A bus stop is a designated place where buses stop for passengers to board or alight from a bus. The construction of bus stops tends to reflect the level of usage, where stops at busy locations may have shelters and electronic passenger information systems. Bus stops are, in some locations, clustered together into transport hubs allowing interchange between routes from nearby stops and with other public transport modes to maximise convenience. For operational purposes, there are three main kinds of stops: Scheduled stops, at which the bus should stop irrespective of demand. Certain stops may be restricted to "discharge/set-down only" or "pick-up only"; some stops may be designated as "timing points", if the vehicle is ahead of schedule it will wait there to ensure correct synchronization with the timetable. In dense urban areas where bus volumes are high, skip-stops are sometimes used to increase efficiency and reduce delays at bus stops. Fare stages may be defined by the location of certain stops in distance or zone-based fare collection systems.
Sunday stops used only on Sundays. From the 17th to the 19th century, horse drawn stage coaches ran regular services between many European towns and stopping at designated Coaching inns where the horses could be changed and passengers board or alight, in effect constituting the earliest form of bus stop; the Angel Inn, the first stop on the route from London to York, was a noted example of such an inn. A seat in a Stage coach had to be booked in advance. John Greenwood opened the first bus line in Britain in Manchester in 1824, running a fixed route and allowing passengers to board on request along the way without a reservation. Landmarks such as Public houses, rail stations and road junctions became customary stopping points. Regular Horse drawn buses started in Paris in 1828 and George Shillibeer started his London horse Omnibus service in 1829. Running between stops at Paddington and the Bank of England to a designated route and timetable. By the mid 19th Century guides were available to London bus routes including maps with routes and the main stops.
In the UK National National Public Transport Access Node database of all UK stops, developed by the Department of Transport in 2001, stops are classified as marked or custom and usage. Use of a marked stop may be changed- the bus will always stop, or by request only. Bus stop infrastructure ranges from a simple pole and sign, to a rudimentary shelter, to sophisticated structures; the usual minimum is a pole mounted flag with suitable name/symbol. Bus stop shelters may have a full or partial roof, supported by a two, three or four sided construction. Modern stops are mere steel and glass/perspex constructions, although in other places, such as rural Britain, stops may be wooden brick or concrete built; the construction may include small inbuilt seats. The construction may feature advertising, from simple posters, to complex illuminated, changeable or animated displays; some installations have included interactive advertising. Design and construction may be uniform to reflect a large corporate or local authority provider, or installations may be more personal or distinctive where a small local authority such as a parish council is responsible for the stop.
The stop may include separate street furniture such as lighting and a trash receptacle. Individual bus stops may be placed on the sidewalk next to the roadway, although they can be placed to facilitate use of a busway. More complex installations can include construction of a bus turnout or a bus bulb, for traffic management reasons, although use of a bus lane can make these unnecessary. Several bus stops may be grouped together to facilitate easy transfer between routes; these may be arranged in a simple row along the street, or in parallel or diagonal rows of multiple stops. Groups of bus stops may be integral to transportation hubs. With extra facilities such as a waiting room or ticket office, outside groupings of bus stops can be classed as a rudimentary bus station. Convention is for the bus to draw level with the'flag', although in areas of mixed front and rear entrance buses, such as London, a head stop, more a tail stop, indicates to the driver whether they should stop the bus with either the rear platform or the drivers cab level with the flag.
In certain areas, the area of road next the bus stop may be specially marked, protected in law. Car drivers can be unaware of the legal implications of stopping or parking in a bus-stop. In bus rapid transit systems, bus stops may be more elaborate than street bus stops, can be termed'stations' to reflect this difference; these may have enclosed areas to allow off-bus fare collection for rapid boarding, be spaced further apart like tram stops. Bus stops on a bus rapid transit line may have a more complex construction allowing level boarding platforms, doors separating the enclosure from the bus until ready to board. Most bus stops are identified with a metal sign attached to a light standard; some stops are plastic strips strapped on to poles and others involve a sign attached to a bus shelter. The signs are identified with a picture of a bus and/or with the words "bus stop"; the bus stop "flag" will sometimes contain the route numbers of all the buse
Train operating company
A train operating company is a business operating passenger trains on the railway system of Great Britain under the collective National Rail brand. TOCs have existed since the privatisation of the network under the Railways Act 1993. There are two types of TOC: most hold franchises let by the government, following bids from various companies, to operate services on certain routes for a specified duration, while a small number of open access operators hold licences to provide supplementary services on chosen routes; these operators can run services for the duration of the licence validity. The franchised operators have changed since privatisation: previous franchises have been divided, merged, re-let to new operators, or renamed; the term is sometimes used to describe companies operating passenger or freight rail services over tracks that are owned by another company or a national network owner. Franchises were let by the Office of Passenger Rail Franchising; this was in turn replaced by the Strategic Rail Authority.
For England and Wales, franchising is now the responsibility of the Department for Transport in the majority of cases. In Scotland, it is the responsibility of the Scottish Government. In two parts of England, local government agencies are responsible: in Merseyside, the Merseyside Passenger Transport Executive lets the Merseyrail franchise, while in London, Transport for London oversees the new London Overground and Crossrail concessions; the Rail Delivery Group provides a commonality for the TOCs and provides some centralised co-ordination. Its activities include the provision of a national timetable and online journey planner facility, the operation of the various Railcard discount schemes. Eurostar is a member of the RDG, though it is not itself a TOC. For historical and geographical reasons the railway network of the United Kingdom is split into two independent systems: one in Great Britain, one in Northern Ireland, linked to the railway system of the Republic of Ireland. In Great Britain, passenger train services are operated by a number of companies, referred to as Train Operating Companies or TOCs on the basis of regional franchises awarded by the Department for Transport Rail Group.
Until 2005 this role was performed by the Strategic Rail Authority. The infrastructure of the railways in England and Wales – including tracks and signalling – is owned and operated not by the train companies but by Network Rail, which took over responsibility from Railtrack in 2002. Most passenger trains are owned by a small number of Rolling Stock Companies and are leased to the individual TOCs. However, a handful of TOCs maintain some of their own rolling stock. Train operating companies operate most of the network's stations, in their role as station facility owners, in which they lease the buildings and associated land from Network Rail. Network Rail manages some major railway stations and several stations are operated by London Underground or other companies. All passenger TOCs in Great Britain are owned; the majority of these hold franchises to operate rail services on specific parts of the railway and come under the auspices of the National Rail brand. In addition, companies are able to bid for "paths" to operate their own services, which the franchises do not operate – these operators are classed as open-access operators and are not franchise holders.
In Great Britain, there are two open-access operators: Hull Trains runs services between London King's Cross and Hull, Grand Central, which operates between London King's Cross and Sunderland and between London King's Cross and Bradford. In addition, there are operators that fall outside the purview of National Rail, which operate specific services which are recent additions to Britain's railways; the main examples are Eurostar, which operates to the continent via the Channel Tunnel, Heathrow Express, which runs fast services from London to Heathrow Airport. A number of metropolitan railways on the network are operated by the local franchise holder in conjunction with the passenger transport executive or other civic body responsible for administering public transport. One of these bodies, the Merseyside Passenger Transport Executive, is responsible for one of three National Rail franchises not awarded by central government, namely the Merseyrail franchise, while certain National Rail services in North London came under the control of Transport for London in November 2007 as London Overground.
Two other franchises, the Scottish national franchise operated by Abellio ScotRail, the Welsh domestic franchise, operated by Transport for Wales, are awarded by the devolved governments of the two constituent nations. The Rail Delivery Group is the coordinating body of the train operating companies in Great Britain and owns the National Rail brand, which uses the former British Rail double-arrow logo and organises the common ticketing structure. Many of the train operating companies are in fact parts of larger companies which operate multiple franchises; the railway network in Northern Ireland is managed differently from the rest of the UK. The sole company in Northern Ireland that operates trains is NI Railways, who are a subsidiary of Translink, the publicly-owned transport corporation, which runs the Metro buses in Belfast and Ulsterbus coaches around the country. NIR is not a TOC under the terms of the Railways Act 1993; the cross-border service Enterprise is jointly operated with Iarnród Éireann, the national railway company of the Republic of Irelan
The Birmingham–Peterborough line is a cross-country railway line in the United Kingdom, linking Birmingham and Peterborough, via Nuneaton and Oakham. Since the Beeching Axe railway closures in the 1960s, it is the only direct railway link between the West Midlands and the East of England; the line is important for cross-country passenger services, East of Peterborough, the route gives access from the Midlands to various locations in the east of England, such as Ely and Stansted Airport via the West Anglia lines. It is strategically important for freight, as it allows container trains from the Port of Felixstowe to travel to the Midlands and beyond; the present route is an amalgamation of lines. The sections were: The route from Birmingham to Whitacre Junction was built for the Birmingham and Derby Junction Railway in 1840, which became part of the Midland Railway; the line from Whitacre junction to Nuneaton was built by the Midland Railway, opened in 1864. The line between Nuneaton and Wigston was built by the South Leicestershire Railway and was completed in 1864.
The South Leicestershire Railway was taken over by the London and North Western Railway in 1867. The section between Wigston and Syston via Leicester was built for the Midland Counties Railway in 1840, it is now part of the Midland Main Line. The eastern section, the Syston and Peterborough Railway, was built for the Midland Railway and opened in 1846; the entire route became part of the London and Scottish Railway in the 1923 grouping, the LMS was nationalised on 1 January 1948 as part of British Railways. Most Birmingham-Leicester passenger trains were taken over by diesel units from 14 April 1958, taking about 79 minutes between the two cities. In 1977 the Parliamentary Select Committee on Nationalised Industries recommended considering electrification of more of Britain's rail network. By 1979 BR presented a range of options to do so by 2000, some of which included the Birmingham to Peterborough Line. Under the 1979–90 Conservative governments that succeeded the 1976–79 Labour government, the proposal was not implemented.
The route is now part of Network Rail. In the 1980s, local services were worked by Class 105 Diesel Multiple Units and long-distance services, such as those between Birmingham New Street and Norwich, were operated by formations of Class 31 locomotives with rakes of four Mark 1 carriages. From 1986 the first Sprinter trains operated on the line, Class 150s, subsequently replaced by Class 156 SuperSprinter units from 1988. From this time, the service operated hourly between Birmingham New Street and Ely with alternate services continuing to Cambridge or Norwich. Central Trains operated the route from privatisation, for operational convenience combined services on the route either side of Birmingham New Street, which created through services such as Aberystwyth and Chester to Cambridge and Stansted Airport and Liverpool Lime Street to Stansted Airport, although these were subsequently cut back - services to Aberystwyth ceased in 2001, although a few services continued to terminate at Shrewsbury until 2004, whilst Liverpool was removed in 2003 to improve performance.
The service in 2016 consists of two trains per hour between Birmingham and Leicester, one of the two calling at limited stops to Leicester and continuing to Stansted Airport via Peterborough and Cambridge, operated by CrossCountry. East Midlands Trains operates a handful of services along the section between Syston and Peterborough as part of its London London St Pancras service via Corby. In addition, there are a few services between Nottingham and Norwich operated by EMT which serve Stamford. Cross Country services are worked by Class 170 Turbostar units, while EMT use Class 158 Express Sprinter trains on services to Norwich and Class 222 Meridian trains for London services. In addition, EMT operate an evening Spalding to Nottingham service, worked by a Class 153 SuperSprinter. Freight trains use the route between the West Midlands and the East Anglia container trains to the Port of Felixstowe and sand trains to King's Lynn; this is a large project with a number of elements that will allow more railfreight traffic between the Haven ports and the Midlands.
The work was prompted by the'Felixstowe South' expansion at the Port of Felixstowe. It is in response to the predicted increase in the number of high-cube shipping containers arriving at the ports that cannot be accommodated on the route; the percentage of high-cube containers is expected to increase from 30% in 2007 to 50% in 2012. Without loading gauge enhancement these larger containers would have to be transported by road or via a longer rail route via London, operating at capacity. Network Rail completed the gauge enhancement from Ipswich to Peterborough in 2008. Work will take place in three phases: Phase 1 Nuneaton North Chord Peterborough to Nuneaton Gauge Phase 2aDualling 8 km of the Felixstowe Branch Line Dualling the Ipswich to Ely Line between Soham Junction and Ely Removing speed restrictions for freight trains between Ipswich and Peterborough Phase 2b Capacity enhancement Peterborough to Nuneaton during CP5The work, detailed in the Network Rail Freight Route Utilisation Strategy, should be completed by 2014.
At an estimated cost of £291 million. The government is providing £80 million and it will receive £5 million from Network Rail and £1 million from the East of England Development Agency, it has been estimated. In February 2010 Network Rail confirmed t
South Wigston is a large village to the south of Leicester, England. It is outside the city boundary, forming part of the Wigston district of Leicestershire; the population of the ward rose from 7,471 at the 2001 census to 7,490 at the 2011 census. South Wigston is west of Wigston Magna west of the Midland Main Line; the Crow Mills area has been the site of a grain mill since the 13th century, though the present mill was built on the original footings. The mill is on the north bank of the River Sence and backs onto the nearby Grand Union Canal, which forms the southern boundary of South Wigston; the first major development of the area came with the arrival of the Midland Counties Railway's Wigston South station, the Midland Railway's Wigston Junction, goods yard and Wigston Magna station and the South Leicestershire Railway's Glen Parva station. Industrial and residential buildings were built in the triangle of land between the Wigston junction to Rugby line to the east, the Wigston to Nuneaton line to the north and Saffron Road to the west.
Notable buildings in the area include the Wesleyan Methodist Church, church of Saint Thomas the Apostle, Congregational Church, Primitive Methodist Church, the Clarence Hotel, the Grand Hotel. Much of the building work was commissioned by Orson Wright; the land enclosed by the Grand Union Canal, Midland Main Line and former Wigston to Rugby line started to be developed around Lansdowne Grove at the start of the twentieth century with town houses becoming a conservation area in the late 1980s early 1990s, a sizeable council estate, industrial estate and in the 1990s another large housing estate. Before the establishment of South Wigston in 1883, the area was open fields; the Leicestershire and Northamptonshire Union Canal, which runs south of the township, was built 1793—1809, a house stood by the Countesthorpe Road near the bridges over the river and canal. In 1840 the Midland Counties Railway was built between Rugby. North of Kirkdale Road, the Midland Railway built the south chord of Wigston Junction in 1872.
To the east of the Countesthorpe Road and Canal Street junction was Crow Mill, a post mill, recorded on the County Sites and Monuments Register as a medieval windmill. The mill is shown as disused on the 1886 Ordnance Survey Map, though it had gone by the second edition of the map in 1914; the town of South Wigston was developed in the late 19th century by the owner of a large brickworks, Orson Wright. The settlement follows the tradition of establishing'model' towns set by Victorian philanthropists at places such as New Lanark and Saltaire and continued in towns such as Bournville and Port Sunlight. Unlike the majority of these other towns however, South Wigston was not just intended to house workers in the brickyard. Other commercial premises associated with the clothing industry, were established from the start. Like other model settlements such as Saltaire, the street pattern is a grid and most of the housing is in terraces. Most of the houses are of similar type with just a few larger houses on Orange Street, Blaby Road and Saffron Road built to house more affluent residents.
The clear provision of different sizes and standards of housing to suit different classes of occupiers is not so great as in many model towns. Although there are differences of detailing between the terraces and groups of houses, the area has a strong character; the buildings were all built using bricks from Orson Wright's Wigston Junction Brick Works. The majority of traditional buildings are therefore of red brick with a colour range towards orange and purple, with a few houses of gault brick or with such brick used as detailing. In terms of town planning, Blaby Road was the main cross route and was lined by many of the shops and public buildings. Canal Street was the home of most of the industrial and manufacturing concerns and had shops on some street corners and some public buildings at the north end. Countesthorpe Road had public buildings; the schools were all off Bassett Street, whilst housing was sited on east–west-orientated streets south of Blaby Road and north–south-running streets north of Blaby Road.
The 1886 Ordnance Survey Map shows the beginnings of the settlement. The brickworks are the largest single premises west of Saffron Road. Blaby Road is the most developed road with three terraces of properties along the south side. On the north side of Blaby Road, the only buildings were four terraced properties to the west of Station Street. Other buildings completed by 1886 included houses on the west side of Station Street. South of Blaby Road, there was a long row of small cottages on the west side of Countesthorpe Road and a block on the north east end of Timber Street. To the north was a large factory called the Perseverance Works; the line of much of Canal Street, together with the streets north of Timber Street had been laid out, whilst north of Blaby Road two tracks existed though they were relocated to become Fairfield and Leo
National Rail in the United Kingdom is the trading name licensed for use by the Rail Delivery Group, an unincorporated association whose membership consists of the passenger train operating companies of England and Wales. The TOCs run the passenger services provided by the British Railways Board, from 1965 using the brand name British Rail. Northern Ireland, bordered by the Republic of Ireland, has a different system. National Rail services share a ticketing structure and inter-availability that do not extend to services which were not part of British Rail; the name and the accompanying double arrow symbol are trademarks of the Secretary of State for Transport. National Rail should not be confused with Network Rail. National Rail is a brand used to promote passenger railway services, providing some harmonisation for passengers in ticketing, while Network Rail is the organisation which owns and manages most of the fixed assets of the railway network, including tracks and signals; the two coincide where passenger services are run.
Most major Network Rail lines carry freight traffic and some lines are freight only. There are some scheduled passenger services on managed, non-Network Rail lines, for example Heathrow Express, which runs on Network Rail track; the London Underground overlaps with Network Rail in places. Twenty eight owned train operating companies, each franchised for a defined term by government, operate passenger trains on the main rail network in Great Britain; the Rail Delivery Group is the trade association representing the TOCs and provides core services, including the provision of the National Rail Enquiries service. It runs Rail Settlement Plan, which allocates ticket revenue to the various TOCs, Rail Staff Travel, which manages travel facilities for railway staff, it does not compile the national timetable, the joint responsibility of the Office of Rail Regulation and Network Rail. Since the privatisation of British Rail there is no longer a single approach to design on railways in Great Britain; the look and feel of signage and marketing material is the preserve of the individual TOCs.
However, National Rail continues to use BR's famous double-arrow symbol, designed by Gerald Burney of the Design Research Unit. It has been incorporated in the National Rail logotype and is displayed on tickets, the National Rail website and other publicity; the trademark rights to the double arrow symbol remain state-owned, being vested in the Secretary of State for Transport. The double arrow symbol is used to indicate a railway station on British traffic signs; the National Rail logo was introduced by ATOC in 1999, was used on the Great Britain public timetable for the first time in the edition valid from 26 September in that year. Rules for its use are set out in the Corporate Identity Style Guidelines published by the Rail Delivery Group, available on its website. "In 1964 the Design Research Unit—Britain’s first multi-disciplinary design agency founded in 1943 by Misha Black, Milner Gray and Herbert Read—was commissioned to breathe new life into the nation’s neglected railway industry".
The NR title is sometimes described as a "brand". As it was used by British Rail, the single operator before franchising, its use maintains continuity and public familiarity; the lettering used in the National Rail logotype is a modified form of the typeface Sassoon Bold. Some train operating companies continue to use the former British Rail Rail Alphabet lettering to varying degrees in station signage, although its use is no longer universal; the British Rail typefaces of choice from 1965 were Helvetica and Univers, with others coming into use during the sectorisation period after 1983. TOCs may use what they like: examples include Futura, Frutiger, a modified version of Precious by London Midland. Although TOCs compete against each other for franchises, for passengers on routes where more than one TOC operates, the strapline used with the National Rail logo is'Britain's train companies working together'. Several conurbations have their own metro or tram systems, most of which are not part of National Rail.
These include the London Underground, Docklands Light Railway, London Tramlink, Blackpool Tramway, Glasgow Subway, Tyne & Wear Metro, Manchester Metrolink, Sheffield Supertram, Midland Metro and Nottingham Express Transit. On the other hand, the self-contained Merseyrail system is part of the National Rail network, urban rail networks around Birmingham, Cardiff and West Yorkshire consist of National Rail services. London Overground is a hybrid: its services are operated via a concession awarded by Transport for London, are branded accordingly, but until 2010 all its routes used infrastructure owned by Network Rail. LO now possesses some infrastructure in its own right, following the reopening of the former London Underground East London line as the East London Railway. Since all the previous LO routes were operated by National Rail franchise Silverlink until November 2007, they have continued to be shown in the National Rail timetable and are still considered to be a part of National Rail.
Heathrow Express and Eurostar are not part of the National Rail network despite sharing of stations. Northern Ireland Railways were
Leicester railway station
Leicester railway station is a mainline railway station in the city of Leicester in Leicestershire, England. The station is owned by Network Rail; the station is served by CrossCountry and East Midlands Trains Leicester Station opened in 1840 by the Midland Counties Railway, rebuilt in 1894 and 1978. It is on the Midland Main Line, which runs from London St Pancras to Nottingham, it is 99 miles 7 chains north of London St Pancras. The first station on the site opened on 5 May 1840, it was known as Leicester, becoming Leicester Campbell Street on 1 June 1867, Leicester London Road from 12 June 1892. This was replaced in 1894 by a new station called Leicester London Road. Following the closure of Central on 5 May 1969, this station was renamed Leicester. Besides London Road and Central, the city of Leicester was served by Belgrave Road, Humberstone Road and West Bridge railway stations. Leicester was one of the first cities to be served by a railway, when the Leicester and Swannington Railway built its terminus station at West Bridge on the western side of Leicester in 1832.
The Leicester and Swannington Railway was absorbed by the Midland Railway. In total Leicester had seven railway stations. In addition to the current Leicester station three other main railway stations existed; the original station at West Bridge closed to passengers in 1928. Leicester Belgrave Road closed to passengers in 1962 and Leicester Central closed in May 1969. Up until this time the current Leicester station was known as Leicester London Road. In addition there were smaller stations within the city boundary at Humberstone Road on the LMS, Humberstone on the GNR, from 1874 until 1918 a halt at Welford Road was operated on the Leicester – London main line allowing access to the Cattle Market. At this halt passengers were allowed to leave the trains but not to board them; the contract for the first station on the present site was awarded by the Midland Counties Railway to Waterfield and Smith, was just under £15,000. It was first used on 4 May 1840, when a train of four first and six second-class carriages, pulled by the Leopard steam engine, arrived from Nottingham.
As was normal in those days with a through station, the original plan was to build it to the side of the main line, but instead it was built on the main line with a single platform 165 yards long to handle both northbound and southbound trains. The station was designed by William Parsons in the Grecian Revival style, with a two storey main building, embellished with a central pediment set forward on fluted columns in front; this was flanked by short single-storey wings. It was the headquarters of the Midland Counties Railway until that railway was amalgamated into the Midland Railway in 1844. Upstairs were the company offices and boardroom, while downstairs was the booking hall and refreshment rooms; the opening of new routes to Leicester led to increasing traffic, by 1858 a second platform had been built to handle southbound traffic, so leaving the original platform to handle northbound traffic. In 1868 it was decided to turn the southbound platform into an island platform to further increase capacity, but this was not possible with the northbound platform due to the presence of the main buildings and station entrance.
Further expansion was contemplated for some time, but it was not until 1890 that the go ahead was given for Campbell Street station to be replaced by the present Leicester railway station. All that remains of the first station is a pair of gateposts in an Egyptian style at the end of Station Street; the offices for Royal Mail now occupy some of the site of the old station buildings on Campbell Street. The Midland Railway rebuilt the station between 1892 and 1894 to a design by the architect Charles Trubshaw; the new booking office was opened by the mayor in June 1892 when it was renamed Leicester London Road. The station was completed in 1894; the frontage on London Road featured four entrance archways. Above each of the left-hand pair the word "Departure" was inscribed; these signs were to assist cab drivers when dropping passengers who intended to catch departing trains, or were plying for hire by passengers who had arrived by train. The new station frontage on London Road remains as a well-preserved late Victorian building, but the interior of the booking hall and the structures on the platforms were reconstructed by Sir Robert McAlpine in 1978.
The station clock is the only hand-wound station clock in the UK. A commemorative statue of Thomas Cook was placed on the pavement outside the present station in 1991 to mark the first excursions arranged by the travel agency magnate, it was sculpted by James Butler. Until the line from Matlock to Chinley through Millers Dale was closed in the Beeching era, the'main lines' were those from London to Manchester, carrying named expresses such as The Palatine. Express trains to Leeds and Scotland such as the Thames-Clyde Express tended to use the Erewash Valley Line before proceeding on to the Settle and Carlisle Line. Expresses to Edinburgh, such as The Waverley travelled through Nottingham; when Sectorisation was introduced in the 1980s, the station was served by the Intercity Sector until the Privatisation of British Railways. With the advent of power signalling in 1986, the signal box and the crossovers disappeared, the tracks approaching the station were relaid to allow trains from any direction t