Sports in Minnesota
Sports in Minnesota include professional teams in all major sports, Olympic Games contenders and medalists in the Winter Olympics, collegiate teams in major and small-school conferences and associations and active amateur teams and individual sports. The State of Minnesota has a team in all five major professional leagues. Along with professional sports, there are numerous collegiate teams including the University of Minnesota Golden Gophers in the NCAA Division I, Minnesota State Mavericks in NCAA Division I and NCAA Division II and many others across the Minnesota public and private colleges and universities; the Minnesota Twins are an MLB team that moved to Minnesota in 1961 from Washington D. C. where they were known as the Washington Senators. The Twins played their home games at Metropolitan Stadium in Bloomington from 1961 to 1981 and the Metrodome in Minneapolis from 1982 to 2009, moving to their current stadium, Target Field, in 2010, they have been to the World Series in 1965, 1987 and 1991, winning in 1987 and 1991.
In 2001, the Twins and the Montreal Expos were threatened with closure in a contraction scheme of the Commissioner of Baseball. That effort was unsuccessful, the next year the team made it to the American League Championship Series. Notable current and former Twins include Kirby Puckett, Bert Blyleven, Rod Carew, Tony Oliva, Harmon Killebrew, Paul Molitor, Johan Santana, Joe Mauer, Justin Morneau, Torii Hunter, Joe Nathan, David Ortiz and Kent Hrbek. There was a Minor League Baseball team based in St Paul called the St Paul Saints; the current St. Paul Saints are an American Association team; the team used to be part of the Northern League. The team was founded in 1993 as an inaugural team in the league, they won the Northern League Championship in 1993, 1995, 1996, in 2004. Notable current and former players include Kevin Millar, Darryl Strawberry, Jason Varitek, Jack Morris, Ila Borders; the Saints play their home games at CHS Field in St. Paul and are not affiliated with Major League Baseball.
They moved to downtown St Paul in time for the 2015 season. The Minnesota Lynx are a Women's National Basketball Association team founded in 1999 and play their home games at Target Center in Minneapolis; the Lynx have won four WNBA Championships, doing so during the 2013, 2015 and 2017 season. In 2005, the Lynx drafted Seimone Augustus from Louisiana State University, she became the foundation of the franchise and has been the focus of many WNBA advertisements. Maya Moore, drafted first overall in 2011, has contributed in great part to the Lynx's success, winning an MVP award in 2014; the Minnesota Timberwolves are an NBA team founded in 1989 and play their home games at Target Center in Minneapolis. The "Wolves", as they are called by fans, have yet to appear in an NBA Finals series, but made it to the Western Conference Finals in 2004. In 2000, NBA officials ruled that the Wolves violated league rules when signing then-free agent Joe Smith, they declared the contract was henceforth invalid, fined the organization $3.5 million and took the team's next three first-round draft picks.
Notable current and former players include Kevin Garnett, Kevin Love, Sam Cassell, Karl Anthony-Towns, Ricky Rubio, Stephon Marbury, Latrell Sprewell, Terry Porter, Sam Mitchell, Wally Szczerbiak, Malik Sealy and Andrew Wiggins. The Minneapolis Lakers were an NBA team, moved from Detroit to Minneapolis in 1947. During their stay in Minneapolis, the Lakers won the 1947–48 National Basketball League championship joined four other NBL teams in joining the Basketball Association of America, where they won the 1948–49 BAA championship. After the 1948–49 season, the NBL and the BAA merged to become the NBA; the Lakers won five championships in six years, in 1949, 1950, 1952, 1953 and 1954. They are considered to be the NBA's first "dynasty". Notable players include George Mikan, Jim Pollard, Vern Mikkelsen, Slater Martin, Clyde Lovellette and Elgin Baylor. In 1960, the Lakers moved to Los Angeles; the Minnesota Vikings are an NFL team founded as an expansion team in 1961. They play their home games at U.
S. Bank Stadium; the Vikings have won one one year before the AFL -- NFL Merger. The Vikings were the first team to appear in four Super Bowls, but lost all of them, their last appearance in the Super Bowl was Super Bowl XI against the Oakland Raiders in 1977. Notable current and former players include Warren Moon, Randall Cunningham, Jim Marshall, Ron Yary, Mick Tingelhoff, Paul Krause, Cris Carter, Carl Eller, Fran Tarkenton, Chuck Foreman, Randy Moss, Daunte Culpepper, Darren Sharper, Jim Kleinsasser, Brad Johnson, Alan Page, the "Purple People Eaters", Adrian Peterson, Randall McDaniel, John Randle among others Before the Vikings, Minnesota hosted the Minneapolis Marines/Red Jackets and the Duluth Kelleys/Eskimos. Three players who played for Duluth are in the Pro Football Hall of Fame; the Duluth teams played at Athletic Park. In 2014, the Bemidji Axemen of Bemidji played two seasons as a team in the Indoor Football League; the Minnesota Vixen are a Women's American Football team founded in 1998.
They are the oldest professional women's football team in the U. S; the Minnesota Machine are a Women’s American Football team founded in 2008. The Minnesota Wild are an NHL team founded in 2000 and play their home games at the Xcel Energy Center in Saint Paul; the Wild have not appeared in the Stanley Cup Finals. With their second draft pick in franchise history, the Wild drafted Mikko Koivu, who now
Index of Minnesota-related articles
The following is an alphabetical list of articles related to the U. S. state of Minnesota..mn.us – Internet second-level domain for the state of Minnesota 32nd state to join the United States of America Adjacent states and provinces: Province of Manitoba Province of Ontario State of Iowa State of Michigan State of North Dakota State of South Dakota State of Wisconsin Agriculture in Minnesota Airports in Minnesota American Jugoslav Association of Minnesota Amusement parks in Minnesota Aquaria in Minnesota commons:Category:Aquaria in Minnesota Arboreta in Minnesota commons:Category:Arboreta in Minnesota Archaeology of Minnesota Category:Archaeological sites in Minnesota commons:Category:Archaeological sites in Minnesota Architecture of Minnesota Art museums and galleries in Minnesota commons:Category:Art museums and galleries in Minnesota Astronomical observatories in Minnesota commons:Category:Astronomical observatories in Minnesota Beaches of Minnesota commons:Category:Beaches of Minnesota Botanical gardens in Minnesota commons:Category:Botanical gardens in Minnesota Buildings and structures in Minnesota commons:Category:Buildings and structures in Minnesota Canyons and gorges of Minnesota commons:Category:Canyons and gorges of Minnesota Capital of the State of Minnesota Capitol of the State of Minnesota commons:Category:Minnesota State Capitol Casinos in Minnesota Caves of Minnesota commons:Category:Caves of Minnesota Cemeteries in Minnesota Census statistical areas of Minnesota Cities in Minnesota commons:Category:Cities in Minnesota Climate of Minnesota Category:Climate of Minnesota commons:Category:Climate of Minnesota Colleges and universities in Minnesota commons:Category:Universities and colleges in Minnesota Communications in Minnesota commons:Category:Communications in Minnesota Companies in Minnesota Category:Companies based in Minnesota Congressional districts of Minnesota Constitution of the State of Minnesota Convention centers in Minnesota commons:Category:Convention centers in Minnesota Counties of the State of Minnesota commons:Category:Counties in Minnesota Courthouses in Minnesota Culture of Minnesota Category:Minnesota culture commons:Category:Minnesota culture Demographics of Minnesota Ecology of Minnesota Economy of Minnesota Category:Economy of Minnesota commons:Category:Economy of Minnesota Education in Minnesota Category:Education in Minnesota commons:Category:Education in Minnesota Elections of the state of Minnesota commons:Category:Minnesota elections Environment of Minnesota commons:Category:Environment of Minnesota Festivals in Minnesota commons:Category:Festivals in Minnesota Films set in Minnesota Films shot in Minnesota Flag of the state of Minnesota Flora of Minnesota Forests in Minnesota Category:Minnesota state forests Forestry in Minnesota Forts in Minnesota Category:Forts in Minnesota commons:Category:Forts in Minnesota Geography of Minnesota Category:Geography of Minnesota commons:Category:Geography of Minnesota Geology of Minnesota Category:Geology of Minnesota commons:Category:Geology of Minnesota Ghost towns in Minnesota Category:Ghost towns in Minnesota commons:Category:Ghost towns in Minnesota Golf clubs and courses in Minnesota Government of the state of Minnesota website Category:Government of Minnesota commons:Category:Government of Minnesota Governor of the State of Minnesota List of Governors of Minnesota Great Seal of the State of Minnesota Hennepin County Law Library Heritage railroads in Minnesota commons:Category:Heritage railroads in Minnesota High schools of Minnesota Higher education in Minnesota Highway routes in Minnesota Hiking trails in Minnesota commons:Category:Hiking trails in Minnesota History of Minnesota Historical outline of Minnesota Hospitals in Minnesota House of Representatives of the State of Minnesota Images of Minnesota commons:Category:Minnesota Islands in Minnesota Island Station Power Plant Lakes in Minnesota Lake Superior Category:Lakes of Minnesota commons:Category:Lakes of Minnesota Landmarks in Minnesota commons:Category:Landmarks in Minnesota Lieutenant Governor of the State of Minnesota Lists related to the state of Minnesota: List of airports in Minnesota List of Minnesota amphibians List of Minnesota ants List of Minnesota aquatic plants List of Minnesota birds List of census statistical areas in Minnesota List of cities in Minnesota List of colleges and universities in Minnesota List of companies in Minnesota List of United States congressional districts in Minnesota List of counties in Minnesota List of Minnesota fish List of forts in Minnesota List of ghost towns in Minnesota List of Governors of Minnesota List of high schools in Minnesota List of highway routes in Minnesota List of hospitals in Minnesota List of islands in Minnesota List of lakes in Minnesota List of law enforcement agencies in Minnesota List of Lieutenant Governors of Minnesota List of Minnesota mammals List of museums in Minnesota List of National Historic Landmarks in Minnesota List of newspapers in Minnesota List of people from Minnesota List of radio stations in Minnesota List of railroads in Minnesota List of Registered Historic Places in Minnesota List of Minnesota reptiles List of rivers of Minnesota List of school districts in Minnesota List of snakes in Minnesota List of state forests in Minnesota List of state parks in Minnesota List of state prisons in Minnesota List of symbols of the State of Minnesota List of television stations in Minnesota List of towns in Minnesota List of Minnesota trees List of United States congressional delegations from Minnesota List of United States congressional districts in Minnesota List of United States Representatives from Minnesota List of United States Senators from Minnesota List of Minnesota weather records List of Minnesota wild flowers Louisiana Purchase of 1803 Maps of Minnesota commons:Category:Maps of Minnesota Maritime Heritage Minnesota MetroGIS Minneapolis, Minnesota Me
Rochester is a city founded in 1854 in the U. S. State of Minnesota and is the county seat of Olmsted County located on the Zumbro River's south fork in Southeast Minnesota, it is Minnesota's third-largest city and the largest city located outside the Minneapolis-St. Paul Metropolitan Statistical Area; as of 2015, the Rochester metropolitan area has a population of 215,884. According to the 2010 United States Census the city has a population of 106,769; the U. S. Census Bureau estimated that the 2017 population was 115,733, it is the home of the Mayo Clinic and an IBM facility one of the company's largest. The city has long been rated as one of the best places to live in the United States by multiple publications such as Money; the area developed as a stagecoach stop between Saint Paul and Dubuque, Iowa near the Zumbro River. The community was founded by George Head and his wife Henrietta who built log cabin Head's Tavern in 1854 and named the city after his hometown of Rochester, New York; when the Winona and St Peter Railroad initiated service in October 1864, it brought new residents and business opportunities further spurring growth and expansion.
In 1863, Dr. William W. Mayo arrived as the examining surgeon for Union draftees in the Civil War. Rochester celebrated its sesquicentennial in 2004. On August 21, 1883, the Great Tornado demolished much of Rochester, leaving 37 dead and 200 injured; as there was no medical facility in the immediate area at the time, Dr. Mayo and his two sons worked together to care for the wounded. Donations of US$60,000 were collected and the Sisters of St. Francis, assisted by Mayo, opened a new facility named St. Marys Hospital in 1889; the Mayo practice grew and is today among the largest and most well-respected medical facilities in the world. Many notable people from around the world, including former Presidents Franklin D. Roosevelt, Harry S. Truman, George H. W. Bush, Gerald Ford, Ronald Reagan, have visited Rochester as patients of the Mayo Clinic. Rochester has been hit by two F4 tornadoes since 1950. Rochester lies alongside the South Fork of the Zumbro River, 57.6 miles long and is ringed by gentle hills and surrounded by farmland within a deciduous forest biome.
The Zumbro Watershed flows through 1,422 square miles of urban lands. Located in southeast Minnesota, the City of Rochester falls within the Driftless Area: the only region in North America, never glaciated and contains deeply-carved river valleys; the rugged terrain is due both to the lack of glacial deposits, or drift, to the incision of the upper Mississippi River and its tributaries into bedrock. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 54.75 square miles, of which 54.59 square miles of it is land and 0.16 square miles is water. The city is located 85 miles southeast of Minneapolis-St. Paul. Rochester is in one of only four counties in Minnesota without a natural lake. Artificial lakes exist in the area, including Silver Lake, a dammed portion of the South Fork Zumbro River just below the convergence with Silver Creek near the city center. Silver Lake was once used as a cooling pond when the coal-burning power plant was operated by Rochester Public Utilities at the lake.
When operational, the RPU coal plant's heated water output prevented the lake from freezing over during the winter months. Rochester has an extensive parks system, the largest of which are Silver Lake and Soldiers Field in the central part of the city. A major flood in 1978 led the city to embark on an expensive and successful flood-control project that involved altering many nearby rivers and streams; the Zumbro river flowing through the center of the city is presently being readdressed for increased development and use as part of city planning in conjunction with funding from the Destination Medical Center project. Rochester features a humid continental climate, with hot summers and cold winters; the city features four distinct seasons. Rochester sees on 48 inches of snowfall per year. Significant snow accumulation is common during the winter months. Spring and fall are transitional seasons, with a general warming trend during the spring and a general cooling trend during the fall. However, it is not uncommon to see some snowfall during the early months of spring and the months of fall.
Rochester is the second windiest city in the United States, with wind speeds averaging 12.6 mph. January to April are the windiest months on average, according to The Weather Channel; as of the census of 2010, there were 106,769 people, 43,025 households, 26,853 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,955.8 inhabitants per square mile. There were 45,683 housing units at an average density of 836.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 82.0% White, 6.3% African American, 0.3% Native American, 6.8% Asian, 2.0% from other races, 2.6% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 7.2% of the population. In terms of ancestry, the 2005–2007 American Community Survey found German Americans to be the largest single ethnic group in Rochester, making up 35.5% of the city's population. Norwegian Americans made up 15.9%, while Irish Americans contributed to 11.6% of the city's populace. English Americans made up 8.2% of the populatio
Red Wing, Minnesota
Red Wing is a city in Goodhue County, United States, along the upper Mississippi River. The population was 16,459 at the 2010 census, it is the county seat of Goodhue County. Red Wing is home to the manufacturers of nationally known products: Red Wing Shoes, Riedell Skates, Red Wing Stoneware; the Cannon Valley Trail has its eastern terminus in Red Wing. Treasure Island Resort & Casino is operated by the nearby Prairie Island Indian Reservation; the National Trust for Historic Preservation placed Red Wing on its 2008 distinctive destinations list, which adds twelve communities annually nationwide. Red Wing was added for its "impressive architecture and enviable natural environment." Red Wing is connected to Wisconsin by Red Wing Bridge. S. Route 63 over the Mississippi River and its backwaters; this city was named after Red Wing, or Hupahuduta. He was one of a succession of Mdewakanton Dakota chiefs whose name "Red Wing" came from their use of a dyed swan's wing as their symbol of rank, he was an ally of British soldiers during the War of 1812.
After a vision in which he saw the Americans driving out the British, he declared neutrality. French Canadians referred to him as L'Aile Rouge, he took the name Shakea, or "The Man Who Paints Himself Red," after passing the name Red Wing on to a successor chief. During the lifetime of Hupahuduta, there were few European-American pioneers in his territory. Red Wing was known as a firm friend of the United States, keeping peace with the traders and settlers, trading for goods that were valued by his tribe; the federal government established a Mdewakanton Sioux Indian reservation in 1889 along the Mississippi River to free up land for new settlers. The city of Red Wing developed around it; this reservation is known as the Prairie Island Indian Community. In the early 1850s, settlers from Mississippi River steamboats came to Red Wing to farm in Goodhue County, they encroached on traditional territory of the Mdewakanton Sioux. The settlers cleared the land for the annual crop of which could pay the cost of the land.
Before the railroads were constructed across the territory of Goodhue County, it produced more wheat than any other county in the country. In 1873, Red Wing led the country in the amount of wheat sold by farmers; the warehouses in the port of Red Wing could export more than a million bushels of wheat. Once the railroads connected southern Minnesota with Minneapolis and Saint Anthony where the largest flour mills were built, the port at Red Wing lost prominence; the Aurora Ski Club in Red Wing, founded on February 8, 1887, was one of the first ski clubs formed in North America, reflecting skills of Scandinavian immigrants in the area. Aurora club members introduced in the 1880s, what became known as “Red Wing Style” ski techniques, patterned after the Telemark skiing form; the term "Red Wing style" continued in use in the United States well into the twentieth century. The first North American ski jumping record was set by Norwegian immigrant Mikkjel Hemmestveit, his 37-foot flight in 1887 was established at the Aurora Ski Club's McSorley Hill.
The federal government established a Mdewakanton Sioux Indian reservation in 1889 along the Mississippi River to free up land for new settlers. It is now within the boundaries of the city of Red Wing, is known as the Prairie Island Indian Community; the first settlers in town built small mills and workshops, similar to ones they were familiar with in New England and the upper Midwest, from where many had come. Numerous immigrants from Germany, Ireland and Sweden settled in this area and were skilled craftsmen; some early industries were tanning and shoe-making, while other businessmen manufactured farm equipment, barrels, furniture and buttons. Consumables included lumber. Service industries including stone-cutting and retailing; the St. James Hotel remains a working token of the earlier time. Red Wing was once home to Hamline University, founded in 1854 as the first institution of higher education in the state of Minnesota, it closed in 1869 because of low enrollment due to diversion of students to the American Civil War.
Chartered in St. Paul in 1871, it reopened there in 1880. Red Wing Seminary was a Lutheran Church seminary, founded in 1879. Red Wing Seminary was the educational center for the Hauge's Norwegian Evangelical Lutheran Synod in America known as the Hauge Synod. Red Wing Seminary operated until 1917. Red Wing was the home of Minnesota Elementarskola a Swedish elementary school, the predecessor to Gustavus Adolphus College, a private liberal arts college of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of America; the school was founded in Red Wing in 1862 by Eric Norelius, it moved to East Union in 1863 and in St. Peter the college was built in 1873-1876; the Red Wing pottery and stoneware industry began in 1861, when county potter John Paul discovered the large, glacially deposited clay pits beds on the northwest of the city, close to Hay Creek. The first commercial pottery company, Red Wing Stoneware, was founded in 1877, it used clay from the area of the Hay Creek headwaters, close to Goodhue, near a hamlet named Claybank.
A railroad branch line was built to carry clay to Red Wing for this important industry. The factory buildings remain; the Minnesota Correctional Facility – Red Wing is housed in the former Minnesota State Training School, built in 1889. The original Romanesque building was designed by Warren B. Dunnell, he was the architect of a number of historical public buildings in Minnesota. The
Geography of Minnesota
Minnesota is the northernmost state outside Alaska. Minnesota is in the U. S. region known as the Upper Midwest. The state shares a Lake Superior water border with Wisconsin on the northeast. Iowa is to the south, North Dakota and South Dakota are west, the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Manitoba are north. With 87,014 square miles, or 2.26 % of the United States, Minnesota is the 12th largest state. Minnesota contains some of the oldest rocks found on earth, gneisses some 3.6 billion years old, or 80% as old as the planet. About 2.7 billion years ago, basaltic lava poured out of cracks in the floor of the primordial ocean. The roots of these volcanic mountains and the action of Precambrian seas formed the Iron Range of northern Minnesota. Following a period of volcanism 1.1 billion years ago, Minnesota's geological activity has been more subdued, with no volcanism or mountain formation, but with repeated incursions of the sea which left behind multiple strata of sedimentary rock. In more recent times, massive ice sheets at least one kilometer thick ravaged the landscape of the state and sculpted its current terrain.
The Wisconsin glaciation left 12,000 years ago. These glaciers covered all of Minnesota except the far southeast, an area characterized by steep hills and streams that cut into the bedrock; this area is known as the Driftless Zone for its absence of glacial drift. Much of the remainder of the state outside the northeast has 50 feet or more of glacial till left behind as the last glaciers retreated. 13,000 years ago gigantic Lake Agassiz formed in the northwest. Minnesota is geologically quiet today; the state's high point is Eagle Mountain at 2,301 feet, only 13 miles away from the low of 602 feet at the shore of Lake Superior. Notwithstanding dramatic local differences in elevation, much of the state is a rolling peneplain. Two continental divides meet in the northeastern part of Minnesota in rural Hibbing, forming a triple watershed. Precipitation can follow the Mississippi River south to the Gulf of Mexico, the St. Lawrence Seaway east to the Atlantic Ocean, or the Hudson Bay watershed to the Arctic Ocean.
The state's nickname, The Land of 10,000 Lakes, is no exaggeration. The Minnesota portion of Lake Superior is the largest at 962,700 acres and deepest body of water in the state. Minnesota streams that cumulatively flow for 69,000 miles; the Mississippi River begins its journey from its headwaters at Lake Itasca and crosses the Iowa border 680 miles downstream. It is joined by the Minnesota River at Fort Snelling, by the St. Croix River near Hastings, by the Chippewa River at Wabasha, by many smaller streams; the Red River, in the bed of glacial Lake Agassiz, drains the northwest part of the state northward toward Canada's Hudson Bay. 10.6 million acres of wetlands are contained within Minnesota's borders, the most of any state except Alaska. Three of North America's biomes converge in Minnesota: prairie grasslands in the southwestern and western parts of the state, the Big Woods deciduous forest of the southeast, the northern boreal forest; the northern coniferous forests are a vast wilderness of pine and spruce trees mixed with patchy stands of birch and poplar.
Much of Minnesota's northern forest has been logged, leaving only a few patches of old growth forest today in areas such as in the Chippewa National Forest and the Superior National Forest where the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness has some 400,000 acres of unlogged land. Although logging continues, regrowth keeps about one third of the state forested. While loss of habitat has affected native animals such as the pine marten and bison, whitetail deer and bobcat thrive; the state has the nation's largest population of timber wolves outside Alaska, supports healthy populations of black bear and moose. Located on the Mississippi Flyway, Minnesota hosts migratory waterfowl such as geese and ducks, game birds such as grouse and turkeys, it is home to birds of prey including the bald eagle, red-tailed hawk, snowy owl. The lakes teem with sport fish such as walleye, bass and northern pike, streams in the southeast are populated by brook and rainbow trout. Minnesota endures temperature extremes characteristic of its continental climate.
Meteorological events include rain, hail, polar fronts, tornadoes and high-velocity straight-line winds. The growing season varies from 90 days per year in the Iron Range to 160 days in southeast Minnesota near the Mississippi River, mean average temperatures range from 36 °F to 49 °F. Average summer dewpoints range from about 58 °F in the south to about 48 °F in the north. Depending on location, average annual precipitation ranges from 19 in to 35 in, droughts occur every 10 to 50 years. Minnesota is home to a variety of wilderness and other open spaces. Minnesota's first state park, Itasca State Park, was established in 1891, is the source of the Mississip
The Driftless Area is a region in southeastern Minnesota, southwestern Wisconsin, northeastern Iowa, the extreme northwestern corner of Illinois, of the American Midwest. The region escaped glaciation during the last ice age and is characterized by steep, forested ridges, deeply-carved river valleys, karst geology characterized by spring-fed waterfalls and cold-water trout streams. Ecologically, the flora and fauna of the Driftless Area are more related to those of the Great Lakes region and New England rather than those of the broader Midwest and central Plains regions. Colloquially, the term includes the incised Paleozoic Plateau of southeastern Minnesota and northeastern Iowa; the region includes elevations ranging from 603 to 1,719 feet at Blue Mound State Park and covers an area of 24,000 square miles. The rugged terrain is due both to the lack of glacial deposits, or drift, to the incision of the upper Mississippi River and its tributaries into bedrock. An alternative, less restrictive definition of the Driftless Area includes the sand Plains region located northeast of Wisconsin's portion of the incised Paleozoic Plateau in the southwestern part of the state.
This portion of the Driftless Area in the southwestern section of Wisconsin's Central Plain lacks evidence of glaciation, contains many isolated Hills, Mesas and Pinnacles that are outlying eroded Cambrian bedrock remnants of the plateau to the southwest. Retreating glaciers leave behind silt, sand and boulders called drift. Glacial drift includes unsorted material called till and layers deposited by meltwater streams called outwash. While drift from early glaciations has been found in some parts of the region, much of the incised Paleozoic Plateau of Wisconsin and northwestern Illinois holds no evidence for glaciation; the region has been subject to large floods from the melting Laurentide ice sheet and subsequent catastrophic discharges from its proglacial lakes, such as Glacial Lake Wisconsin, Glacial Lake Agassiz, Glacial Lake Grantsburg, Glacial Lake Duluth. The last phases of the Wisconsin Glaciation involved several major lobes of the Laurentide ice sheet: the Des Moines lobe, which flowed down toward Des Moines on the west.
The northern and eastern lobes were in part diverted around the area by the Watersmeet Dome, an ancient uplifted area of Cambrian rock underlain by basalt in northern Wisconsin and western upper Michigan. The southward movement of the continental glacier was hindered by the great depths of the Lake Superior basin and the adjacent highlands of the Bayfield Peninsula, Gogebic Range, Porcupine Mountains, Keweenaw Peninsula, the Huron Mountains along the north rim of the Superior Upland bordering Lake Superior; the Green Bay and Lake Michigan lobes were partially blocked by the bedrock of the Door Peninsula, which presently separates Green Bay from Lake Michigan. In earlier phases of the Wisconsinan, the Driftless Area was surrounded by ice, with eastern and western lobes joining together to the south of it; the latest concept explaining the origin of the Driftless Area is the pre-Illinoian continental glacial ice flowing over the Driftless Area and depositing on it pre-Illinoian till, more than 790,000 years old.
When the ice retreated and uncovered the area, intensive periglacial erosion removed it. Anticyclonic snow-bearing winds episodically dropped large amounts of snow, which gradually removed superficial sediment from slopes by solifluction and snowmelt overland flow, washing the deposits down to stream valleys that flowed into the Mississippi River. In the adjacent glaciated regions, the glacial retreat left behind drift, which buried all former topographical features. Surface water was forced to carve out new stream beds. Overall, the region is characterized by an eroded plateau with bedrock overlain by varying thicknesses of loess. Most characteristically, the river valleys are dissected; the bluffs lining this reach of the Mississippi River climb to nearly 600 feet. In Minnesota, Pre-Illinoian-age till was removed by natural means prior to the deposition of loess; the sedimentary rocks of the valley walls date to the Paleozoic Era and are covered with colluvium or loess. Bedrock, where not directly exposed, is near the surface and is composed of "primarily Ordovician dolomite and sandstone in Minnesota, with Cambrian sandstone and dolomite exposed along the valley walls of the Mississippi River."
In the east, the Baraboo Range, an ancient, profoundly eroded monadnock in south central Wisconsin, consists of Precambrian quartzite and rhyolite. The area has not undergone much tectonic action, as all the visible layers of sedimentary rock are horizontal. Karst topography is found throughout the Driftless area; this is characterized by caves and cave systems, disappearing streams, blind valleys, underground streams, sinkholes and cold streams. Disappearing streams occur where surface waters sinks down into the earth through fractured bedrock or a sinkhole, either joining an aquifer, or becoming an underground stream. Blind valleys are formed by disappearing lack an outlet to any other stream. Sinkholes are the result of the collapse of the roof of a cave, surface water can flow directly into them. Disappearing streams can re-emerge as large cold springs. Cold streams with cold springs; the Mississippi River passes through the Driftless Area between and including P
Saint Paul, Minnesota
Saint Paul is the capital and second-most populous city of the U. S. state of Minnesota. As of 2017, the city's estimated population was 309,180. Saint Paul is the county seat of Ramsey County, the smallest and most densely populated county in Minnesota; the city lies on the east bank of the Mississippi River in the area surrounding its point of confluence with the Minnesota River, adjoins Minneapolis, the state's largest city. Known as the "Twin Cities", the two form the core of Minneapolis–Saint Paul, the 16th-largest metropolitan area in the United States, with about 3.6 million residents. Founded near historic Native American settlements as a trading and transportation center, the city rose to prominence when it was named the capital of the Minnesota Territory in 1849; the Dakota name for Saint Paul is "Imnizaska". Though Minneapolis is better-known nationally, Saint Paul contains the state government and other important institutions. Regionally, the city is known for the Xcel Energy Center, home of the Minnesota Wild, for the Science Museum of Minnesota.
As a business hub of the Upper Midwest, it is the headquarters of companies such as Ecolab. Saint Paul, along with its twin city, Minneapolis, is known for its high literacy rate; the settlement began at present-day Lambert's Landing, but was known as Pig's Eye after Pierre "Pig's Eye" Parrant established a popular tavern there. When Lucien Galtier, the first Catholic pastor of the region, established the Log Chapel of Saint Paul, he made it known that the settlement was now to be called by that name, as "Saint Paul as applied to a town or city was well appropriated, this monosyllable is short, sounds good, it is understood by all Christian denominations". Burial mounds in present-day Indian Mounds Park suggest that the area was inhabited by the Hopewell Native Americans about two thousand years ago. From the early 17th century until 1837, the Mdewakanton Dakota, a tribe of the Sioux, lived near the mounds after fleeing their ancestral home of Mille Lacs Lake from advancing Ojibwe, they called the area I-mni-za ska dan for its exposed white sandstone cliffs.
In the Menominee language it is called Sāēnepān-Menīkān, which means "ribbon, silk or satin village", suggesting its role in trade throughout the region after the introduction of European goods. Following the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, US Army officer Zebulon Pike negotiated 100,000 acres of land from the local Dakota tribes in 1805 to establish a fort; the negotiated territory was located on both banks of the Mississippi River, starting from Saint Anthony Falls in present-day Minneapolis, to its confluence with the Saint Croix River. Fort Snelling was built on the territory in 1819 at the confluence of the Mississippi and Minnesota rivers, which formed a natural barrier to both Native American nations; the 1837 Treaty with the Sioux ceded all local tribal land east of the Mississippi to the U. S. Government. Taoyateduta moved his band at Kaposia across the river to the south. Fur traders and missionaries came to the area for the fort's protection. Many of the settlers were French-Canadians. However, as a whiskey trade flourished, military officers banned settlers from the fort-controlled lands.
Pierre "Pig's Eye" Parrant, a retired fur trader-turned-bootlegger who irritated officials, set up his tavern, the Pig's Eye, near present-day Lambert's Landing. By the early 1840s, the community had become important as a trading center and a destination for settlers heading west. Locals called Pig's Eye Landing after Parrant's popular tavern. In 1841, Father Lucien Galtier was sent to minister to the Catholic French Canadians and established a chapel, named for his favorite saint, Paul the Apostle, on the bluffs above Lambert's Landing. Galtier intended for the settlement to adopt the name Saint Paul in honor of the new chapel. In 1847, a New York educator named Harriet Bishop moved to the area and opened the city's first school; the Minnesota Territory was formalized in Saint Paul named as its capital. In 1857, the territorial legislature voted to move the capital to Saint Peter. However, Joe Rolette, a territorial legislator, stole the physical text of the approved bill and went into hiding, thus preventing the move.
On May 11, 1858, Minnesota was admitted to the union as the thirty-second state, with Saint Paul as the capital. That year, more than 1,000 steamboats were in service at Saint Paul, making the city a gateway for settlers to the Minnesota frontier or Dakota Territory. Natural geography was a primary reason; the area was the last accessible point to unload boats coming upriver due to the Mississippi River Valley's stone bluffs. During this period, Saint Paul was called "The Last City of the East." Industrialist James J. Hill constructed and expanded his network of railways into the Great Northern Railway and Northern Pacific Railway, which were headquartered in Saint Paul. Today they are collectively part of the BNSF Railway. On August 20, 1904, severe thunderstorms and tornadoes damaged hundreds of downtown buildings, causing USD $1.78 million in damages to the city and ripping spans from the High Bridge. In the 1960s, during urban renewal, Saint Paul razed western neighborhoods close to downtown.
The city contended with the creation of the interstate freeway system in a built landscape. From 1959 to 1961, the western Rondo Neighborhood was demolished by the construction of Interstate 94, which brought attention to racial segregation and unequal housing in northern cities; the annual