Eritrean Americans are Americans who are of Eritrean ancestry. As of 2013, there are 33,930 Eritrean-born citizens living in the U. S. Eritrea got its independence from Ethiopia on May 24, 1991, after the Eritrean War of Independence. Since the inception of the war in the 1960s many immigrants from Eritrea left for the United States. By 2000, the Eritrean community in the U. S. had grown to around 30,000 members. Eritrean Americans have since established ethnic enclaves in various places around the country in the Washington D. C. area. Fairfax Avenue in Los Angeles, California has come to be known as Little Ethiopia, owing to its many Ethiopian and Eritrean businesses and restaurants; the Temescal neighborhood of Oakland, California has many Ethiopian and Eritrean businesses and restaurants. Additionally, Eritreans have opened a number of auto repair shops, they run several taxi establishments, including the Eritrean Cab company based in San Diego. The exact number of Eritrean residents in the United States is unknown because Eritreans were Ethiopian nationals prior to Eritrea's independence in the early 1990s.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau 18,917 people reported Eritrean ancestry in 2000. Between 2007 and 2011, there were 25,848 Eritrea-born residents in the country. California had the most Eritrean-born people, at 4,782 residents, followed by Virginia and Maryland. Most Eritrean immigrants are concentrated in Washington D. C. Arizona and California the San Francisco Bay Area; the community has a notable presence in the Seattle, Minneapolis, New York, Houston and Dallas metropolitan areas. The Eritrean community in the United States is represented by various Eritrean-run organizations. Among these are the Eritrean American Community Association of Georgia, Eritrean American Community in the Washington D. C. metropolitan area, Eritrean Community Center of Greater New York, Eritrean American Community in Dallas, Eritrean Community Association in Chicago, Eritrean Association in Greater Seattle, Eritrean American Community in Sacramento. In 2001, a chapter of the Eritrean Liberation Front–Revolutionary Council was established in Chicago.
The National Union of Eritrean Women routinely holds meetings and activities in the city. Additionally, the Virginia-based Eritrean Sports Federation in North America annually hosts a soccer tournament for Eritrean residents, it organizes adult and youth sports community programs in various U. S. cities. The Eritrean Muslims Association in North America and Eritrean Muslims Council serve the Eritrean community's Muslim adherents. Christians gather in a number of Eritrean Orthodox and Roman Catholic churches. Notable Eritrean-Americans: Eritrean people Organization of Eritrean-Americans
Horn Africans in the United States
Horn Africans in the United States are Americans with ancestry from the Horn of Africa. They include Djiboutian, Eritrean and Somali individuals; the Djiboutian community in the United States is numbering less than 300 individuals. Its constituents hail from the Somali and Afar populations, Djibouti's two largest ethnic groups. Djiboutian nationals of Somali ethnicity are aggregated with Somali Americans. Prior to 1991, when Eritrea obtained its independence, it was a part of Ethiopia. Overall 20,000 people from Ethiopia moved to the West to achieve higher education and conduct diplomatic missions from 1941 to 1974 under the Emperor Haile Selassie I's rule. However, the net movement of permanent immigrants remained low during this period as most temporary immigrants returned to Ethiopia; the majority of Eritrean immigrants arrived in the 1990s, following the Eritrean–Ethiopian War. According to the U. S. Census Bureau 18,917 people reported Eritrean ancestry in 2000. Eritrean Americans have established ethnic enclaves in various places around the country.
Most Eritrean immigrants are concentrated in the Washington, D. C. and California areas. The community has a notable presence in Seattle, Minneapolis, New York and Dallas. Fairfax Avenue in Los Angeles, California has come to be known as Little Ethiopia, owing to its many Ethiopian and Eritrean businesses and restaurants. In 1980, the U. S. government passed a bill formally establishing criteria for admitting asylum seekers. Emigration from Ethiopia to the United States subsequently increased, prompted by political unrest during the Ethiopian Civil War; the majority of Ethiopian immigrants arrived in the 1990s. Immigration to the United States from Ethiopia during this 1992-2002 period averaged around 5,000 individuals per year. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, 137,012 Ethiopian immigrants lived in the United States as of 2008. Founded by Ethiopian publisher Liben Eabisa, Tadias Magazine is today the premier Ethiopian American news source based inside New York; the first Somalis to arrive in the United States were sailors.
They were followed by students pursuing higher studies in the 1960s and 1970s, a few migrants thereafter. However, it was not until the 1990s when the Somali Civil War broke out that the majority of Somalis arrived in the United States; the Somali community in the United States is now among the largest Somali diaspora communities. According to American Community Survey data, there are 85,700 people with Somali ancestry in the United States as of 2010; the city of Minneapolis, now hosts hundreds of Somali-owned and operated businesses offering a variety of products, including leather shoes and other fashion items, halal meat, hawala or money transfer services. Community-based video rental stores carry the latest Somali films and music. Ethiopian American Community Organization of Eritrean-Americans Somali American Council of Oregon
Cameroonian American are Americans of Cameroonian descent. According to the census of 2010, in the United States there were 16,894 Americans of Cameroonian origin. According to the 2007-2011 American Community Survey there are 33,181 Cameroonian-born people living in the United States; the first peoples from the modern Cameroon area to arrive in the United States were stolen by British and sold into the British colonies, during the colonial period, as DNA testing suggests. So, the first documented "enslaved" African, in what was to become the US originating from modern day Cameroon and imported to the colonial United States for serving as a "slave" or some other forced laborer, was John Punch. Punch arrived in Virginia in about 1640, he is considered, by some genealogists and historians, like the first African documented to be enslaved for life in what would become the United States. According to DNA testing records, the ethnicities of the Cameroonian slaves in the modern United States were those of Tikar, Babungo, Bamum, Mafa, Kotoko and Hausa from Cameroon.
In what is referred to as "the whole of the Americas", we find that the majority of captured Africans, sold to the European slave merchants, on the Cameroon coast, came from the inland places. They came from the people Batagan and Bulu. So, most of the slaves carried out of the River and from Bimbia in those years, were from Tikari, Douala-Bimbia and Bakossi. Most of them were Bamileke; the predominant slave-trading middlemen in modern Cameroon was Douala, but most of the slaves of modern Cameroon who were delivered to Europeans, regardless of the specific origin of them, were sold to the Fernando Po collection center, from where the European merchants took them to the Americas. Most of the slaves regarded as Cameroonian are of Bight of Biafra, which included countries located at the Bight of Bonny, Nigeria, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon "with many of them hailing from the Cameroon itself" These African "captures" arrived in the modern United States and were sold in Virginia (which had 60% of the slaves of that region, of the United States.
In addition Virginia and accounted for 34% of the Africans arriving from Bight of Biafra. Virginia and together held 30,000 slaves; these colonies were followed by, Maryland. The slaves from current Cameroon were bought cheap, because these slaves preferred to die rather than accept slavery; the first Cameroonians who voluntarily arrived in the US immigrated to this country in the 1960s, pursuing educational opportunities which were lacking in their own country. During the 1990s many other Cameroonians immigrated as political refugees, fleeing political turmoil. To avoid imprisonment and political repression, many citizens decided to emigrate. Most Cameroonian immigrants who arrived in the United States were licensed professionals since they were the ones most to obtain visas, it is easier for licensed professionals to obtain visas than any other group in Cameroon. Many of them had criticized the government. Thus, the majority of Cameroonians who settled permanently in the United States were doctors, nurses and computer programmers.
There are many Cameroonians who are blue collar workers. According to the census of 2010, in the United States there 16,894 known Americans of Cameroonian origin. In addition, according to the 2007-2011 American Community Survey there are 33,181 Cameroonian-born living in the United States; the Cameroonian immigrants have communities in places such as Illinois, Southern California and Pittsburgh. The Cameroonian community of Pittsburgh is considered to be one of the better organized African communities in this city; the largest Cameroonian-American community exists in Maryland in Prince George's County and Montgomery County. Cameroonians have been active in activism movements in the United States. One notable example is the set of political movements in favor of Cameroon, developed in Chicago. So, in 1991, Cameroonians from that city were held in outside wing of the Social Democratic Front from Cameroon in support for political pluralism. After his success in Chicago, the SDF party established several subsidiaries in other US cities.
The group managed to raise funds to support the political movement of Cameroon, lobbied the US Senate and United Nations and stops the advance of the sale of weapons to the government of Cameroon, i.e. to prevent that the sale of arms can continue exerting between this government and the US government. Soon after, another group of Cameroonians of Chicago francophone, organized a wing of the Cameroon People's Democratic Movement, driving his own campaign to support the government of Cameroon. There are many Cameroonian organizations in the US. Among these is the American Association of Cameroonians, it promotes friendship between the Cameroonians and develop of appropriate measures to improve their rights, developing the potential of Cameroonians in US and in Cameroon in all areas of the economic, social, academic, or help to the US. Another organization is CAMSOLA, an organization, located in Southern California, which recognizes those Cameroonians and Cameroonian-Am