Amber Valley is a local government district and borough in Derbyshire, England. It takes its name from the River Amber and covers a semi-rural area with a number of small towns whose economy was based on coal mining and engineering; the parliamentary constituency of Amber Valley covers a similar area. The Local Authority population at the 2011 Census was 122,309; the village of Crich and the Amber Valley area were the setting for the ITV drama series Peak Practice. Elections to the borough council are held in three out of every four years, with one third of the 45 seats on the council being elected at each election; the council has been controlled by the Conservative party since they gained control from the Labour party at the 2000 election except for a single year after the 2014 election. As of the 2018 election the council continues under Conservative party control and is composed of the following numbers of councillors: Alfreton Belper Heanor Ripley Ambergate Codnor Crich Denby Duffield Heage Holbrook Horsley Kedleston Kilburn Lea & Holloway Mackworth Milford Quarndon Somercotes Swanwick WhatstandwellThe district was formed on 1 April 1974 by the merger of the urban districts of Alfreton, Belper and Ripley Rural District and Belper Rural District.
The district was granted borough status in 1988. Aldercar and Langley Mill, Alfreton Belper Codnor, Crich Denby, Dethick and Holloway, Duffield Hazelwood and Loscoe, Horsley, Horsley Woodhouse Idridgehay and Ashleyhay, Ironville Kedleston, Kirk Langley Mackworth, Mapperley Pentrich Quarndon Ravensdale Park, Ripley Shipley and Postern, Somercotes, South Wingfield, Swanwick Turnditch and Windley Weston Underwood List of places in Derbyshire Amber Valley Borough Council website Amber Valley Centre for Voluntary Services Amber Valley Info Web Site
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
Derbyshire Fire and Rescue Service
Derbyshire Fire and Rescue Service is the statutory fire and rescue service for the county of Derbyshire, England. The Fire Services Act 1947 created two brigades for Derbyshire - the County Borough of Derby Fire Brigade and the Derbyshire Fire Service. In 1974, local government reorganisation led to the creation of a single organisation for the county - Derbyshire Fire Service; the word'rescue' was added to the title in the early 1990s to reflect the changing responsibilities of the service. There are 31 fire stations in operation with the service, consisting of: Buxton, Wholetime/Retained Chesterfield, Wholetime/Retained Staveley, Wholetime/Retained Alfreton, Wholetime/Retained Ilkeston, Wholetime/Retained Kingsway, Wholetime Nottingham Road, Wholetime Ascot Drive, Wholetime Long Eaton, Wholetime/Retained Glossop, Day Crewed Matlock, Day Crewed/Retained Swadlincote, Day Crew +/Retained New Mills, Retained Whaley Bridge, Retained Chapel En Le Frith, Retained Bradwell, Retained Hathersage, Retained Dronfield, Retained Clowne, Retained Bakewell, Retained Bolsover, Retained Shirebrook, Retained Clay Cross, Retained Ashbourne, Retained Wirksworth, Retained Crich, Retained Ripley, Retained Belper, Retained Heanor, Retained Duffield, Retained Melbourne, Retained There are a total of 58 front-line fire engines used by the Service, located at all of the stations.
The specialist appliance fleet consists of: 3 Aerial Ladder Platforms 3 Water Rescue Units 2 Major Rescue Units 1 Emergency Tender 2 Water/Foam Carriers 1 Water Carrier 2 Forward Control Units 1 Unimog multi-terrain vehicle 1 Command Unit 2 Incident Response Units 1 High-Volume Pump 1 Environmental Unit 1 Fire Investigation Dog Unit 1 Rope Rescue Unit Fire service in the United Kingdom FiReControl Fire apparatus Firefighter Fire engine Fire List of British firefighters killed in the line of duty Derbyshire Fire & Rescue Service. "The History of Derbyshire Fire & Rescue Service", Internal Publication
Derbyshire is a county in the East Midlands of England. A substantial portion of the Peak District National Park lies within Derbyshire, containing the southern extremity of the Pennine range of hills which extend into the north of the county; the county contains part of the National Forest, borders on Greater Manchester to the northwest, West Yorkshire to the north, South Yorkshire to the northeast, Nottinghamshire to the east, Leicestershire to the southeast, Staffordshire to the west and southwest and Cheshire to the west. Kinder Scout, at 636 metres, is the highest point in the county, whilst Trent Meadows, where the River Trent leaves Derbyshire, is its lowest point at 27 metres.:1 The River Derwent is the county's longest river at 66 miles, runs north to south through the county. In 2003 the Ordnance Survey placed Church Flatts Farm at Coton in the Elms as the furthest point from the sea in Great Britain; the city of Derby is a unitary authority area, but remains part of the ceremonial county of Derbyshire.
The non-metropolitan county contains 30 towns with between 100,000 inhabitants. There is a large amount of sparsely populated agricultural upland: 75% of the population live in 25% of the area; the area, now Derbyshire was first visited briefly, by humans 200,000 years ago during the Aveley interglacial as evidenced by a Middle Paleolithic Acheulean hand axe found near Hopton. Further occupation came with the Upper Paleolithic and Neolithic periods of the Stone Age when Mesolithic hunter gatherers roamed the hilly tundra. Evidence of these nomadic tribes has been found in limestone caves located on the Nottinghamshire border. Deposits left in the caves date the occupancy at around 12,000 to 7,000 BCE. Burial mounds of Neolithic settlers are situated throughout the county; these chambered tombs were designed for collective burial and are located in the central Derbyshire region. There are tombs at Minninglow and Five Wells that date back to between 2000 and 2500 BCE. Three miles west of Youlgreave lies the Neolithic henge monument of Arbor Low, dated to 2500 BCE.
It is not until the Bronze Age that real signs of agriculture and settlement are found in the county. In the moors of the Peak District signs of clearance, arable fields and hut circles were discovered after archaeological investigation; however this area and another settlement at Swarkestone are all. During the Roman invasion the invaders were attracted to Derbyshire because of the lead ore in the limestone hills of the area, they settled throughout the county with forts built near Glossop. They settled around Buxton, famed for its warm springs, set up a fort near modern-day Derby in an area now known as Little Chester. Several kings of Mercia are buried in the Repton area. Following the Norman Conquest, much of the county was subject to the forest laws. To the northwest was the Forest of High Peak under the custodianship of William Peverel and his descendants; the rest of the county was bestowed upon a part of it becoming Duffield Frith. In time the whole area was given to the Duchy of Lancaster.
Meanwhile, the Forest of East Derbyshire covered the whole county to the east of the River Derwent from the reign of Henry II to that of Edward I. Most of Derbyshire consists of rolling hills and uplands, with the southern Pennines extending from the north of Derby throughout the Peak District and into the north of the county, reaching a high point at Kinder Scout; the south and east of the county are lower around the valley of the River Trent, the Coal Measures, the areas of clay and sandstones between the Peak District and the south west of the county. The main rivers in the county are the River Derwent and the River Dove which both join the River Trent in the south; the River Derwent rises in the moorland of Bleaklow and flows throughout the Peak District and county for the majority of its course, while the River Dove rises in Axe Edge Moor and forms a boundary between Derbyshire and Staffordshire for most of its length. The varied landscapes within Derbyshire have been formed as a consequence of the underlying geology, but by the way the land has been managed and shaped by human activity.
The county contains 11 discrete landscape types, known as National Character Areas, which have been described in detail by Natural England and further refined and described by Derbyshire County Council and the Peak District National Park. The 11 National Character Areas found within Derbyshire are: Dark Peak White Peak South West Peak Derbyshire Peak Fringe & Lower Derwent Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire & Yorkshire Coalfield Southern Magnesian Limestone Needwood & South Derbyshire Claylands Trent Valley Washlands Melbourne Parklands Leicestershire & South Derbyshire Coalfield Mease/Sence Lowlands From a geological perspective, Derbyshire's solid geology can be split into two different halves; the oldest rocks occur in the northern, more upland half of the county, are of Carboniferous age, comprising limestones, gritstones and shales. In its north-east corner to the east of Bolsover there are Magnesian Limestone rocks of Permian age. In contrast, the southern and more lowland half of Derbyshire contains much softer rocks mudstones and sandstones of Permo-Triassic age, which create gentler, more rolling landscapes with few rock outcrops.
Across both regions can be found drift deposits of Quaternary age – terrace and river gravel deposits and boulder clays. Landslip features are found on unstable layers of sandstones and shales, with Mam Tor and Alport Castles being the most well-known. Cemented screes and tufa deposits occur rarely in the limestone dales and
Great Britain road numbering scheme
The Great Britain road numbering scheme is a numbering scheme used to classify and identify all roads in Great Britain. Each road is given a single letter, which represents the road's category, a subsequent number, of 1 to 4 digits. Introduced to arrange funding allocations, the numbers soon became used on maps and as a method of navigation. Two sub-schemes exist: one for motorways, another for non-motorway roads; the scheme applies only to Great Britain. These other numbering schemes use similar conventions. Work on classification began in 1913 by the government's Roads Board, with the aim of denoting the quality and usage of British roads; the work was interrupted by the First World War. It did not resume until the Ministry of Transport was formed in 1919 and given authority to classify highways and to allocate funding for road maintenance, authority for, granted by section 17 of the Ministry of Transport Act 1919. A classification system was created, under which important routes connecting large population centres, or for through traffic, were designated as Class I, roads of lesser importance were designated as Class II.
The definitive list of those roads was published on 1 April 1923, following consultations with local authorities. Government funding towards the repairs of these roads were set at 60% for the former and 50% for the latter. Shortly after this, the numbers started to appear in road atlases and on signs on the roads themselves, making them a tool for motorists in addition to their use for determining funding; the numbers of the roads changed quite during the early years of the system, because it was a period of rapid expansion of the network and some numbered routes did not follow the most usual routes taken. The Trunk Roads Act 1936 gave the Ministry direct control of major routes and a new classification system was created to identify these routes; those numbers beginning in T were to be made public, but, deemed unnecessary. With the introduction of motorways in the late 1950s, a new classification of "M" was introduced. In many cases the motorways duplicated existing stretches of A road, which therefore lost much of their significance and were in some cases renumbered.
There was no consistent approach to the renumbering – some A roads retained their existing number as non-primary roads, others were given "less significant" numbers, the remainder were downgraded to B or unclassified roads. The new motorway would take the name of the old A road rather than having its own number; the most notable example of, the A1. In England and Wales the road numbering system for all-purpose roads is based on a radial pattern centred on London. In Scotland the same scheme is centred on Edinburgh. In both cases the main single-digit roads define the zone boundaries; the exception is between Zones 1 and 2, where the River Thames defines the boundary so that all of Kent is in Zone 2. Zone 1: North of the Thames, east of the A1 covering Greater London, Cambridgeshire, East Anglia, parts of Yorkshire, Cleveland and Wear, parts of the Scottish Borders, East Lothian and on up to Edinburgh Zone 2: South of the Thames, east of the A3 covering part of Surrey and Kent Zone 3: North/West of the A3, south of the A4 covering part of Surrey, the Isle of Wight and South West England Zone 4: North of the A4, south/west of the A5 covering the south and West Midlands, Bristol, Gloucestershire and south, west and Mid Wales.
Zone 5: North/East of the A5, west of the A6, south of the Solway Firth/Eden Estuary covering North Wales, North Midlands, western Leicestershire, Cheshire and western Lancashire. In Central London, the A40 provides a border between the 5 zones east of Marble Arch; the original A5 provides such a border, north of St Albans the original A6 provides an Eastern border. Zone 6: East of the A6 and A7, west of the A1 covering eastern Lancashire, North East England, Nottinghamshire, eastern Leicestershire and Rutland, the Scottish Borders and Lothians. Between St Albans and Luton, the original A6 provides the Western border of the 6-zone. Zone 7: North of the Solway Firth/Eden Estuary, west of the A7, south of the A8 covering Dumfries and Galloway and Central Scotland Zone 8: North of the A8, west of the A9 covering Highland and the Western Isles Zone 9: North of the A8, east of the A9 covering North East Scotland and ShetlandThe first digit in the number of any road should be the number of the furthest-anticlockwise zone entered by that road.
For example, the A38 road, a trunk road running from Bodmin to Mansfield starts in Zone 3, is therefore numbered with an A3x number though it passes through Zones 4 and 5 to end in Zone 6. Additionally, the A1 in Newcastle upon Tyne has moved twice. Along the Great North Road, it moved to the Tyne Tunnel, causing some of the roads in Zone 1 to lie in Zone 6; the designated A1 moved to the western bypass around the city, roads between the two found themselves back in Zone 1. For the most part the roads affected. Elsewhere when single-digit roads were bypassed, roads were re-numbered in keeping with the original zone boundaries. In a lim
Oakerthorpe is a village in Derbyshire, England. Oakerthorpe is a small village near Alfreton, it was known in ancient times as Ulkerthorpe. It lies in the parish of South Wingfield, eleven miles south of Chesterfield in the county of Derbyshire; the local church is dedicated to All Saints, is found about half a mile from the village. In the centre of the village is the Peacock Inn. Houses have been built at'Hillside Park'. Oakerthorpe was a mining village. In the nineteenth century, within Oakerthorpe and near the Peacock Inn lay the ruins of Ufton Manor. In the middle of the sixteenth century the chapel of Limbury adjoined the old manor house; some ruins of the chapel could still be seen as late as 1800. The Peacock Inn, situated near the Alfreton-South Wingfield crossroads, dates back into the eleventh century and is reputed to be the oldest inn in the county of Derbyshire; the inn is mentioned in the Domesday Book. It has a most interesting history. An underground passage in the bottom of the cellar in the Peacock Inn is reported to lead to nearby South Wingfield Manor.
Exploration through the tunnel leads to a large cave where there is a deep pool of water over thick mud. The tunnel is around five feet high and about four feet wide, with parts bricked up - most of it is excavated through living rock, it was at Wingfield Manor where Mary Queen of Scots was imprisoned in 1569 again in 1584 when her attempted rescue by Anthony Babington ended in disaster. His plan was to lead her down through the tunnel to the cellar at the inn, where horses were waiting to take her to safety. Babington went down through the tunnel from Oakerthorpe. For his crime he was beheaded at Lincoln's Inn in 1586. Mary was beheaded the same year. Another legend associated with the Peacock tells that in the eighteenth century, a respected churchwarden at the chapel and the landlord of the Peacock Inn was Peter Kendall, he had a beautiful daughter named Ann, who wore such fashionable wide hooped dresses that she had to enter the church doorway sideways. The local church, which figures quite in the following tale, is called South Wingfield, although it is on the Oakerthorpe side of the River Amber.
Ann Kendall was courted by a young local farmer, who seems to have remained anonymous in the records. The farmer seduced; the farmer deserted Ann and left her to give birth to a daughter. The disgrace so weighed upon poor Miss Kendall’s mind that she died on fourteenth of May 1745 of a broken heart. Just before she died she asked for Psalm 109 to be read at her funeral. Since that time, at churches within the district Psalm 109 is known as “Miss Kendall’s Psalm.” Shortly after the funeral, the man who had betrayed the maid was riding past South Wingfield church. It was an old custom in several Derbyshire churches to carry a special garland at the funeral procession of a young man or maiden; these garlands were made of wooden hoops decorated with rosettes, ornaments of white paper and ribbons, sometimes a pair of white gloves. They were hung up in the church after many lingering for centuries; such a garland was carried at Ann Kendall’s funeral and was still hanging in South Wingfield in the 1870s, in spite of previous offers to purchase the curio.
South Wingfield, which includes Oakerthorpe, was held by Alnoth at the time of the Norman Conquest. He held extensive land in Dorset and Tolgullow in Cornwall. Oakerthorpe-weather Media related to Oakerthorpe at Wikimedia Commons
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K