Penrose, New Zealand
Penrose is an industrial suburb in Auckland, New Zealand. It is located to the southeast of the city centre, at a distance of about nine kilometres, between the suburbs of Oranga and Mount Wellington, close to the Mangere Inlet, an arm of the Manukau Harbour. According to the 2006 census, Penrose has a population of only 675, due to the high intensity of industrial and commercial sites in the area. In 2008, there were 44,975 employees and 4,998 businesses in the Penrose area, 14 per cent of Auckland City's employment, making up seven per cent of its businesses. Of these, 16% were in manufacturing, 14% in wholesale trade, 10% in administrative and support services, 10% in professional and technical services, 8% in construction and 6% in transport and warehousing business types; the area was purchased from three local Maori Chiefs by The Wiiliams family in the late 1830s, the farm being called Penrose after their home area in Cornwall, England. The railway line between Auckland and Onehunga running through Penrose was one of the first Government funded railways in New Zealand, being opened in 1873.
It was built by the Auckland provincial government. Industry started to flourish in the area from the 1920s, due to its close connection to the main railway line and the main road with these important transport links strengthened by the motorway built following the same alignment in the 1950s. By this time, around 5,000 workers were employed in the suburb; the new motorway and the move of industrial and manufacturing occupations out of older centres like the Auckland CBD soon started a boom in the Penrose-Mount Wellington area. Industry successfully lobbied for state housing to be built close by, to provide the new area with a supply of labour. To this day, the area remains exclusively industrial, with a mix of run-down areas and newly established sites. Despite the low local population, Penrose is the site of the former Penrose High School, which in 2008 renamed itself One Tree Hill College, to shed the'industrial' associations of the name; the school attracts many students from out of the suburb, many of its students coming from as far as 20 km away.
Other State secondary schools serving the area include St Peter's College. The turnoff of the Onehunga Branch railway line from the North Auckland Line is located in Penrose; the Auckland Japanese Supplementary School, a Japanese supplementary school, holds its classes at One Tree Hill College. Penrose is home to the New Zealand Warriors. Photographs of Penrose held in Auckland Libraries' heritage collections
Te Papapa is a suburb of Auckland, New Zealand. It is located nine kilometres to the southeast of Auckland city centre, on the northern shore of Mangere Inlet, an arm of the Manukau Harbour; the suburb's population of 3081 has a high proportion of Pacific Island residents. The residential and light-industrial suburb lies between the suburbs of Onehunga and Southdown, is at the northern end of the Mangere Bridge which connects it with the South Auckland suburb of Mangere. One Tree Hill College, a state secondary school, is located in Te Papapa. Train services on the Onehunga Line run through the suburb on the Onehunga Branch line, which reopened in 2010. Services at Te Papapa station commenced on 19 September 2010. Carter Holt Harvey's head office is located at 173 Captain Springs Road in the Te Papapa area. Photographs of Te Papapa held in Auckland Libraries' heritage collections
Auckland is a city in the North Island of New Zealand. Auckland is the largest urban area in the country, with an urban population of around 1,628,900, it is located in the Auckland Region—the area governed by Auckland Council—which includes outlying rural areas and the islands of the Hauraki Gulf, resulting in a total population of 1,695,900. A diverse and multicultural city, Auckland is home to the largest Polynesian population in the world; the Māori-language name for Auckland is Tāmaki or Tāmaki-makau-rau, meaning "Tāmaki with a hundred lovers", in reference to the desirability of its fertile land at the hub of waterways in all directions. The Auckland urban area ranges to Waiwera in the north, Kumeu in the north-west, Runciman in the south. Auckland lies between the Hauraki Gulf of the Pacific Ocean to the east, the low Hunua Ranges to the south-east, the Manukau Harbour to the south-west, the Waitakere Ranges and smaller ranges to the west and north-west; the surrounding hills are covered in rainforest and the landscape is dotted with dozens of dormant volcanic cones.
The central part of the urban area occupies a narrow isthmus between the Manukau Harbour on the Tasman Sea and the Waitematā Harbour on the Pacific Ocean. Auckland is one of the few cities in the world to have a harbour on each of two separate major bodies of water; the isthmus on which Auckland resides was first settled around 1350 and was valued for its rich and fertile land. The Māori population in the area is estimated to have peaked at 20,000 before the arrival of Europeans. After a British colony was established in 1840, William Hobson Lieutenant-Governor of New Zealand, chose the area as his new capital, he named the area for Earl of Auckland, British First Lord of the Admiralty. It was replaced as the capital in 1865 by Wellington, but immigration to Auckland stayed strong, it has remained the country's most populous city. Today, Auckland's central business district is the major financial centre of New Zealand. Auckland is classified as a Beta + World City because of its importance in commerce, the arts, education.
The University of Auckland, established in 1883, is the largest university in New Zealand. Landmarks such as the Auckland Art Gallery Toi o Tāmaki, the Harbour Bridge, the Sky Tower, many museums, parks and theatres are among the city's significant tourist attractions. Auckland Airport handles around one million international passengers a month. Despite being one of the most expensive cities in the world, Auckland is ranked third on the 2016 Mercer Quality of Living Survey, making it one of the most liveable cities; the isthmus was settled by Māori circa 1350, was valued for its rich and fertile land. Many pā were created on the volcanic peaks; the Māori population in the area is estimated to have been about 20,000 before the arrival of Europeans. The introduction of firearms at the end of the eighteenth century, which began in Northland, upset the balance of power and led to devastating intertribal warfare beginning in 1807, causing iwi who lacked the new weapons to seek refuge in areas less exposed to coastal raids.
As a result, the region had low numbers of Māori when European settlement of New Zealand began. On 27 January 1832, Joseph Brooks Weller, eldest of the Weller brothers of Otago and Sydney, bought land including the site of the modern city of Auckland, the North Shore, part of Rodney District for "one large cask of powder" from "Cohi Rangatira". After the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi in February 1840, the new Governor of New Zealand, William Hobson, chose the area as his new capital and named it for George Eden, Earl of Auckland Viceroy of India; the land that Auckland was established on was given to the Governor by a local iwi, Ngāti Whātua, as a sign of goodwill and in the hope that the building of a city would attract commercial and political opportunities for iwi. Auckland was declared New Zealand's capital in 1841, the transfer of the administration from Russell in the Bay of Islands was completed in 1842; however in 1840 Port Nicholson was seen as a better choice for an administrative capital because of its proximity to the South Island, Wellington became the capital in 1865.
After losing its status as capital, Auckland remained the principal city of the Auckland Province until the provincial system was abolished in 1876. In response to the ongoing rebellion by Hone Heke in the mid-1840s, the government encouraged retired but fit British soldiers and their families to migrate to Auckland to form a defence line around the port settlement as garrison soldiers. By the time the first Fencibles arrived in 1848, the rebels in the north had been defeated. Outlying defensive towns were constructed to the south, stretching in a line from the port village of Onehunga in the west to Howick in the east; each of the four settlements had about 800 settlers. In the early 1860s, Auckland became a base against the Māori King Movement, the 12,000 Imperial soldiers stationed there led to a strong boost to local commerce. This, continued road building towards the south into the Waikato, enabled Pākehā influence to spread from Auckland; the city's population grew rapidly, from 1,500 in 1841 to 3,635 in 1845 to 12,423 by 1864.
The growth occurred to other mercantile-dominated cities around the port and with problems of overcrowding and pollution. Auckland's population of ex-soldiers was far greater than that of other settlements: about 50 percent of the popula
Mount Wellington, New Zealand
Mount Wellington is a suburb in East Auckland, New Zealand, located 10 kilometres southeast of the city centre. It is surrounded by the suburbs of Stonefields, Panmure and Ellerslie, by the Tamaki River; the suburb is named after the volcanic peak of Maungarei / Mount Wellington. Sylvia Park is a large business shopping centre located in the suburb. Maungarei / Mount Wellington is a 135-metre volcanic peak of the Auckland volcanic field, it is the youngest onshore volcano of the Auckland volcanic field, having been formed by an eruption around 10,000 years ago. It is the largest of Auckland's scoria cones, it is not expected to erupt again. Bailey Road School is a state, coeducational full primary school with a roll of 418 and a decile rating of 3. Stanhope Road School is a state, coeducational full primary school with a roll of 495 and a decile rating of 4, it was established in 1958. Sylvia Park School is a state, coeducational full primary school with a roll of 248 and a decile rating of 2. Stonefields School is a school right at the base of Mt Wellington.
It is a full primary school Volcanoes of Auckland: The Essential guide - Hayward, B. W. Murdoch, G. Maitland, G.. Bailey Road School Stanhope school Sylvia Park School Photographs of Mount Wellington held in Auckland Libraries' heritage collections
The name fibro or fibrolite is short for "fibrous cement sheet", more called "asbestos cement sheet" or "AC sheet". It is a building material. Asbestos-cement is a modern product, utilized in industrial work due to the plain surface and lack of stylistic elements on each sheet; the material rose to necessity during World War II to make sturdy, inexpensive military housing, continued to be used as an affordable substitute for many roofing products following the war. Advertised as a fireproof alternative to other roofing materials such as asphalt, asbestos-cement roofs were popular not only for safety but for affordability. Due to asbestos-cement’s imitation of more expensive materials such as wood siding and shingles, brick and stone, the product was marketed as an affordable renovation material. Asbestos-cement faced competition with the aluminum alloy, available in large quantities after WWII, the reemergence of wood clapboard and vinyl siding in the mid to late twentieth century. Asbestos-cement is formed into flat or corrugated sheets or piping, but can be molded into any shape wet cement can fit.
In Europe, many forms were used for cement sheets, while the US leaned more conservative in material shapes due to labor and production costs. Although fibro was used in a number of countries, it was in Australia and New Zealand where its use was the most widespread. Predominantly manufactured and sold by James Hardie & Co. until the mid-1980s, fibro in all its forms was a popular building material due to its durability. The reinforcing fibres involved in construction were always asbestos; the use of fibro that contains asbestos has been banned including Australia. As as 2016, the material has been discovered in new components sold for construction projects; when exposed to weather and erosion elements, such as in roofs, the surface corrosion of asbestos cement can be a source of airborne toxic fibres. Asbestos is directly related to a number of life-threatening diseases including, pleural mesothelioma and peritoneal mesothelioma. Fibre cement sheet is still available, but the reinforcing fibres are now cellulose rather than asbestos.
However the name "fibro" is still applied to it for traditional reasons. Roofs- on industrial or farmyard buildings. Flat sheets for house walls and ceilings were 6 mm and 4.5 mm thick, in 900 and 1200 widths and from 1800 to 3000 long. Battens 50 mm wide × 8 mm thick used to cover the joints in fibro sheets. "Super Six" corrugated roof fencing. Internal wet area sheeting, "Tilux" Pipes of various sizes for water reticulation and drainage. Drainage pipes tend to be made with asbestos cement added to strengthen. Moulded products ranging from plant pots to outdoor telephone cabinet roofs and cable pits; some Australian states, such as Queensland, prohibit the cleaning of fibro with pressure washers, because it can spread the embedded asbestos fibres over a wide area. Safer cleaning methods involve using a sealant. In the James Blundell & James Reyne song "Way Out West", there is a reference to a fibro cement house, with the original Dingoes' version of the song having a reference to a house of fibre cement.
Fibro is mentioned several times on the Australian TV show Housos. Fibre cement Eternit Transite https://web.archive.org/web/20061117143719/http://www.nsw.gov.au/fibro/ Advice if you have FAC in your home
The Waikaraka Cycleway is an off-road cycleway in the south of Auckland City, New Zealand, running from the Wesley suburb in southern Auckland City along New Zealand State Highway 20 to Onehunga and continuing along the shoreline of the Manukau Harbour beside industrialised areas until it ends at Hugo Johnston Drive, in Southdown. The initial construction of the cycleway was plagued by cost blow-outs, as the cost-estimates did not sufficiently allow for a number of extra factors during construction, such as remedial work around contaminated land, the need to construct the path to a long-lasting quality on worse ground than expected, above an underground gas pipeline route. Running only 4km from Onehunga, near the Mangere Bridge to Pikes Point, the cycleway was extended in 2008 along the Southwestern Motorway as far as the motorway's western end; as of early 2010 this extension of the link still had gaps near Onehunga and the Mt Roskill cone, which were completed closed as works on the Mangere Bridge duplication and the Mt Roskill park facilities proceeded, with this latter gap finished in July 2010.
The Mt Roskill gap was late in being closed, due to sensitive issues regarding building a motorway and the associated cycleway across the side of a protected environment, important to local Maori. An agreement was reached that narrowed the cycleway locally and included significant new landscaping, as well as Maori carvings such as a winged sculptural gate across the path. NZ Transport Agency has improved linkages to the cycleway near Mangere Bridge, including with a new overbridge over Onehunga Harbour Road and works on the causeway / Old Mangere Bridge link to the Mangere Bridge suburb to the south. In May 2011, the Board of Inquiry hearing the resource consent process for the Waterview Connection decided that NZTA was to set aside $8 million for the construction of an off-road surface cycleway between SH16 and the existing SH20 section in Hillsborough, as part of the tunneling project; this will create a connection between the Waikaraka Cycleway. Waikaraka Cycleway
Westfield, New Zealand
Westfield is an Auckland suburb. This was once the site of the Westfield Freezing Works, part of a large industrial zone located near the North Island Main Trunk railway at this point; the buildings were decommissioned during the 1980s and 1990s, releasing large areas of land to be redeveloped as office parks. Westfield was the location of Kempthorne Prosser Limited's large Westfield Chemical Fertiliser Works which operated from 1887-1966; the works were demolished in the 1970s. For many years the abattoirs located here were discharging large amounts of untreated waste into Manukau Harbour; this had a detrimental effect on the ecology of the harbor, which at the turn of the 20th century had been a popular and attractive place to swim, sail and gather shell fish. For most of the middle of the 20th century it was a health hazard and its shell-fish a probable source of food poisoning. Since the freezing works disappeared the water quality has improved greatly. Portage Road is the location of one of the overland routes between the two harbours, where the Māori would beach their waka and drag them overland to the other coast, thus avoiding having to paddle around North Cape.
This made the area of immense strategic importance in both pre-European times and during the early years of European occupation. At one point during World War II there were plans to create a canal between the two harbours. In March 2017, Westfield Railway Station was permanently closed due to low patronage. Auckland Transport announced it would have required a costly upgrade in order to keep it in operation. Photographs of Westfield held in Auckland Libraries' heritage collections