of Saint Martin in the Touraine region of France. Soon after Philip II of France seized the counties of Anjou and Touraine in 1203 and standardized the use of the livre tournois there, the livre tournois began to supersede the livre parisis, up to that point the official currency of the Capetian dynasty; the livre tournois was, in common with the original livre of Charlemagne, divided into 20 sols, each of, divided into 12 deniers. Between 1360 and 1641, coins worth one livre tournois were minted, known as francs. Other francs were minted under Henri III of France and Henri IV of France; the use of the name "franc" became a synonym for livre tournois in accounting. The first French paper money, issued between 1701 and 1720, was denominated in livres tournois; this was the last time the name was used as notes and coins were denominated in livres, the livre parisis having been abolished in 1667.
With many forms of domestic and international money circulating throughout Europe in the late Middle Ages and the early modern period, the use of an accounting currency became a financial necessity. In the world of international banking of the 13th century, it was the florin and ducat that were used. In France, the livre tournois and the currency system based on it became a standard monetary unit of accounting and continued to be used when the "livre tournois" ceased to exist as an actual coin. For example, the Louisiana Purchase treaty of 1803 specified the relative ratios of the franc and livre tournois; the official use of the livre tournois accounting unit in all contracts in France was legislated in 1549, but it had been one of the standard units of accounting in France since the 13th century. In 1577 the livre tournois accounting unit was abolished and accountants switched to the écu, at that time the major French gold coin in actual circulation, but in 1602 the livre tournois accounting unit was brought back..
Since coins in Europe in the Middle Ages and the Early modern period did not have any indication of their value, their official value was determined by royal edicts. In cases of financial need, French kings could use the official value for currency devaluation; this could be done in two ways: the amount of precious metal in a newly minted French coin could be reduced while maintaining the old value in livres tournois or the official value of a domestic or foreign coin in circulation could be increased. By reversing these techniques, currencies could be reinforced. For example: the worth of an écu d'or, a French gold coin, was changed from 60 sols to 57 sols in 1573. to curb increasing use of the Spanish real, its official worth was decreased to 4 sols 2 deniers in the 1570s. Royal finance officers faced many difficulties. In addition to currency speculation and the intentional shaving of precious metal from coins, they had the difficult problem of setting values for gold, silver and billon coins, responding to the large influx of foreign coin and the appearance of inferior foreign coins of intentionally similar design.
For more on these issues, see Monetary policy and Gresham's Law. A glyph for the livre tournois was added to Unicode 5.2, in the Currency Symbols block at code point U+20B6: ₶. French livre Livre parisis French franc Louis Luxembourgish livre Écu Roman currency