SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Southeastern League

The Southeastern League was the name of three baseball circuits in minor league baseball which operated in the Southeastern and South Central United States. Two of these leagues were associated with organized baseball; the first Southeastern League lasted for three years, from 1910 through 1912. At Class D, it was considered on the lowest rung of the minor league ladder, had six clubs located in the American states of Alabama, North Carolina and Tennessee. Stung by the midseason collapse of two of its six franchises, this league disbanded on August 2, 1912. In 1926 a new, Class B Southeastern League took the field, with six teams — representing Montgomery, Alabama. Although this league would be periodically shut down by the Great Depression and World War II, it continued as a Class B circuit, four levels below Major League Baseball, through 1950, its lineup of teams in its final season included the champion Pensacola Fliers, Meridian Millers, Montgomery Rebels, Jackson Senators, Vicksburg Billies, Selma Cloverleafs, Gadsden Pilots and Anniston Rams.

Both Gadsden and Anniston withdrew from the league before the end of the season. The most recent version of the Southeastern League was an independent circuit, with member teams were not affiliated with any Major League Baseball team; the league began play in 2002 after the demise of the All-American Association. For its inaugural season, it placed teams in Montgomery and Selma, along with Pensacola, Americus and Baton Rouge, Louisiana; the Ozark Patriots and Americus Arrows franchises folded at mid-season. The Pensacola Pelicans won the inaugural league championship. After completing the season, the league added two franchises for 2003; the league had high hopes for its new team in Macon and Houma, along with the successful clubs in Montgomery and Pensacola. However, after just two games the Selma Cloverleafs folded, forcing the league to operate the club as a road team for the duration of the season under the name "Southeastern Cloverleafs." The Macon Peaches fared a lot worse than expected. Still, the league completed the year, with Pensacola compiling the league's best mark at 42-23 and Baton Rouge defeating Pensacola, 3 games to 1, in the league championship series.

The league could not survive the arrival of affiliated baseball to Montgomery. The Orlando Rays of the Southern League, who had played at Walt Disney World for four years, became the Montgomery Biscuits and drove the Wings out of town. In addition, the Springfield/Ozark Mountain Ducks of the Central Baseball League moved to Pensacola and assumed the Pelicans name; as a result, the league folded prior to the 2004 season. Baton Rouge Riverbats Houma Hawks Macon Peaches Montgomery Wings Pensacola Pelicans Selma/Southeastern Cloverleafs Johnson and Wolff, eds; the Encyclopedia of Minor League Baseball, 3d edition. Durham, N. C: Baseball America, 2007

Annecy – Haute-Savoie – Mont Blanc Airport

AnnecyHaute-SavoieMont Blanc Airport or Aéroport Annecy Haute-Savoie Mont Blanc known as Aéroport d'Annecy - Meythet, is an airport located 3.5 km northwest of Annecy, between Meythet and Metz-Tessy, all communes of the Haute-Savoie département in the Rhône-Alpes région of France. No destinations served at present. Aéroport Annecy Haute-Savoie Mont Blanc Aéroport d'Annecy - Haute Savoie Airport information for LFLP at World Aero Data. Data current as of October 2006. Current weather for LFLP at NOAA/NWS Accident history for NCY at Aviation Safety Network

Coriolis force

In physics, the Coriolis force is an inertial or fictitious force that acts on objects that are in motion within a frame of reference that rotates with respect to an inertial frame. In a reference frame with clockwise rotation, the force acts to the left of the motion of the object. In one with anticlockwise rotation, the force acts to the right. Deflection of an object due to the Coriolis force is called the Coriolis effect. Though recognized by others, the mathematical expression for the Coriolis force appeared in an 1835 paper by French scientist Gaspard-Gustave de Coriolis, in connection with the theory of water wheels. Early in the 20th century, the term Coriolis force began to be used in connection with meteorology. Newton's laws of motion describe the motion of an object in an inertial frame of reference; when Newton's laws are transformed to a rotating frame of reference, the Coriolis and centrifugal accelerations appear. When applied to massive objects, the respective forces are proportional to the masses of them.

The Coriolis force is proportional to the rotation rate and the centrifugal force is proportional to the square of the rotation rate. The Coriolis force acts in a direction perpendicular to the rotation axis and to the velocity of the body in the rotating frame and is proportional to the object's speed in the rotating frame; the centrifugal force acts outwards in the radial direction and is proportional to the distance of the body from the axis of the rotating frame. These additional forces are termed fictitious forces or pseudo forces, they "allow" the application of Newton's laws to a rotating system. They are correction factors that do not exist in a inertial reference frame. In popular usage of the term "Coriolis effect", the rotating reference frame implied is always the Earth; because the Earth spins, Earth-bound observers need to account for the Coriolis force to analyze the motion of objects. The Earth completes one rotation per day, so for motions of everyday objects the Coriolis force is quite small compared with other forces.

Such motions are constrained by the surface of the Earth, so only the horizontal component of the Coriolis force is important. This force causes moving objects on the surface of the Earth to be deflected to the right in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere; the horizontal deflection effect is greater near the poles, since the effective rotation rate about a local vertical axis is largest there, decreases to zero at the equator. Rather than flowing directly from areas of high pressure to low pressure, as they would in a non-rotating system and currents tend to flow to the right of this direction north of the equator and to the left of this direction south of it; this effect is responsible for the rotation of large cyclones. For an intuitive explanation of the origin of the Coriolis force, consider an object, constrained to follow the Earth's surface and moving northward in the northern hemisphere. Viewed from outer space, the object has an eastward motion; the further north it travels, the smaller the "diameter of its parallel", so the slower the eastward motion of its surface.

As the object moves north, to higher latitudes, it has a tendency to maintain the eastward speed it started with, so it veers east. Though not obvious from this example, which considers northward motion, the horizontal deflection occurs for objects moving eastward or westward; the theory that the effect influences draining water to rotate anti-clockwise in the northern hemisphere and clockwise in the southern hemisphere has been disproven by modern-day scientists. Italian scientist Giovanni Battista Riccioli and his assistant Francesco Maria Grimaldi described the effect in connection with artillery in the 1651 Almagestum Novum, writing that rotation of the Earth should cause a cannonball fired to the north to deflect to the east. In 1674 Claude François Milliet Dechales described in his Cursus seu Mundus Mathematicus how the rotation of the Earth should cause a deflection in the trajectories of both falling bodies and projectiles aimed toward one of the planet's poles. Riccioli and Dechales all described the effect as part of an argument against the heliocentric system of Copernicus.

In other words, they argued that the Earth's rotation should create the effect, so failure to detect the effect was evidence for an immobile Earth. The Coriolis acceleration equation was derived by Euler in 1749, the effect was described in the tidal equations of Pierre-Simon Laplace in 1778. Gaspard-Gustave Coriolis published a paper in 1835 on the energy yield of machines with rotating parts, such as waterwheels; that paper considered the supplementary forces. Coriolis divided these supplementary forces into two categories; the second category contained a force that arises from the cross product of the angular velocity of a coordinate system and the projection of a p