Northumberland is a county in North East England. The northernmost county of England, it borders Cumbria to the west, County Durham and Tyne and Wear to the south and the Scottish Borders to the north. To the east is the North Sea coastline with a 64 miles path; the county town is Alnwick. The county of Northumberland included Newcastle upon Tyne until 1400, when the city became a county of itself. Northumberland expanded in the Tudor period, annexing Berwick-upon-Tweed in 1482, Tynedale in 1495, Tynemouth in 1536, Redesdale around 1542 and Hexhamshire in 1572. Islandshire and Norhamshire were incorporated into Northumberland in 1844. Tynemouth and other settlements in North Tyneside were transferred to Tyne and Wear in 1974 under the Local Government Act 1972. Lying on the Anglo-Scottish border, Northumberland has been the site of a number of battles; the county is noted for its undeveloped landscape of high moorland, now protected as the Northumberland National Park. Northumberland is the least densely populated county in England, with only 62 people per square kilometre.
Northumberland meant'the land of the people living north of the River Humber'. The present county is the core of that former land, has long been a frontier zone between England and Scotland. During Roman occupation of Britain, most of the present county lay north of Hadrian's Wall, it was controlled by Rome only for the brief period of its extension of power north to the Antonine Wall. The Roman road Dere Street crosses the county from Corbridge over high moorland west of the Cheviot Hills into present Scotland to Trimontium; as evidence of its border position through medieval times, Northumberland has more castles than any other county in England, including those at Alnwick, Dunstanburgh and Warkworth. Northumberland has a rich prehistory with many instances of rock art, hillforts such as Yeavering Bell, stone circles such as the Goatstones and Duddo Five Stones. Most of the area was occupied by the Brythonic-Celtic Votadini people, with another large tribe, the Brigantes, to the south; the region of present-day Northumberland formed the core of the Anglian kingdom of Bernicia, which united with Deira to form the kingdom of Northumbria in the 7th century.
The historical boundaries of Northumbria under King Edwin stretched from the Humber in the south to the Forth in the north. After the battle of Nechtansmere its influence north of the Tweed began to decline as the Picts reclaimed the land invaded by the Saxon kingdom. In 1018 its northern part, the region between the Tweed and the Forth, was ceded to the Kingdom of Scotland. Northumberland is called the "cradle of Christianity" in England, because Christianity flourished on Lindisfarne—a tidal island north of Bamburgh called Holy Island—after King Oswald of Northumbria invited monks from Iona to come to convert the English. A monastery at Lindisfarne was the centre of production of the Lindisfarne Gospels, it became the home of St Cuthbert, buried in Durham Cathedral. Bamburgh is the historic capital of Northumberland, the royal castle from before the unification of the Kingdoms of England under the monarchs of the House of Wessex in the 10th century; the Earldom of Northumberland was held by the Scottish royal family by marriage between 1139–1157 and 1215–1217.
Scotland relinquished all claims to the region as part of the Treaty of York. The Earls of Northumberland once wielded significant power in English affairs because, as powerful and militaristic Marcher Lords, they had the task of protecting England from Scottish retaliation for English invasions. Northumberland has a history of revolt and rebellion against the government, as seen in the Rising of the North against Elizabeth I of England; these revolts were led by the Earls of Northumberland, the Percy family. Shakespeare makes one of the Percys, the dashing Harry Hotspur, the hero of his Henry IV, Part 1; the Percys were aided in conflict by other powerful Northern families, such as the Nevilles and the Patchetts. The latter were stripped of all power and titles after the English Civil War of 1642–1651. After the Restoration of 1660, the county was a centre for Roman Catholicism in England, as well as a focus of Jacobite support. Northumberland was long a wild county, where Border Reivers hid from the law.
However, the frequent cross-border skirmishes and accompanying local lawlessness subsided after the Union of the Crowns of Scotland and England under King James I and VI in 1603. Northumberland played a key role in the Industrial Revolution from the 18th century on. Many coal mines operated in Northumberland until the widespread closures in the 1980s. Collieries operated at Ashington, Blyth, Netherton and Pegswood; the region's coalfields fuelled industrial expansion in other areas of Britain, the need to transport the coal from the collieries to the Tyne led to the development of the first railways. Shipbuilding and armaments manufacture were other important industries before the deindustrialisation of the 1980s. Northumberland remains rural, is the least-densely populated county in England. In recent years the county has had considerable growth in tourism. Visitors are attracted both to its historical sites. Northumberland has a diverse physical geography, it is low and flat near the North Sea coast and mountainous toward the northwest.
South Africa national rugby union team
The South Africa national rugby union team known as the Springboks, is governed by the South African Rugby Union. The Springboks play in green and gold jerseys with white shorts, their emblems are the Springbok and the King Protea; the team has been representing South Africa in international rugby union since 30 July 1891, when they played their first test match against a British Isles touring team. Although South Africa was instrumental in the creation of the Rugby World Cup competition, the Springboks did not compete in the first two World Cups in 1987 and 1991 because of anti-apartheid sporting boycotts of South Africa; the team made its World Cup debut in 1995, when the newly democratic South Africa hosted the tournament. The Springboks defeated the All Blacks 15–12 in the final, now remembered as one of the greatest moments in South Africa's sporting history, a watershed moment in the post-Apartheid nation-building process. South Africa regained their title as champions 12 years when they defeated England 15–6 in the 2007 final.
As a result of the 2007 World Cup tournament the Springboks were promoted to first place in the IRB World Rankings, a position they held until July the following year when New Zealand regained the top spot. They were named 2008 World Team of the Year at the Laureus World Sports Awards; the Springboks compete in the annual Rugby Championship, along with southern-hemisphere counterparts Argentina and New Zealand. They have won this championship on three occasions in sixteen years, they play Test matches against the various rugby-playing nations. Their position in the World Rugby Rankings has varied between No. 7 positions. The first British Isles tour took place at Diocesan College; these were the first representative games played by South African sides. The tourists won; the British Isles' success continued on their tour of 1896, winning three out of four tests against South Africa. South Africa's play improved from 1891, their first test win in the final game was a pointer to the future. In 1903 the British Isles lost a series for the first time in South Africa, drawing the opening two tests before losing the last 8–0.
Rugby was given a huge boost by the early Lions tours, which created great interest in the South African press. South Africa would not lose another series—home or away—until 1956; the first South African team to tour the British Isles and France occurred during 1906–07. The team played tests against all four Home Nations. England managed a draw; the trip instilled a sense of national pride among South Africans. The South Africans played an unofficial match against a'France' team while the official French team were in England, it was during this tour. The 1910 British Isles tour of South Africa was the first to include representatives from all four Home unions; the tourists won just one of their three tests. The Boks' second European tour took place in 1912–13, they beat the four Home nations to earn their first Grand Slam, defeated France. By the first World War, New Zealand and South Africa had established themselves as rugby's two greatest powers. A Springbok tour to New Zealand and Australia in 1921 was billed as "The World Championship of Rugby".
The All Blacks won the first Test 13–5, The Springboks recovered to win the second Test 9–5, the final Test was drawn 0–0, resulting in a series draw. The 1924 British and Irish Lions team to South Africa lost all four Tests to the Springboks; this was the first side to pick up the name Lions picked up from the Lions embroidered on their ties. The All Blacks first toured South Africa in 1928, again the Test series finished level; the Springboks won the first Test 17–0 to inflict the All Blacks' heaviest defeat since 1893. The All Blacks rebounded to win the second Test 7–6. After a Springbok win in the third Test, the All Blacks won 13 -- 5. Despite winning South Africa's second Grand Slam, the Springbok tourists of 1931–32 were an unloved team, due to their tactics of kicking for territory, it was successful however, winning against England, Ireland and Wales, as well as defeating all their Welsh opponents for the first time. In 1933, Australia toured South Africa, with the Springboks winning the series 3–2.
In 1937 South Africa toured New Zealand and Australia and their 2–1 series win prompted them to be called "the best team to leave New Zealand". The British Isles toured South Africa again in 1938; the Springboks secured easy victories in the first two tests. However, the Lions bounced back to record a win in the third test, for the first Lions win on South Africa soil since 1910. Danie Craven was appointed coach in 1949, started his coaching career winning ten matches in a row, including a 4–0 whitewash of New Zealand on their 1949 tour to South Africa; the 1951–52 team that toured Europe was considered amongst the finest Springbok sides to tour. The team won the Grand Slam as well as defeating France. Hennie Muller captained the side; the South African highlight of the tour was a 44–0 defeat of Scotland. The team finished to London Counties, from 31 matches. In 1953, Australia toured South Africa for the second time and although they lost the series they defeated South Africa 18–14 in the second test.
This was the first Springbok defeat for 15 years. The 1955 British Lions tour to South Africa four-test series ended in a draw. In 1956, Springboks toured Australasia the All Blacks won its first series over the Springboks, in "the most bitterly fought series in histor
New Zealand national rugby union team
The New Zealand national rugby union team, called the All Blacks, represents New Zealand in men's rugby union, known as the country's national sport. The team has won the last two Rugby World Cups, in 2011 and 2015 as well as the inaugural tournament in 1987, they have a 77% winning record in test match rugby, are the only international men’s side with a winning record against every opponent. Since their international debut in 1903, they have lost to only six of the 19 nations they have played in test matches. Since the introduction of the World Rugby Rankings in 2003, New Zealand has held the number one ranking longer than all other teams combined; the All Blacks jointly hold the record for the most consecutive test match wins for a tier one ranked nation, along with England. New Zealand competes with Argentina and South Africa in The Rugby Championship; the All Blacks have won the trophy sixteen times in the competition's twenty-three-year history. New Zealand have completed a Grand Slam tour four times – 1978, 2005, 2008 and 2010.
The All Blacks have been named the World Rugby Team of the Year ten times since the award was created in 2001, an All Black has won the World Rugby Player of the Year award ten times over the same period. Fifteen former All Blacks have been inducted into the International Rugby Hall of Fame; the team's first match was in 1884, their first international test match was in 1903 against Australia in Sydney. The following year, they hosted their first home test, a match against a British Isles side in Wellington; this was followed by a 34-game tour of Europe and North America in 1905, where the team suffered only one defeat – their first test loss, against Wales. New Zealand's early uniforms consisted of a black jersey with a silver fern and white knickerbockers. By the 1905 tour, they were wearing all black, except for the silver fern, the name All Blacks dates from this time; the team perform a Māori challenge or posture dance, before each match. The haka has traditionally been Te Rauparaha's Ka Mate, although since 2005 Kapa o Pango has been performed.
Rugby union – universally referred to only as "rugby" in New Zealand – was introduced to New Zealand by Charles Monro in 1870. The first recorded game in New Zealand took place in May 1870 in Nelson between the Nelson club and Nelson College; the first provincial union, the Canterbury Rugby Football Union, was formed in 1879, in 1882 New Zealand's first internationals were played when New South Wales toured the country. NSW did not face a New Zealand representative team but played seven provincial sides – the tourists won four games and lost three. Two years the first New Zealand team to travel overseas toured New South Wales. A organised British team, which became the British and Irish Lions, toured New Zealand in 1888. No test matches were played, the side only played provincial sides; the British players were drawn from Northern England, but there were representatives from Wales and Scotland. In 1892, following the canvassing of provincial administrators by Ernest Hoben, the New Zealand Rugby Football Union was formed by the majority of New Zealand's provincial unions, but did not include Canterbury, Otago or Southland.
The first sanctioned New Zealand side toured New South Wales in 1893, where the Thomas Ellison captained team won nine of their ten matches. The following year New Zealand played its first home "international" game, losing 8–6 to New South Wales; the team's first true test match occurred against Australia on 15 August 1903 at the Sydney Cricket Ground in front of over 30,000 spectators, resulted in a 22–3 victory. A representative New Zealand team first toured the British Isles in 1905; the side is now known as the "Originals", as the "All Blacks" name emerged during this tour when, according to team member Billy Wallace, a London newspaper reported that the New Zealanders played as if they were "all backs". Wallace claimed that because of a typographical error, subsequent references were to "All Blacks"; this account is most a myth – because of their black playing strip, the side was referred to as the Blacks before they left New Zealand. Though the name All Blacks most existed before the trip, the tour did popularise it.
The Originals played 35 matches on tour, their only loss was a 3–0 defeat to Wales in Cardiff. The match has entered into the folklore of both countries because of a controversy over whether All Black Bob Deans scored a try which would have earned his team a 3–3 draw. In contrast to the success of the Originals on the field, the team did antagonise some in the Home Nations' rugby establishment; this complaint continued to dog New Zealand teams until the 1930s. The success of the Originals had uncomfortable consequences for the amateur NZRFU. In 1907, a party of professional players was assembled to tour the British Isles and play rugby league – a professional offshoot of rugby union, played by clubs that split from England's Rugby Football Union due to disagreements over financial compensation for players; when the "All Golds", as the team came to be known, returned they established rugby league in New Zealand, a large number of players switched to the professional code. English and Welsh authorities were alarmed by the threat of professionalism to rugby in New Zealand, in 1908 an Anglo-Welsh side undertook a tour to New Zealand to help promote the amateu
Edinburgh Rugby is one of the two professional rugby teams from Scotland. The club competes in the Pro14, along with its oldest rival. Edinburgh plays most of its home games at Murrayfield Stadium; the original Edinburgh District team played the first inter-district match against Glasgow District in 1872, winning the match 3–0. The amateur district team was reformed with professionalism, as Edinburgh Rugby, in 1996 to compete in the Heineken Cup, its best performance coming in the 2011–12 season, when the club reached the semi-final but lost narrowly to Ulster, 22–19; the quarter-final tie against Toulouse attracted a club record crowd of over 38,000 spectators to Murrayfield. In 2003–04 Edinburgh became the first Scottish team to reach the quarter-finals. In 2014–15 Edinburgh became the first Scottish club to reach a major European final, when they met Gloucester Rugby in the European Rugby Challenge Cup showpiece at Twickenham Stoop in London. Edinburgh District played in the world's first inter-district match, against Glasgow District, in 1872.
For the history of the District prior to professionalism, see: Following the introduction of professional rugby in 1995, the Scottish Rugby Union considered that Scottish club sides would not be able to compete against the best teams from France and England. The SRU therefore decided that the four district teams were to be Scotland's vehicle for professional rugby and in 1996 the Edinburgh District team was reformed as Edinburgh Rugby to compete in the Heineken Cup; because of the SRU's significant debt as a result of the redevelopment of Murrayfield Stadium, further reorganisation soon became necessary and the four professional sides were reduced to two. After two seasons as Edinburgh Rugby, the club was merged with Border Reivers to form a new team known as Edinburgh Reivers. For the 1999 and 2000 seasons the Scottish Rugby Union and Welsh Rugby Union joined forces, with the expansion of the Welsh Premier Division to include Edinburgh Reivers and Glasgow Caledonians, under the name Welsh-Scottish League.
However, further change was imminent and in 2001 an agreement was made between the Irish Rugby Football Union, Scottish Rugby Union and Welsh Rugby Union to create a new competition which would bring in the four Irish provinces. 2001 saw the first incarnation of the Celtic League. In that inaugural season Edinburgh finished in sixth place; the following season, to coincide with the re-establishment of the Border Reivers, a Scottish League competition modelled on the Tri-Nations was introduced alongside the Celtic League, however this survived for only a single season, Edinburgh becoming the only champions. Following the reduction of Scotland's professional structure from four to two sides, a further rebranding took place; the Edinburgh Reivers name was replaced by Edinburgh Rugby, with the Glasgow Caledonians undergoing a similar renaming process, as part of a "major revamp" of the professional structure in Scotland. In the 2003–04 season the team found some success, when it reached the Final of the inaugural Celtic Cup, beating Cardiff Blues and Connacht en route in the quarter-finals and semi-finals respectively.
The team's good run came to an end in the Final, with a 21–27 loss to Ulster, at Murrayfield. David Humphreys kicked 17 points in the match to earn the Irish province the trophyFor the 2005–06 season, the Edinburgh team found itself looking for a new coach after the departure of Frank Hadden to coach Scotland. Sean Lineen Glasgow Warriors assistant coach, was linked with the post before Todd Blackadder acquired the position for the season after a spell as interim coach. During the same season the team nickname was incorporated into the official name, which became the Edinburgh Gunners; the "Gunners" moniker was dropped on 29 September 2006, after the club had become Scottish rugby's first private franchise during the summer. The team name reverted to Edinburgh Rugby. One reason for the change was that the name The Gunners was a registered Trademark of Arsenal Football Club. Another reason was the wish of the new owners for a re-branding, including a different name and the introduction of a new logo.
In 2006, it was announced that from the end of the 2005–06 season, Edinburgh would become a franchise. Finance would come from a private company headed by Bob Carruthers; this was thought to be a saving grace for Border Reivers. The team was thought to be the favourite to be folded, after the Scottish Rugby Union warned that funding problems could force it to scrap one of its Celtic League sides; the SRU was to retain a seat on the new company board and continue to provide development funding and support to the new owners. Following the departure of Todd Blackadder to join the Crusaders coaching setup in Super Rugby, Lynn Howells was appointed as head coach by Edinburgh's new Executive Chairman, Alex Carruthers. In July 2007, a dispute arose between the Scottish Rugby Union and the owners of the newly franchised Edinburgh team. According to owner Bob Carruthers the SRU owed Edinburgh a six-figure sum which, he said, had not been paid. Carruthers claimed that SRU had threatened to withdraw funding should Edinburgh continue with legal action relating to the sum.
During the dispute, Alex Carruthers resigned along with Managing Director Graeme Stirling. The dispute caused much disruption in Scottish rugby at the time, leading to the temporary withdrawal of 12 players from the Scotland squad training for the 2007 Rugby World Cup; this included leading players such as Chris Paterson and Mike BlairThe dispute escalated when, on 9 July 2007, Edinburgh revoked its associate membership of the SRU. This led to doubts about Edinburgh Rugby's ability to fulfil fixtures in the Celtic League and Heineken Cup a
Galashiels is a town in the Scottish Borders and historic county of Selkirkshire, on the Gala Water river. The name is shortened to "Gala"; the town, with a population of around 12,600, is a major commercial centre for the Borders region. The town is known for textile making, is the location of Heriot-Watt University's School of Textiles and Design, Galashiels Academy and the main campus of Borders College at Netherdale. To the west of the town there is an ancient earthwork known as Catrail, it extends many miles south and its height and width varies. There is no agreement about the purpose of the earthwork. There is another ancient site on the north-western edge of the town, at Torwoodlee, an Iron Age hill fort, with a Broch known as Torwoodlee Broch built in the western quarter of the hill fort, overlapping some of the defensive ditches of the original fort; the Romans destroyed the broch in AD 140. The town's coat of arms shows two foxes reaching up to eat plums from a tree, the motto is Sour Plums pronounced in Scots as soor plooms.
This is a reference to an incident in 1337 when a raiding party of English soldiers were picking wild plums close to the town and were caught by Scots who came across them by chance and slaughtered them all. On a hillside to the north of the town, Buckholm Tower is a prominent structure which dates back to 1582 and replaced an earlier tower built on the same site but destroyed around 1570. In 1599 Galashiels received its burgh Charter, an event celebrated every summer since the 1930s by the "Braw Lads Gathering", with riders on horseback parading through the town; the Paton Street drill hall was completed in the late 19th century. Galashiels' population grew fast through the textile trade with several mills. A connection with the town's mill history, the Mill Lade, still links the town from near the site of mills at Wheatlands Road, to Netherdale, via Wilderhaugh, Bank Street, the Fountain and next to the Tesco/retail development Street. Galashiels has an oceanic climate; however due to its elevated position and distance from the sea it has colder winters and warmer summers than coastal places such as Edinburgh and Eyemouth.
Snow is much more common in winter, covers the ground for an average of 38 days a year in an average winter. The following sports clubs are based in Galashiels: Gala Cricket Club Gala Fairydean Rovers Gala RFC Galashiels Golf Club Robert Burns wrote two poems about Galashiels, "Sae Fair Her Hair" and "Braw Lads"; the latter is sung by some of the townsfolk each year at the Braw Lads Gathering. Sir Walter Scott built his home, just across the River Tweed from Galashiels; the Sir Walter Scott Way, a long-distance path from Moffat to Cockburnspath, passes through Galashiels. There is some good-hearted rivalry between some of the Galashiels townsfolk and those of other border towns Hawick, the next largest town in the Scottish Borders. Galashiels' citizens refer to their rival as dirty Hawick while the'Teries' retort that Galashiels's residents are pail merks because their town was the last to be plumbed into the mains water system and so residents had to rely on buckets as toilets. Galashiels was home to the author of the famous Scottish song, "Coulters Candy".
Robert Coltart was a weaver in the town, but made confectionery in nearby Melrose. The song was created as an advertisement, hence was renamed as "Sugar Candy" when played by the BBC; the song is better known by the first line of its chorus - "Ally, ally bally bee". Coltart died in 1890; the 1985 Marillion hit single Kayleigh was inspired by events that took place in Galashiels as the band's lead singer Fish spent some time in the town in his earlier years. In 2012 the Scottish Borders Council undertook work to revamp the Market Square with lyrics of the song inscribed into the paving slabs. Fish reopened the square on completion that year. In 1969, the historic Waverley Line which connected the Scottish Borders to the national rail network was closed as part of a wider series of cuts to British Railways; the closure led to a campaign for a return of rail to the region. Following years of campaigning, in 2006, the Waverley Railway Act was passed by the Scottish Parliament, which authorised a partial restoration of the service.
The new Borders Railway, which links Galashiels with Edinburgh, saw four new stations built in Midlothian and three in the Scottish Borders. For most of the route the original line was followed with 30 miles of new railway line built; the project is estimated to cost £294 million and was completed in September 2015, with the formal opening on 9 September by the Queen. Trains from Galashiels railway station run every half-hour going down to hourly in the evening and on Sundays. Journey times between Tweedbank and Edinburgh take less than one hour; the town has a opened Interchange building which replaces the old bus station, is situated next to the railway station. It has a café, allowing travelers and commuters to relax prior to their bus or train journey, upstairs has office space which can be leased to businesses and organizations, it has full toilet and baby changing facilities, a travel helpdesk. The following are listed by Scottish Borders Council as being in the Galashiels area and are catchment schools for Galashiels Academy.
Primary schools Balmoral Primary Burgh Primary Clovenfords Primary Fountainhall Primary, Midlothian Glendinning Terrace Primary Heriot Primary, Midlothian Langlee Primary Stow Primary St Margaret's Roman Catholic
Hawick is a town in the Scottish Borders council area and historic county of Roxburghshire in the east Southern Uplands of Scotland. It is 10.0 miles south-west of Jedburgh and 8.9 miles south-southeast of Selkirk. It is one of the farthest towns from the sea in Scotland, in the heart of Teviotdale, the biggest town in the former county of Roxburghshire. Hawick's architecture is distinctive in; the town is at the confluence of the Slitrig Water with the River Teviot. Hawick is known for its yearly Common Riding, for its rugby team Hawick Rugby Football Club and for its knitwear industry. At the 2001 census Hawick had a resident population of 14,801. By 2011, this had reduced to 14,294; the west end of the town contains "the Mote", the remains of a Norman motte-and-bailey. In the centre of the High Street is the Scots baronial style town hall, built in 1886, the east end has an equestrian statue, known as "the Horse", erected in 1914. Drumlanrig's Tower, now a museum, dates from the mid-16th century.
In 2009 another monument the "Turning of the Bull" was unveiled in Hawick. This monument depicts William Rule turning the wild bull as it was charging King Robert the Bruce, thus saving the king's life and beginning the Scottish Clan of Turnbull. A poem written by John Leyden commemorates this historical event. "His arms robust the hardy hunter flung around his bending horns, upward wrung, with writhing force his neck retorted round, rolled the panting monster to the ground, with enormous strength, his bony skull. Companies: Hawick Cashmere, Hawick Knitwear, Johnstons of Elgin, Lyle & Scott, Peter Scott, Pringle of Scotland, Scott and Charters, have had and in many cases still have manufacturing plants in Hawick, producing luxury cashmere and merino wool knitwear; the first knitting machine was brought to Hawick in 1771 by John Hardie, building on an existing carpet manufacturing trade. Based on linen, this moved to wool and factories multiplied, driving the growth of the town. Engineering firm Turnbull and Scott had their headquarters in an Elizabethan-style listed building on Commercial Road before moving to Burnfoot.
In recent times, unemployment has been an issue in Hawick, the unemployment claimant rate remained ahead of the overall Scottish Borders between 2014 and 2017. The closure of once significant employers including mills like Peter Scott and Pringle have impacted job availability in the town over the last few decades, the population has declined because of this, at 13,730 in 2016, the lowest level since the 1800s. Despite efforts to improve the economic situation and poverty remain important in the context of the Scottish Borders, with the number of children living in poverty in the town 10% higher than the average for the region in 2017. Developments such as a new central business hub, Aldi supermarket, distillery, all set for opening in 2018/19, are expected to benefit Hawick. Despite this, continued business closures, for example Homebase and the Original Factory Store in 2018, suggest continued economic decline for the town. Hawick lies in the centre of the valley of the Teviot; the A7 Edinburgh to Carlisle road passes through the town, with main roads leading to Berwick-upon-Tweed and Newcastle upon Tyne.
The town lost its rail service in 1969, when as part of the Beeching Axe the'Waverley Route' from Carlisle to Edinburgh via Hawick was closed. It was said to be the farthest large town from a railway station in the United Kingdom, but this changed as a result of the opening of the Borders Railway, which in 2015 reopened part of the former Waverley Route to Tweedbank, near Galashiels. Regular buses serve the railway station at Carlisle, 42 miles away. Reconnecting Hawick to the Borders Railway would require reinstatement of a further 17 miles of the former Waverley Route from Hawick to Tweedbank station via Hassendean, St Boswells, Melrose, refurbishment of the four arch Ale Water viaduct near New Belses. Hawick station was on the north bank of the river Teviot, below Wilton Hill Terrace, with a now demolished viaduct carrying the route south towards Carlisle. Waverley Walk in Hawick is footpath along the former railway route, north-eastward from the former station site near Teviotdale Leisure Centre.
The nearest major airports are at Edinburgh, 57 miles away, Newcastle, 56 miles away. The town hosts the annual Common Riding, which combines the annual riding of the boundaries of the town's common land with the commemoration of a victory of local youths over an English raiding party in 1514. In March 2007, this was described by the Rough Guide publication World Party as one of the best parties in the world. People from Hawick call themselves "Teries", after a traditional song which includes the line "Teribus ye teri odin". Many Hawick residents speak the local dialect of Border Scots, informally known as "Teri Talk", it is similar to the dialects spoken in surrounding towns Jedburgh and Selkirk. The speech of this general area was described in Dialect of the Southern Counties of Scotland by James Murray, considered the first systematic study of any dialect; the Hawick tongue retains many elements of Old English, together with particular vocabulary and pronunciation. Its distinctiveness arose from the relative isolation of the town.
The town is the home of Hawick Rugby Football Club an
The Southern Hemisphere is the half of Earth, south of the Equator. It contains parts of five continents, four oceans and most of the Pacific Islands in Oceania, its surface is 80.9% water, compared with 60.7% water in the case of the Northern Hemisphere, it contains 32.7% of Earth's land. Owing to the tilt of Earth's rotation relative to the Sun and the ecliptic plane, summer is from December to March and winter is from June to September. September 22 or 23 is the vernal equinox and March 20 or 21 is the autumnal equinox; the South Pole is in the center of the southern hemispherical region. Southern Hemisphere climates tend to be milder than those at similar latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere, except in the Antarctic, colder than the Arctic; this is because the Southern Hemisphere has more ocean and much less land. The differences are attributed to oceanic heat transfer and differing extents of greenhouse trapping. In the Southern Hemisphere the sun passes from east to west through the north, although north of the Tropic of Capricorn the mean sun can be directly overhead or due north at midday.
The Sun rotating through the north causes an apparent right-left trajectory through the sky unlike the left-right motion of the Sun when seen from the Northern Hemisphere as it passes through the southern sky. Sun-cast shadows turn anticlockwise throughout the day and sundials have the hours increasing in the anticlockwise direction. During solar eclipses viewed from a point to the south of the Tropic of Capricorn, the Moon moves from left to right on the disc of the Sun, while viewed from a point to the north of the Tropic of Cancer, the Moon moves from right to left during solar eclipses. Cyclones and tropical storms spin clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere due to the Coriolis effect; the southern temperate zone, a subsection of the Southern Hemisphere, is nearly all oceanic. This zone includes the southern tip of South Africa; the Sagittarius constellation that includes the galactic centre is a southern constellation and this, combined with clearer skies, makes for excellent viewing of the night sky from the Southern Hemisphere with brighter and more numerous stars.
Forests in the Southern Hemisphere have special features which set them apart from those in the Northern Hemisphere. Both Chile and Australia share, for example, unique beech species or Nothofagus, New Zealand has members of the related genera Lophozonia and Fuscospora; the eucalyptus is native to Australia but is now planted in Southern Africa and Latin America for pulp production and biofuel uses. 800 million humans live in the Southern Hemisphere, representing only 10–12% of the total global human population of 7.3 billion. Of those 800 million people, 200 million live in Brazil, the largest country by land area in the Southern Hemisphere, while 141 million live on the island of Java, the most populous island in the world; the most populous nation in the Southern Hemisphere is Indonesia, with 261 million people. Portuguese is the most spoken language in the Southern Hemisphere, followed by Javanese; the largest metropolitan areas in the Southern Hemisphere are São Paulo, Buenos Aires, Rio de Janeiro and Sydney.
The most important financial and commercial centers in the Southern Hemisphere are São Paulo, where the Bovespa Index is headquartered, along with Sydney, home to the Australian Securities Exchange, home to the Johannesburg Stock Exchange and Buenos Aires, headquarters of the Buenos Aires Stock Exchange, the oldest stock market in the Southern Hemisphere. Among the most developed nations in the Southern Hemisphere are Australia, with a nominal GDP per capita of US$51,850 and a Human Development Index of 0.939, the second highest in the world as of 2016. New Zealand is well developed, with a nominal GDP per capita of US$38,385 and a Human Development Index of 0.915, putting it at #13 in the world in 2016. The least developed nations in the Southern Hemisphere cluster in Africa and Oceania, with Burundi and Mozambique at the lowest ends of the Human Development Index, at 0.404 and 0.418 respectively. The nominal GDP per capitas of these two countries don't go above US$550 per capita, a tiny fraction of the incomes enjoyed by Australians and New Zealanders.
The most widespread religions in the Southern Hemisphere are Christianity in South America, southern Africa and Australia/New Zealand, followed by Islam in most of the islands of Indonesia and in parts of southeastern Africa, Hinduism, concentrated on the island of Bali and neighboring islands. The oldest continuously inhabited city in the Southern Hemisphere is Bogor, in western Java, founded in 669 CE. Ancient texts from the Hindu kingdoms prevalent in the area definitively record 669 CE as the year when Bogor was founded. However, there is some evidence that Zanzibar, an ancient port with around 200,000 inhabitants on