Waterloo East railway station
Waterloo East railway station known as London Waterloo East, is a railway station in central London on the line from Charing Cross through London Bridge towards Kent, in the south-east of England. It is to the east of London Waterloo railway station and close to Southwark tube station; the station opened in 1869 as Waterloo Junction, to provide a connection between the London and South Western Railway at Waterloo, the South Eastern Railway at Charing Cross. A dedicated line was built between Waterloo and Waterloo East, converted to a footpath. Trains ran to Cannon Street, but after competition from the London Underground, these were withdrawn as a wartime measure in 1916; the station continued to be connected to Waterloo mainline via a footbridge. Waterloo East was given its current name in 1977, remains an important interchange in London, it is part of the London station group. The station is on the South Eastern main line 61 chains down the line from Charing Cross, on the other side of the River Thames across from Hungerford Bridge.
Although Waterloo East is a through-station, it is classed for ticketing purposes as a central London terminus. Services through the station are operated by Southeastern and it is situated within fare zone 1; the main access is via an elevated walkway across Waterloo Road, which connects it to the larger Waterloo station. The eastern ends of the platforms provide pedestrian connection to Southwark station, served by London Underground's Jubilee line. Connections with the Underground's Bakerloo and Waterloo & City lines are available at Waterloo Underground station; the four platforms at Waterloo East are lettered rather than numbered to ensure that staff who work at both Waterloo East and the adjoining Waterloo station, managed and branded separately and features numbered platforms, do not confuse the platforms at the two stations. Platforms for the Thameslink platforms at St Pancras International and their predecessors at King's Cross Thameslink use this numbering convention, as well as at New Cross.
London Buses routes 1, 4, 26, 59, 68, 76, 77, 139, 168, 171, 172, 176, 188, 211, 243, 341, 381, 507, 521, RV1 and X68 and night routes N1, N68, N76, N171, N343 and N381 serve the station. The station was built by the South Eastern Railway after the line to Charing Cross opened in 1864; the company were under pressure to connect with London and South Western Railway services, as it would allow the latter to connect to the City of London via Cannon Street. The LSWR were not interested in making Charing Cross a joint station, but were amenable to providing a connection with the SER next to Waterloo. In 1867, the two companies agreed to build a joint connection so that passengers could change from LSWR to SER services in order to reach the City of London via Cannon Street. Another station, Blackfriars Road was built to the east, but it was closed in favour of a connecting station with the LSWR. Construction of a single-line, 5-chain connection begun in May 1868, the new connection station opened on 1 January 1869 at a total cost of £14,290.
Blackfriars Road station closed on the same date. Trains began running from Waterloo Junction to Charing Cross and Cannon Street around every five minutes. Queen Victoria used the connection for royal trains travelling from Windsor Castle to Dover and Continental Europe; the original station was built with two platforms, which were 530 feet and 440 feet long, both 18 feet wide. The waiting room and ticket offices were housed in arches underneath the line; the bridge connection from the main Waterloo station included a movable platform, which allowed passengers to cross directly into Waterloo East when trains were not running. It was mounted on a four-wheel truck which could be moved out of the way if a train needed to come through; the connection ran until January 1893. When the SER line opened between Charing Cross and Cannon Street in 1864, it was frequented by prostitutes, who discovered the journey between the two stations was sufficiently long to service clients while paying minimum rent.
After Waterloo East opened, the frequent stopping of trains there made this impractical. The connection from Waterloo Junction through to Cannon Street did not prove a success because of competition from the Metropolitan District Railway and the spread of the Underground. Passengers were unaware of the existence of the station, as it was not obvious to find it from the main concourse in Waterloo. Following the opening of the Waterloo and City line on 8 August 1898, connections to Cannon Street were reduced. Cross train services from Waterloo Junction to Cannon Street ended on 31 December 1916, as a wartime economy measure; the dedicated line from Waterloo through to Waterloo Junction was demolished in 1911 when the main-line station underwent an extensive reconstruction. The bridge which carried the line over Waterloo Road subsequently accommodated the pedestrian walkway between the two stations; the Southern Railway renamed the station Waterloo on 7 July 1935 and it took its present name on 2 May 1977.
The platforms were designated A – D at the same time. The pedestrian access from Waterloo mainline was replaced by the current high level covered walkway in 1992; the site of the original rail link, out of use since 1916 was demolished. Waterloo East was closed for maintenance on 24 July 1993 so a link with Southwark tube station under construction, could be built, it re-opened on 16 August. Southwark tube station opened on 20 November 1999 with the extension of the Jubilee line to Stratford, and
Dorset is a county in South West England on the English Channel coast. The ceremonial county comprises the unitary authority areas of Bournemouth and Poole and Dorset. Covering an area of 2,653 square kilometres, Dorset borders Devon to the west, Somerset to the north-west, Wiltshire to the north-east, Hampshire to the east; the county town is Dorchester, in the south. After the reorganisation of local government in 1974 the county's border was extended eastward to incorporate the Hampshire towns of Bournemouth and Christchurch. Around half of the population lives in the South East Dorset conurbation, while the rest of the county is rural with a low population density; the county has a long history of human settlement stretching back to the Neolithic era. The Romans conquered Dorset's indigenous Celtic tribe, during the early Middle Ages, the Saxons settled the area and made Dorset a shire in the 7th century; the first recorded Viking raid on the British Isles occurred in Dorset during the eighth century, the Black Death entered England at Melcombe Regis in 1348.
Dorset has seen much civil unrest: in the English Civil War, an uprising of vigilantes was crushed by Oliver Cromwell's forces in a pitched battle near Shaftesbury. During the Second World War, Dorset was involved in the preparations for the invasion of Normandy, the large harbours of Portland and Poole were two of the main embarkation points; the former was the sailing venue in the 2012 Summer Olympics, both have clubs or hire venues for sailing, Cornish pilot gig rowing, sea kayaking and powerboating. Dorset has a varied landscape featuring broad elevated chalk downs, steep limestone ridges and low-lying clay valleys. Over half the county is designated as an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. Three-quarters of its coastline is part of the Jurassic Coast Natural World Heritage Site due to its geological and palaeontologic significance, it features notable landforms such as Lulworth Cove, the Isle of Portland, Chesil Beach and Durdle Door. Agriculture was traditionally the major industry of Dorset but is now in decline and tourism has become important to the economy.
There are no motorways in Dorset but a network of A roads cross the county and two railway main lines connect to London. Dorset has ports at Poole and Portland, an international airport; the county has a variety of museums and festivals, is host to the Great Dorset Steam Fair, one of the biggest events of its kind in Europe. It is the birthplace of Thomas Hardy, who used the county as the principal setting of his novels, William Barnes, whose poetry celebrates the ancient Dorset dialect. Dorset derives its name from the county town of Dorchester; the Romans established the settlement in the 1st century and named it Durnovaria, a Latinised version of a Common Brittonic word meaning "place with fist-sized pebbles". The Saxons named the town Dornwaraceaster and Dornsæte came into use as the name for the inhabitants of the area from "Dorn"—a reduced form of Dornwaraceaster—and the Old English word "sæte" meaning people, it is first mentioned in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in AD 845 and in the 10th century the county's archaic name, "Dorseteschyre", was first recorded.
The first human visitors to Dorset were Mesolithic hunters, from around 8000 BC. The first permanent Neolithic settlers appeared around 3000 BC and were responsible for the creation of the Dorset Cursus, a 10.5-kilometre monument for ritual or ceremonial purposes. From 2800 BC onwards Bronze Age farmers cleared Dorset's woodlands for agricultural use and Dorset's high chalk hills provided a location for numerous round barrows. During the Iron Age, the British tribe known as the Durotriges established a series of hill forts across the county—most notably Maiden Castle, one of the largest in Europe; the Romans arrived in Dorset during their conquest of Britain in AD 43. Maiden Castle was captured by a Roman legion under the command of Vespasian, the Roman settlement of Durnovaria was established nearby. Bokerley Dyke, a large defensive ditch built by the county's post-Roman inhabitants near the border with modern-day Hampshire, delayed the advance of the Saxons into Dorset for 150 years. However, by the end of the 7th century Dorset had fallen under Saxon control and been incorporated into the Kingdom of Wessex.
The Saxons established a diocese at Sherborne and Dorset was made a shire—an administrative district of Wessex and predecessor to the English county system—with borders that have changed little since. In 789 the first recorded Viking attack on the British Isles took place in Dorset on the Portland coast, they continued to raid into the county for the next two centuries. After the Norman Conquest in 1066, feudal rule was established in Dorset and the bulk of the land was divided between the Crown and ecclesiastical institutions; the Normans consolidated their control over the area by constructing castles at Corfe and Dorchester in the early part of the 12th century. Over the next 200 years Dorset's population grew and additional land was enclosed for farming to provide the extra food required; the wool trade, the quarrying of Purbeck Marble and the busy ports of Weymouth, Melcombe Regis, Lyme Regis and Bridport brought prosperity to the county. However, Dorset was devastated by the bubonic plague in 1348 which arrived in Melcombe Regis on a ship from Gascony.
The disease, more known as the Black Death, created an epidemic that spread a
British Rail Class 455
The British Rail Class 455 is an electric multiple-unit passenger train built by BREL York in the early to mid 1980s. They are operated on suburban services in South East England by Southern; the Class 455 was to be classified as the 510 class, at which point they were planned as a 750 V DC version of the Class 317. However, as the chopper control system at the time was not considered robust enough for the electrically rougher third rail Southern Region, they were fitted with second-hand camshaft control systems and thus classified as the 455 class. A total of 505 carriages were built by British Rail Engineering Limited's Holgate Road carriage works and together with 43 existing trailers from Class 508s, formed 137 four-car sets; the 455s allowed the Class 405 and Class 415 to be withdrawn, as well as allowing the Class 508s to be transferred to the Merseyside network for which they were intended. They allowed other stock to be cascaded to the North London and Oxted lines. There were three batches of Class 455s, all consisting of four cars: driving carriages at each end, an intermediate trailer vehicle and an intermediate motorised vehicle, all built to the standard class 3+2 seating arrangement with 316 seats.
Technically, they are formed DTSO+MSO+TSO+DTSO. They have the same bodyshell as the Class 317 and Class 318, but as they were designed for inner suburban services they do not feature first class seating, air conditioning or toilet facilities and are restricted to 75 mph. Like the Class 317/318, as well as the diesel Class 150, they are based on the British Rail Mark 3, with a steel construction, unlike the earlier PEP based Class 313, Class 314, Class 315, Class 507 and Class 508, which had an aluminium alloy body; the Class 455/8s were built between 1982 and 1984. These include all 28 allocated to South Western Railway; the Class 455/7s were built in 1984/85. There are all allocated to South Western Railway at Wimbledon depot, they differ from the 455/8s in having a revised front end, used on the Class 317/2 and Class 318. The 455/7s are distinguished from 455/8s as each TSO car is taken from a Class 508 and has a noticeably different profile; the Class 508s transferred to Merseyrail were four-carriage trains but were reduced to three cars when transferred.
The Class 455/9s were built in 1985. These 20 units are all allocated to South Western Railway at Wimbledon depot; these are similar to the 455/7s. 455913's MSO 67301 was a Class 210 driving vehicle, with the one good end of damaged vehicle 62838 mated with the former cab end. The rest of 62838 was scrapped. Deliveries commenced in 1982 to Strawberry Hill. On 16 November 1982, 455805 was unveiled to the press at Waterloo station; the first entered service on 28 March 1983. All were allocated to Wimbledon depot working services on the Central and South Western divisions; the Central Division 455/8s were transferred to Selhurst in 1986 after modifications to the depot were completed. All were delivered in British Rail blue and white livery, before being repainted in Network SouthEast white and red livery from 1986. In May 1991, 455743 was renumbered 455750 and renamed Wimbledon Traincare depot in recognition of the depot obtaining BS5750 quality services accreditation. In April 1994 in the lead up to the privatisation of British Rail, 455801-455846 were allocated to the Network SouthCentral shadow franchise and sold to Eversholt.
The remainder were sold to Porterbrook. In February 1996, all South Western division 455s were transferred to South West Trains. From September 1996, SWT began to modify the Network SouthEast livery with a Stagecoach orange brand added. In November 2004, SWT took delivery of the first unit refurbished by Ashford; the work involved the replacement of the seats with high back Grammar seats as fitted to the Class 450 in 2+2 configuration, the doorways have modified so that the sliding doors can open further, a predominantly red livery being adopted. The last was completed in March 2008. In April 2013 it was announced that the SWT units would be fitted with new traction equipment provided by Vossloh Kiepe; as part of the re-powering of the fleet, the air operated camshaft and electrical resistance grids will be removed, as well as the EE507 traction motors. The new equipment consists of DC to AC inverters of the Insulated-gate bipolar transistor type; this is needed as the replacement traction motors are AC rather than DC.
Fitting new traction equipment both improves Miles per Breakdown values and overall reduces operating and maintenance costs. As the trains will therefore be in the depot less, it will allow South West Trains to acquire additional rolling stock without the need to build a new depot. A manufacturing defect in the new traction equipment has caused three failures in service and five under test. Two of the failures in service involved unit 5726, the other involved unit 5901. In the most serious incident, on 7 July 2017, described as "quite sizeable" by the Rail Accident Investigation Branch, were scattered across platforms and an adjacent car park at Guildford station. All units passed to South Western Railway with the South Western franchise change in August 2017. Despite recent upgrades to the units, South Western Railway will replace the fleet wit
British Rail Class 220
The Class 220 Voyager is a class of diesel-electric high-speed multiple-unit trains built in Belgium by Bombardier Transportation in 2000 and 2001. They were introduced in 2001 to replace the 20-year-old InterCity 125 and 30-year-old Class 47-hauled Mark 2 fleets operating on the Cross Country Route for Virgin CrossCountry and since 2007 by CrossCountry. All coaches are equipped with a Cummins QSK19 diesel engine of 750 hp at 1800rpm; these power a generator which supplies current to motors driving two axles per coach, with one axle per bogie powered. Voyagers have rheostatic brakes, they are fitted with Dellner couplers, like the Class 222, operated by East Midlands Trains and the Class 390 Pendolino electric trains used by Virgin West Coast meaning they can be coupled in rescue/recovery mode in the event of a failure. 220s and 221s can be assisted by Dellner fitted Class 57s in the event of a failure. By use of adaptor couplings a failed 220 or 221 can be assisted by any air braked locomotive such as a Class 37, 47 or 66 or an HST.
The units can work in multiple with Class 221 units but not Class 222 units as the electrical connections of the Class 222 units are incompatible with the Class 220. The Class 220s and related Class 222s have B5005 bogies, which are distinctive as they are of inside-frame design and so the axles are supported by bearings behind the wheels, meaning the outside face of the wheel is visible; the related Class 221 Super Voyager has outside-frame bogies and hence a more conventional appearance. The Class 220s operate in four-coach sets with a carriage mass of between 45 and 48 tonnes and a total train weight of 185.6 tonnes, a top speed of 125 mph and a maximum range of 1,350 miles between each refuelling. Their route availability is good being RA 2 - in part due to the lightweight bogie design. Class 220 units do not have automatic sanding equipment, instead have "one-shot" sanders which activate when all of the following conditions are met: The emergency stop button has been pressed; as it was necessary to take the train out of service for refill following the deployment of sand, Bombardier fitted a second sand bottle, allowing two uses before the train would need to be withdrawn from service.
The CrossCountry fleet was modified between February and June 2011. All Voyagers are maintained at the dedicated Central Rivers TMD near Burton-on-Trent. Units have sometimes been stopped by salt water, when storm-driven waves broke over the train at Dawlish in south Devon and inundated the resistor banks, causing the control software to shut down; this problem was fixed by an upgrade to the control software. There were a number of exhaust fires on the Voyager class during 2005–2006 due to incorrect fitting of equipment during overhauls. Fires occurred on 19 January 2006 at Congleton. On 14 March 2008, 220 012, forming a service to Derby, had a roof fire at Banbury; this fire was caused by a bird getting caught under one of the hot brake resistors on the roof of the train. Damage to the train was not serious and it was repaired and returned to service. Class 220s operate in four-coach sets; these trains, unlike the older trains they replaced, feature electronic information displays on the exterior walls showing the train number, the departure time, the coach, the train's destination, the next station.
This is a feature of the Class 221 and Class 222 trains. They are air-conditioned throughout, with powered doors; the coaches are fitted with power sockets for mobile phone charging. Toilet facilities for disabled people and storage facilities for bicycles are provided, they provide 26 seats in 2+1 formation in first class and 174 seats in 2+2 formation in standard class. The formation of a four-car Class 220 is as follows: 604## - Coach A - 26 seats - First Class with disabled area, train manager office, first class catering area and driving cab, toilet. 602## - Coach C - 66 seats - Standard Class. Toilet. 607## - Coach D - 66 seats - Standard Class with large luggage area and reservable space for three bikes. No toilet. 603## - Coach F - 42 seats - Standard Class with disabled area, catering base and driving cab. Toilet. There is no coach B on the four car class 220, it exists on the 5-car class 221 and is a coach which holds no reservations; this aids short-term fleet changes, for example if a class 220 is running in a diagram that has a class 221 the loss of a coach will not affect the reservation system, as they will all still be allocated.
CrossCountry has finished updating the interior layout of all 221 sets. Research had shown that the shop was not making as good a turnover as hoped because people prefer not to leave their seats to get refreshments. In Virgin Trains' unsuccessful franchise bid it cited removal of the shop from 220s and 221s as a way of trying to improve seating capacity; the interior renovation involved the removal of the shop from coach D and the conversion of the stowage area in coach F to a catering storage area where there is now a fridge, food storage and a space for an on-board trolley to be stored. Bicycle storage has been moved to coach D, it can now store three bicycles instead of four. All units are owned by Beacon Rail, after they were purchased from Voyager Rail
Network Rail is the owner and infrastructure manager of most of the railway network in Great Britain. Network Rail is an arm's length public body of the Department for Transport with no shareholders, which reinvests its income in the railways. Network Rail's main customers are the private train operating companies, responsible for passenger transport, freight operating companies, who provide train services on the infrastructure that the company owns and maintains. Since 1 September 2014, Network Rail has been classified as a "public sector body". To cope with rising passenger numbers, Network Rail is undertaking a £38 billion programme of upgrades to the network, including Crossrail, electrification of lines, upgrading Thameslink and a new high-speed line. Britain's railway system was built by private companies, but it was nationalised by the Transport Act 1947 and run by British Railways until re-privatisation, begun in 1994 and completed in 1997. Infrastructure and freight services were separated at that time.
Between 1994 and 2002 the infrastructure was operated by Railtrack. The Hatfield train crash on 17 October 2000 was a defining moment in the collapse of Railtrack; the immediate major repairs undertaken across the whole British railway network were estimated to have cost in the order of £580 million and Railtrack had no idea how many more'Hatfields' were waiting to happen because it had lost considerable in-house engineering skill following the sale or closure of many of the engineering and maintenance functions of British Rail to external companies. The costs of modernising the West Coast Main Line were spiralling. In 2001, Railtrack announced that, despite making a pre-tax profit before exceptional expenses of £199m, the £733m of costs and compensation paid out over the Hatfield crash had plunged Railtrack from profit into a loss of £534m, it approached the government for funding, which it used to pay a £137m dividend to its shareholders in May 2001. Network Rail Ltd took over control by buying Railtrack plc, in "railway administration", from Railtrack Group plc for £500 million.
The purchase was completed on 3 October 2002. The former company had thus never ceased to exist but continued under another name: for this reason Network Rail Infrastructure Ltd was the defendant in prosecutions in respect of events which had occurred in the days of Railtrack. Following an initial period in which Network Rail established itself and demonstrated its competence in addressing the principal challenges of improving asset condition, reducing unit costs and tackling delay, the Government's Rail Review in 2004 said that Network Rail should be given responsibility for whole-industry performance reporting, timetable development, specification of small and medium network enhancements, the delivery of route-specific utilisation strategies; some of these are functions which Network Rail had. The SRA was abolished in November 2006; the company moved its headquarters to Kings Place, 90 York Way, from 40 Melton Street, Euston, in August 2008. In October 2008, Sir Ian McAllister announced that he would not stand for re-election as chairman of Network Rail.
He had held the position for six years. He noted that as Network Rail moved to a "new phase in its development" it was appropriate for a new chairman to lead it there. Many track safety initiatives have been introduced in the time Network Rail has been responsible for this area; the latest, announced in December 2008, known as "All Orange", states that all track personnel must not only wear orange hi-vis waistcoats or jackets, but must wear orange hi-vis trousers at all times when working on or near the track. This ruling came into force in January 2009 for maintenance and property workers and in April 2009 for infrastructure and investment sites. In 2009, allegations appeared in the media from the Transport Salaried Staffs' Association concerning treatment of Network Rail employees. Former chief executive Iain Coucher was accused of financial impropriety involving unspecified payments to his business partner Victoria Pender during his tenure at Network Rail. An internal investigation held by Network Rail in 2010, vetted by its auditors PricewaterhouseCoopers, uncovered no evidence of wrongdoing.
An independent enquiry headed by Anthony White QC in 2011 further examined the claims, but exonerated Coucher. Critical commentary appeared in the media concerning the knighthood awarded to John Armitt in the 2012 New Year Honours for services to engineering and construction. Armitt was Chief Executive of Network Rail at the time of the 2007 Grayrigg derailment and the family of a victim of the accident criticised the award, which coincidentally was conferred on the same day that Network Rail were prosecuted for the accident. In 2011 the company began the process of reorganising its operational structure into nine semi-autonomous regional entities, each with their own managing director; the reorganisation has been interpreted as a move back towards vertical integration of track and train operations. In 2016 Network Rail failed to check whether the Flying Scotsman could fit through tunnels along the Borders Route resulting in the ca
Clapham Junction railway station
Clapham Junction railway station is a major railway station and transport hub near St John's Hill in south-west Battersea in the London Borough of Wandsworth. It is 2 miles 57 chains from 3 miles 74 chains measured from London Waterloo. Despite its name, Clapham Junction is not located in Clapham, a district situated 1 mile to the south-east. Routes from London's south and south-west termini and Waterloo, funnel through the station, making it the busiest in Europe by number of trains using it: between 100 and 180 per hour except for the five hours after midnight; the station is the busiest UK station for interchanges between services. Before the railway came, the area was specialised in growing lavender; the coach road from London to Guildford ran south of the future station site, past The Falcon public house at the crossroads in the valley between St. John's Hill and Lavender Hill. On 21 May 1838 the London and Southampton Railway became the London and South Western Railway, opened its line from Nine Elms as far as Woking.
That was the first railway through the area but it had no station at the present site. The second line from Nine Elms to Richmond, opened on 27 July 1846. Nine Elms was replaced in 1848 as the terminus by Waterloo Bridge station, now Waterloo; the line to Victoria opened by 1860. Clapham Junction opened on 2 March 1863, a joint venture of the L&SWR, the London and South Coast Railway and the West London Extension Railway as an interchange station for their lines; when the station was built, much of Battersea was the site of heavy industry while Clapham, a mile south-east of this point, was fashionable. The railway companies, to attract a middle- and upper-class clientele, seized the unindustrial parish calculating that being upon the slopes of Clapham's plateau would only re-inforce this distinction, leading to a long-lasting misunderstanding that the station is in Clapham; the railway companies were not alone in eschewing the name of Battersea. Additional station buildings were erected in 1874 and 1876.
Whereas the station brought wealthy streets to Battersea its adjoining manual railway works and the large Battersea Power Station brought slums, the population of which rose from 6,000 in 1840 to 168,000 by 1910. Battersea's slums unfit for human habitation were replaced with council and charitable housing between 1918 and 1975. A £39.5 million planning application from Metro Shopping Fund was withdrawn before governmental planning committee consideration on 20 May 2009. A'Heathrow Airtrack' to reduce the 95-minute journey by tube and Gatwick Express to Gatwick and unite the Great Western Main Line with Heathrow and the South Western Main Line was cancelled in 2011 following improvements to the 2005-built Heathrow Connect track from Hayes and Harlington and practical impediments, such as pressure for continued high-frequency services on the three deemed-'entrenched' semi-fast and slow services between Clapham Junction and Staines. Overground, the change would have been at Clapham Junction.
On the morning of 12 December 1988 two collisions involving three commuter trains occurred south-west of the station. Thirty-five people died and more than 100 were injured. On the morning of 16 December 1991, a bomb ripped through tracks on one of the station's platforms, causing major disruption to the rail network; the Provisional Irish Republican Army claimed responsibility. The station is named Clapham Junction; the name is not given to any rail junction near the station which, without end-on intercompany junctions, are: Falcon Junction at the south end of the station, where the West London Line joins the Brighton Slow Lines Ludgate Junction at the eastern end of the Windsor Line platforms to the WLL Latchmere SW Junction connecting the WLL to the Windsor lines at Ludgate Junction. Latchmere Main Junction connecting the WLL to the Brighton Line at Falcon Junction. West London Extension Junction and Junction for Waterloo, relaid for Eurostar empty-stock moves from the Windsor Lines to the WLL.
Pouparts Junction where the low-level and high-level approaches to Victoria split. Each day about 2,000 trains, over half of them stopping, pass through the station, more than through any other station in Europe. At peak times 180 trains per hour pass through, it is not the busiest station by number of passengers. Interchanges make some 40% of the activity and on that basis too it is the busiest station in the UK. In 2011 the station had three entrances, all with staffed ticket offices, though only the south-east entrance is open 24 hours a day; the most used of the three, this leads from St John's Hill via a small indoor shopping centre into a subway some 15 ft wide, that connects to the eastern ends of all platforms. The north entrance, which has restricted opening hours, leads from Grant Road to the same subway; the subway is crowded during rush hours, with the ticket barriers at the ends being pinch points. The south-west entrance known as the Brighton Yard entrance, as the buildings still bear signage for the Londo
South West England
South West England is one of nine official regions of England. It is the largest in area, covering 9,200 square miles, consists of the counties of Gloucestershire, Wiltshire, Dorset and Cornwall, as well as the Isles of Scilly. Five million people live in South West England; the region includes much of the ancient kingdom of Wessex. The largest city is Bristol. Other major urban centres include Plymouth, Gloucester, Exeter, Bath and the South East Dorset conurbation which includes Bournemouth and Christchurch. There are eight cities: Salisbury, Wells, Gloucester, Exeter and Truro, it includes two entire national parks and Exmoor. The northern part of Gloucestershire, near Chipping Campden, is as close to the Scottish border as it is to the tip of Cornwall; the region has by far the longest coastline of any English region. The region is at the first level of NUTS for Eurostat purposes. Key data and facts about the region are produced by the South West Observatory. Following the abolition of the South West Regional Assembly and Government Office, local government co-ordination across the region is now undertaken by South West Councils.
The region is known for its rich folklore, including the legend of King Arthur and Glastonbury Tor, as well as its traditions and customs. Cornwall has its own language and some regard it as a Celtic nation; the South West is known for Cheddar cheese. It is home to the Eden Project, Aardman Animations, the Glastonbury Festival, the Bristol International Balloon Fiesta, trip hop music and Cornwall's surfing beaches; the region has been home to some of Britain's most renowned writers, including Daphne du Maurier and Agatha Christie, both of whom set many of their works here, the South West is the location of Thomas Hardy's Wessex, the setting for many of his best-known novels. Most of the region is located on the South West Peninsula, between the English Channel and Bristol Channel, it has the longest coastline of all the English regions, totalling over 700 miles. Much of the coast is now protected from further substantial development because of its environmental importance, which contributes to the region's attractiveness to tourists and residents.
Geologically the region is divided into the igneous and metamorphic west and sedimentary east, the dividing line to the west of the River Exe. Cornwall and West Devon's landscape is of rocky coastline and high moorland, notably at Bodmin Moor and Dartmoor; these are due to the slate that underlie the area. The highest point of the region is High Willhays, at 2,038 feet, on Dartmoor. In North Devon the slates of the west and limestones of the east meet at Exmoor National Park; the variety of rocks of similar ages seen here have led to the county's name being lent to that of the Devonian period. The east of the region is characterised by limestone downland; the vales, with good irrigation, are home to the region's dairy agriculture. The Blackmore Vale was Thomas Hardy's "Vale of the Little Dairies"; the Southern England Chalk Formation extends into the region, creating a series of high, sparsely populated and archaeologically rich downs, most famously Salisbury Plain, but Cranborne Chase, the Dorset Downs and the Purbeck Hills.
These downs are the principal area of arable agriculture in the region. Limestone is found in the region, at the Cotswolds, Quantock Hills and Mendip Hills, where they support sheep farming. All of the principal rock types can be seen on the Jurassic Coast of Dorset and East Devon, where they document the entire Mesozoic era from west to east; the climate of South West England is classed as oceanic according to the Köppen climate classification. The oceanic climate experiences cool winters with warmer summers and precipitation all year round, with more experienced in winter. Annual rainfall is up to 2,000 millimetres on higher ground. Summer maxima averages range from 18 °C to 22 °C and winter minimum averages range from 1 °C to 4 °C across the south-west, it is the second windiest area of the United Kingdom, the majority of winds coming from the south-west and north-east. Government organisations predict the region to rise in temperature and become the hottest region in the United Kingdom. Inland areas of low altitude experience the least amount of precipitation.
They experience the highest summer maxima temperatures. Snowfalls are less so in comparison to higher ground, it experiences the lowest wind speeds and sunshine total in between that of the moors. The climate of inland areas is more noticeable the further north-east into the region. In comparison to inland areas, the coast experiences high minimum temperatures in winter, it experiences lower maximum temperatures during the summer. Rainfall is the lowest at the coast and snowfall is rarer than the rest of the region. Coastal areas are the windiest parts of the peninsula and they receive the most sunshine; the general coastal climate is more typical the further south-west into the region. Areas of moorland inland such as: Bodmin Moor and Exmoor experience lower temperatures and more precipitation than the rest of the south west (approxima