Gaziantep Province is a province in south-central Turkey. Its capital is the city of Gaziantep, which had a population of 1,931,836 in 2015, its neighbours are Adıyaman to the north, Şanlıurfa to the east and Kilis to the south, Hatay to the southwest, Osmaniye to the west and Kahramanmaraş to the northwest. An important trading center since ancient times, the province is one of Turkey's major manufacturing zones, its agriculture is dominated by the growing of pistachio nuts. In ancient times, first under the power of Yamhad the Hittites and the Assyrians controlled the region, it saw much fighting during the Crusades, Saladin won a key battle there in 1183. After World War I and the Ottoman Empire's disintegration, it was invaded by the forces of the French Third Republic during the Turkish War of Independence, it was returned to Turkish control after the Treaty of Lausanne was signed, formally ending hostilities between Turkey and the Allies of World War I. Known as Antep, the title gazi was added to the province's and the provincial capital's name in 1921, due to its population's actions during the Turkish War of Independence.
Kilis Province was part of Gaziantep Province until it separated in 1994. Turks are majority in the province. Two major active geological faults meet in western Gaziantep near the border with adjoining Osmaniye Province: the Dead Sea Transform and the East Anatolian Fault; these represent the tectonic boundary between the northward-moving Arabian Plate to the east, the converging African and Eurasian Plates to the west. Gaziantep is traversed by the northeasterly line of equal longitude. List of populated places in Gaziantep Province Yesemek Quarry and Sculpture Workshop Gaziantep governor's official website Gaziantep municipality's official website Gaziantep weather forecast information Pictures of Gaziantep Pictures of the capital of this province Pictures of Gaziantep Gaziantep City Gaziantep local newspaper All about cultural activities in Gaziantep Histori Rumkale Photos The districts of Gaziantep Latest News
Adıyaman Province is a province in south-central Turkey. It was created in 1954 out of part of Malatya Province, it has an area of 7,606.16 km² and a population of 590,935, up from 513,131 in 1990. The capital is Adıyaman; the area has been inhabited since many civilisations have settled there. There are places of historical interest. Nemrud Dağı is a major site of interest there, noted for its sanctuary of statues built by Antiochus I Theos of Commagene, it is accessed through the town of Kâhta. A branch of the large Atatürk reservoir lies between the town of Samsat. Kurds have large minority in the province; until the 1950s, Adıyaman was a city in the province of Malatya. It was made into a province in its own right, on 1 December 1954, as a reward for voting for the winning Democratic Party in the 1954 general election. Adıyaman has since proved high vote shares for Islamist politician, Necmettin Erbakan, his movement scored a landmark 15% there in 1973 a few years after its modest beginning, his score went on to increase.
After being damaged by the military coup in 1980, Erbakan's party came back to win the province with 29.24% and 27% in 1994 and 1999, respectively. Turkish PM Recep Tayyip Erdoğan's AKP won the 2004 local elections with 39.21%. Mount Nemrut is a 2,134-metre-high mountain in Adıyaman Province. Adıyaman province is divided into nine districts: Adıyaman Besni Çelikhan Gerger Gölbaşı Kâhta Samsat Sincik Tut Media related to Adıyaman Province at Wikimedia Commons
Eastern Anatolia Region
The Eastern Anatolia Region is a geographical region of Turkey. The region and the name "Doğu Anadolu Bölgesi" were defined at the First Geography Congress in 1941, it has the highest average altitude, largest geographical area, lowest population density of all regions of Turkey. Prior to getting its current name from the Turkish state, most of the region was part of the Six Armenian provinces in the region known as the Armenian Highlands. After the Armenian Genocide, the geopolitical term "Eastern Anatolia" was coined to replace what had been known as Western Armenia. Beginning in 1880, the name Armenia was forbidden to be used in official Ottoman documents, in an attempt to censor the history of Armenians in their own homeland; the government of Sultan Abdul Hamid II replaced the name Armenia with such terms as "Kurdistan" or "Anatolia". The Sublime Porte believed; the process of “nationalization” of toponyms was continued by the Kemalists, who were the ideological successors of the Young Turks, gained momentum during the Republican period.
Starting from 1923 the entire territory of Western Armenia was renamed “Eastern Anatolia”. The word Anatolia means “sunrise” or “east” in Greek; this name was given to the Asia Minor peninsula in the 5th or 4th centuries B. C. During the Ottoman era, the term Anadolou included the north-eastern vilayets of Asia Minor with Kyotahia as its center; the numerous European, Armenian, Persian and other primary sources did not confuse the term Armenia with Anatolia. This testifies, inter alia, to the fact that after the loss of its statehood the Armenian nation still constituted a majority in its homeland, recognized by Ottoman occupiers as well; the Armenian Highlands have been situated to the east of Anatolia, with the border between them located near Sivas and Kayseri. Therefore, it is incorrect to refer to Armenia as part of "Eastern Anatolia". In the 17th century, when the Armenian Question was not yet included into the international diplomacy agenda, the terms "Anatolia" or "Eastern Anatolia" were never used to indicate Armenia.
Furthermore, the "Islamic World Map" of the 16th century and other Ottoman maps of the 18th and 19th centuries have indicated Armenia on a specific territory as well as its cities. Armenia, together with its boundaries, was unequivocally mentioned in the works of earlier Ottoman historians and chroniclers until the end of the 19th century. Kâtip Çelebi, a famous Ottoman chronicler of the 17th century, had a special chapter titled “About the Country Called Armenia” in his book Jihan Numa. However, when this book was republished in 1957, its modern Turkish editor H. Selen changed this title into “Eastern Anatolia”. Osman Nuri, a historian of the second half of the 19th century, mentions Armenia in his three-volume Abdul Hamid and the Period of His Reign. In the 1960s, the Swiss airline Swissair removed the nomenclature'plateau arménien' from the maps provided by their planes at the request of the Turkish ambassador in Bern. Upper Euphrates Section Erzurum - Kars Section Upper Murat - Van Section Upper Murat Area Van Area Hakkari Section Provinces that are in the Eastern Anatolia Region: Ağrı Bingöl Elazığ Hakkari Iğdır Kars Tunceli VanProvinces that are in the Eastern Anatolia Region: Ardahan Erzurum Şırnak The Eastern Anatolia Region is located in the easternmost part of Turkey.
It is bounded by Turkey's Central Anatolia Region to the west. The area of the region is 146,330 km ²; the total population of the region is 6,100,000 and 5,906,565. The region has the second most rural population of Turkey after the Black Sea region; the migration level is high and population density is lower than the average for Turkey. The migration toward other Turkey's regions and toward foreign countries is higher than the natural population increase, a fact, leading to a slight decline of the Region's population; the average altitude is 2,200 m. Major geographic features include plains and massifs. There is some volcanic activity today. Massifs and mountains There are three massif lines running north-south: To the north, the Çimen Dağı, Kop Dağı and Yalnızçam mountains In the centre, the Munzur, Karasu Dağı, Aras Dağı mountains To the south, Southeast Tauros, Hakkâri, Buzul mountains; the volcanic mountains Nemrut, Süphan, Tendürek and Ararat are in the region. Plateaus and plains The largest plateau in the region is Erzurum-Kars Plato.
The region includes the Van Lake basin. Lakes Rivers Since most of the region is far from the sea, has high altitude, it has a harsh continental climate with long winters and short summers. During the winter, it is cold and snowy, during summer the weather is cool in the highlands and warm in the lowlands; the region has the lowest average temperature of all Turkish regions, with -25 °C. Although it can get below -40 °C; the summer average is about 20 °C. The region's annual temperature difference is the highest in Turkey; some areas in the region hav
Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub
Mediterranean forests and scrub is a biome defined by the World Wide Fund for Nature. The biome is characterized by dry summers and rainy winters, although in some areas rainfall may be uniform. Summers are hot in low-lying inland locations but can be cool near colder seas. Winters are mild to cool in low-lying locations but can be cold in inland and higher locations. All these ecoregions are distinctive, collectively harboring 10% of the Earth's plant species; the Mediterranean forests and scrub biome occurs in, but not limited to, the Mediterranean climate zones, in the mid-latitudes: the Mediterranean Basin the Chilean Matorral the California chaparral and woodlands ecoregion of California and the Baja California Peninsula the Western Cape of South Africa the sclerophyll forests in Australia, which are predominantly found in the southwest and southeast Australia Vegetation types range from forests to woodlands, savannas and grasslands. Much of the woody vegetation in Mediterranean-climate regions is sclerophyll, which means'hard-leaved' in Greek.
Sclerophyll vegetation has small, dark leaves covered with a waxy outer layer to retain moisture in the dry summer months. Phytogeographers consider the fynbos as a separate floral kingdom because 68% of the 8,600 vascular plant species crowded into its 90,000 square kilometres are endemic and distinctive at several taxonomic levels; this is equivalent to about 40% of the plant species of the United States and Canada combined, found within an area the size of the state of Maine. The fynbos and Southwest Australia shrublands have flora that are more diverse than the other ecoregions, although any Mediterranean shrubland is still rich in species and endemics relative to other non-forest ecoregions. Major plant communities in this biome include: Forest: Mediterranean forests are composed of broadleaf trees, such as the oak and mixed sclerophyll forests of California and the Mediterranean region, the Eucalyptus forests of Southwest Australia, the Nothofagus forests of central Chile. Forests are found in riparian areas, where they receive more summer water.
Coniferous forests occur around the Mediterranean. Pine and deciduous oak forest are widespread across California. Woodland: Oak woodlands are characteristic of the Mediterranean Basin and in California. Pine woodlands are present in the Mediterranean Basin. California additionally has walnut woodlands. Savanna and grassland: The California Central Valley grasslands are the largest Mediterranean grassland eco-region, although these grasslands have been converted to agriculture; the remaining woodlands feature oak and pine. The cork oak savanna in Portugal, known as montado, is a good example of a mediterranean savanna. Shrubland: Shrublands are dense thickets of evergreen sclerophyll shrubs and small trees, they are most common near the seacoast, are adapted to wind and salt air from the ocean. They are called chaparral, matorral in Chile and southern Spain, garrigue or maquis in France, macchia or gariga in Italy, phrygana in Greece, tomillares in Spain and strandveld in South Africa, kwongan in Southwest Australia and batha in Israel.
Northern coastal scrub and coastal sage scrub known as soft chaparral, occur near the California coast. In some places shrublands are of the mature vegetation type, in other places are the result of degradation of former forest or woodland by logging or overgrazing, or disturbance by major fires. Fire, both natural and human-caused, has played a large role in shaping the ecology of Mediterranean ecoregions; the hot, dry summers make much of the region prone to fires, lightning-caused fires occur with some frequency. Many of the plants are pyrophytes, or fire-loving, adapted or depending on fire for reproduction, recycling of nutrients, the removal of dead or senescent vegetation. In both the Australian and Californian Mediterranean-climate eco-regions, native peoples used fire extensively to clear brush and trees, making way for the grasses and herbaceous vegetation that supported game animals and useful plants; the plant communities in these areas adapted to the frequent human-caused fires, pyrophyte species grew more common and more fire-loving, while plants that were poorly adapted to fire retreated.
After European colonization of these regions, fires were suppressed, which has caused some unintended consequences in these ecoregions. The European shrublands have been shaped by anthropogenic fire associated with transhumance herding of sheep and goats. Mediterranean ecoregions are some of the vulnerable on the planet; as such, many have suffered tremendous degradation and habitat loss through logging, conversion to agriculture, fire suppression, introduction of exotic and invasive species. The ecoregions around the Mediterranean basin and in California have been affected by degradation due to human activity, suffering extensive loss of forests and soil erosion, many native plants and animals have become extinct or endangered. Forest Sciences Centre of Catalonia Food and Agriculture Organization Media related to Mediterranean forests, woodlan
Batman Province is a Turkish province southeast of Anatolia. The province's population exceeded 500,000 in 2010; the province is important because of its reserves and production of oil, started in the 1940s. There is a 494-km long oil pipeline from Batman to the Turkish port of İskenderun. Cotton is the main agricultural product. A railway line connects Batman with the nearby provinces of Diyarbakır and Elâzığ and with the capital Ankara; the Batman River flows through the area. Batman with 246,700 inhabitants, is the provincial capital; the province is of interest from an archaeological point of view. Sights include the bridge of Camiü ` r Rızk and Hasankeyf; the majority of the province's population is Kurdish. The Batman Province contains the strategic Tigris river with fertile lands by its sides, as well as rocky hills with numerous caves providing a natural shelter. Therefore, it was inhabited from prehistoric times from the Neolithic period, according to archeological evidence. First documented evidence of settlements in the province dates back to 7th century BC.
An artificial "island" was created in this marshy area. It was named Elekhan, had an independent status for 194 years from 546 BC till the invasion of Alexander the Great in 352 BC; the Batman Province was a religious center in the 4th–6th centuries AD and a part of the Byzantine Empire. In the 11th–12th centuries it was ruled by the Great Seljuq Empire and Artuqids, a part of, based in the province, in the city of Hasankeyf; the city is a cultural center of the Batman Province and as such was declared as a natural conservation area in 1981. Around 4th -- 6th centuries AD, it was populated by Assyrian Christians and had a significant presence of Pontic Greeks, Baghdadi Jews and Armenians, who lived in the region from the 3rd millennium BC to the late 19th century. Tigranakert, the ancient capital of the ancient Kingdom of Armenia founded in the 1st century BC, was located at Silvan in the Batman Province, it was named in his honor. Significant changes in the language and management of the province were brought in 1515 by Mahmoud Pasha Elekhani.
It is believed that a variant of his name, was transformed into Iluh and gave the old name to Batman city. Development of oil fields resulted in relocation of Turkish people into a Kurd-populated Batman Province; this brought ethnic conflicts. More than 180 civilians were killed in the Batman city area by unidentified gunmen between 1992 and 1993; the province became a stronghold of Turkish Hezbollah and hosted its camp where the militants received political and military training. Recent individual incidents include the following: 1 Turkish soldier was killed and 2 wounded during clashes in the province on 15 April 2010. In the Siirt Province 2 PKK militants were killed and 3 soldiers wounded. One Turkish soldier was killed and 2 injured after a PKK attack on a Turkish military outpost on 7 July 2010. Four Kurdish civilians were killed on 1 August 2010. On 9 August 2010 5 PKK militants were killed in clashes with the Turkish military; the province occupies an area of 4,649 km2 and is divided into six districts: Batman, Beşiri, Gercüş, Hasankeyf and Sason.
There are 270 villages in the province. The population of the province is growing as a result of the inflow of workforce to the capital. Between 1990 and 2000, its population was rising at a rate of 5% per year; the population was stable in Beşiri and Gercüş, increasing by 1% per year in Kozluk and Sason and decreasing by 3% per year in Hasankeyf. The total population was 510,200 in 2010 with 373,388 people living in the urban areas in the capital, it was 49.8% female. The province lies in the mountainous area with the average elevation of 550 meters which contains several thousands of caves; the tallest mountains are Sason Dağları, Meleto, Kuşaklı Dağı, Avcı Dağı, Meydanok Tepesi and Raman Dağı. Several rivers flow through the province, including Tigris, Batman and Garzan; the 115 km long Batman River flowing from north to south forms a natural border between the Batman Province and Diyarbakır Province lying to the west. The historic Malabadi Bridge crosses the river near the town of Silvan; the Tigris flows from west to merges with the Batman River and exits the province.
The Garzan River flowing from north to south enters the Tigris and separates Batman from the Siirt Province lying to the east. Search for oil in the Batman Province was started in 1935. On 20 April 1940, oil was found at a depth of 1048 meters at the Raman oil field, south-east of Batman, nearby the city; the first experimental well started producing 10 tonnes per day from 6 June 1940. The field was expanded for commercial production by 1945, but the production was delayed to 1947 by the lack of storage. A small refinery was built at the site with a capacity of 9 tonnes/day by 1947 and by November 1948 a bigger refinery capable of processing up to 200 tonnes/day was built in Batman. Bigger refinery was built in Batman by 1955. Several other oil fields were discovered in the province with the Batı Raman oil field, which produces about 7,000 barrels daily, being the largest oil field in Turkey. A 511 km long oil pipeline was brought in 1967 from Batman to the port city of Dörtyol near the easternmost po
Iraq the Republic of Iraq, is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west. The capital, largest city, is Baghdad. Iraq is home to diverse ethnic groups including Arabs, Assyrians, Shabakis, Armenians, Mandeans and Kawliya. Around 95% of the country's 37 million citizens are Muslims, with Christianity, Yarsan and Mandeanism present; the official languages of Iraq are Kurdish. Iraq has a coastline measuring 58 km on the northern Persian Gulf and encompasses the Mesopotamian Alluvial Plain, the northwestern end of the Zagros mountain range and the eastern part of the Syrian Desert. Two major rivers, the Tigris and Euphrates, run south through Iraq and into the Shatt al-Arab near the Persian Gulf; these rivers provide Iraq with significant amounts of fertile land. The region between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers known as Mesopotamia, is referred to as the cradle of civilisation.
It was here that mankind first began to read, create laws and live in cities under an organised government—notably Uruk, from which "Iraq" is derived. The area has been home to successive civilisations since the 6th millennium BC. Iraq was the centre of the Akkadian, Sumerian and Babylonian empires, it was part of the Median, Hellenistic, Sassanid, Rashidun, Abbasid, Mongol, Safavid and Ottoman empires. The country today known as Iraq was a region of the Ottoman Empire until the partition of the Ottoman Empire in the 20th century, it was made up of three provinces, called vilayets in the Ottoman language: Mosul Vilayet, Baghdad Vilayet, Basra Vilayet. In April 1920 the British Mandate of Mesopotamia was created under the authority of the League of Nations. A British-backed monarchy joining these vilayets into one Kingdom was established in 1921 under Faisal I of Iraq; the Hashemite Kingdom of Iraq gained independence from the UK in 1932. In 1958, the monarchy was overthrown and the Iraqi Republic created.
Iraq was controlled by the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party from 1968 until 2003. After an invasion by the United States and its allies in 2003, Saddam Hussein's Ba'ath Party was removed from power, multi-party parliamentary elections were held in 2005; the US presence in Iraq ended in 2011, but the Iraqi insurgency continued and intensified as fighters from the Syrian Civil War spilled into the country. Out of the insurgency came a destructive group calling itself ISIL, which took large parts of the north and west, it has since been defeated. Disputes over the sovereignty of Iraqi Kurdistan continue. A referendum about the full sovereignty of Iraqi Kurdistan was held on 25 September 2017. On 9 December 2017, then-Iraqi Prime Minister Haider al-Abadi declared victory over ISIL after the group lost its territory in Iraq. Iraq is a federal parliamentary republic consisting of one autonomous region; the country's official religion is Islam. Culturally, Iraq has a rich heritage and celebrates the achievements of its past in both pre-Islamic as well as post-Islamic times and is known for its poets.
Its painters and sculptors are among the best in the Arab world, some of them being world-class as well as producing fine handicrafts, including rugs and carpets. Iraq is a founding member of the UN as well as of the Arab League, OIC, Non-Aligned Movement and the IMF; the Arabic name العراق al-ʿIrāq has been in use since before the 6th century. There are several suggested origins for the name. One dates to the Sumerian city of Uruk and is thus of Sumerian origin, as Uruk was the Akkadian name for the Sumerian city of Urug, containing the Sumerian word for "city", UR. An Arabic folk etymology for the name is "well-watered. During the medieval period, there was a region called ʿIrāq ʿArabī for Lower Mesopotamia and ʿIrāq ʿAjamī, for the region now situated in Central and Western Iran; the term included the plain south of the Hamrin Mountains and did not include the northernmost and westernmost parts of the modern territory of Iraq. Prior to the middle of the 19th century, the term Eyraca Arabic was used to describe Iraq.
The term Sawad was used in early Islamic times for the region of the alluvial plain of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, contrasting it with the arid Arabian desert. As an Arabic word, عراق means "hem", "shore", "bank", or "edge", so that the name by folk etymology came to be interpreted as "the escarpment", viz. at the south and east of the Jazira Plateau, which forms the northern and western edge of the "al-Iraq arabi" area. The Arabic pronunciation is. In English, it is either or, the American Heritage Dictionary, the Random House Dictionary; the pronunciation is heard in US media. In accordance with the 2005 Constitution, the official name of the state is the "Republic of Iraq". Between 65,000 BC and 35,000 BC northern Iraq was home to a Neanderthal culture, archaeological remains of which have been discovered at Shanidar Cave This same region is the location of a number of pre-Neolithic cemeteries, dating from 11,000 BC. Since 10,000 BC, Iraq was one of centres of a Caucasoid Neolithic culture (k
Oman the Sultanate of Oman, is an Arab country on the southeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia. Its official religion is Islam. Holding a strategically important position at the mouth of the Persian Gulf, the country shares land borders with the United Arab Emirates to the northwest, Saudi Arabia to the west, Yemen to the southwest, shares marine borders with Iran and Pakistan; the coast is formed by the Gulf of Oman on the northeast. The Madha and Musandam exclaves are surrounded by the UAE on their land borders, with the Strait of Hormuz and Gulf of Oman forming Musandam's coastal boundaries. From the late 17th century, the Omani Sultanate was a powerful empire, vying with Portugal and the UK for influence in the Persian Gulf and Indian Ocean. At its peak in the 19th century, Omani influence or control extended across the Strait of Hormuz to modern-day Iran and Pakistan, as far south as Zanzibar; when its power declined in the 20th century, the sultanate came under the influence of the United Kingdom.
For over 300 years, the relations built between the two empires were based on mutual benefits. The UK recognized Oman's geographical importance as a trading hub that secured their trade lanes in the Arabian Gulf and Indian Ocean and protected their empire in the Indian sub-continent. By contrast, the British strengthened Oman's internal unity and allied the sultanate against external threats. Muscat was the principal trading port of the Persian Gulf region. Muscat was among the most important trading ports of the Indian Ocean; the Sultan Qaboos bin Said al Said has been the hereditary leader of the country, an absolute monarchy, since 1970. Sultan Qaboos is the longest-serving current ruler in the Middle East, third-longest current reigning monarch in the world. Oman is a member of the United Nations, the Arab League, the Gulf Cooperation Council, the Non-Aligned Movement and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, it has ranking 25th globally. In 2010, the United Nations Development Programme ranked Oman as the most improved nation in the world in terms of development during the preceding 40 years.
A significant portion of its economy involves tourism and trade of fish and certain agricultural produce. Oman is categorized as a high-income economy and ranks as the 70th most peaceful country in the world according to the Global Peace Index. At Aybut Al Auwal, in the Dhofar Governorate of Oman, a site was discovered in 2011 containing more than 100 surface scatters of stone tools, belonging to a regionally specific African lithic industry—the late Nubian Complex—known only from the northeast and Horn of Africa. Two optically stimulated luminescence age estimates place the Arabian Nubian Complex at 106,000 years old; this supports the proposition that early human populations moved from Africa into Arabia during the Late Pleistocene. In recent years known from survey finds and Neolithic sites have come to light most on the eastern coast. Main Palaeolithic sites include Saiwan-Ghunaim in the Barr al-Hikman. Archaeological remains are numerous for the Bronze Age Umm an-Nar and Wadi Suq periods.
Sites such as Bat show professional wheel-turned pottery, excellent hand-made stone vessels, a metals industry, monumental architecture. The Early and Late Iron Ages show more differences than similarities to each other. Thereafter, until the coming of the Ibadhidya, little or nothing is known. Sumerian tablets refer to a country called Magan and Akkadian ones Makan, a name which links Oman's ancient copper resources. Mazoon, a Persian name used for the region. Over centuries tribes from the west settled in Oman, making a living by fishing, herding or stock breeding, many present day Omani families trace their ancestral roots to other parts of Arabia; when the emigrants from northern-western and south-western Arabia arrived in Oman, they had to compete with the indigenous population for the best arable land. In the 1970s and 1980s scholars like John C. Wilkinson believed by virtue of oral history that in the 6th century BC, the Achaemenids exerted control over the Omani peninsula, most ruling from a coastal center such as Suhar.
Central Oman has its own indigenous Samad Late Iron Age cultural assemblage named eponymously from Samad al-Shan. In the northern part of the Oman Peninsula the Recent Pre-Islamic Period begins in the 3rd century BC and extends into the 3rd century AD. Whether or not Persians brought south-eastern Arabian under their control is a moot point, since the lack of Persian finds speak against this belief. Four centuries Omanis came in contact with and accepted Islam; the conversion of Oman is ascribed to Amr ibn al-As, sent by the prophet Muhammad during the Expedition of Zaid ibn Haritha. A decade after Vasco da Gama's successful voyage around the Cape of Good Hope and to India in 1497–98, the Portuguese arrived in Oman and occupied Muscat for a 143-year period, from 1507 to 1650, their fortress still remains. In need of an outpost to protect their sea lanes, the Portuguese built up and fortified the city, where remnants of their colonial architectural style still exist. An Ottoman fleet captured Muscat in 1552, during the fight for control of the Persian Gulf and the Indian Ocean.
The Ottoman Turks captured Muscat from the Portuguese in 1581 and held it until 1588. Rebellious tribes drove out the Portuguese, but were themselves pushed out about a century in 1741, by the leader of an Omani tribe, who began the current line of ruling sultans. Except for a brief Persian invasion in the late 1