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Southern Athabaskan languages

Southern Athabaskan is a subfamily of Athabaskan languages spoken in the Southwestern United States with two outliers in Oklahoma and Texas. The language is spoken to a much lesser degree in the northern Mexican states of Sonora, Durango and Nuevo León; those languages are spoken by various groups of Navajo peoples. Elsewhere, Athabaskan is spoken by many indigenous groups of peoples in Alaska, Canada and northern California. Self-designations for Western Apache and Navajo are Nnee biyáti’ or Ndee biyáti’, Diné bizaad or Naabeehó bizaad, respectively. There are several well-known historical people. Geronimo who spoke Chiricahua was a famous war leader. Manuelito spoke Navajo and is famous for his leadership during and after the Long Walk of the Navajo; the seven Southern Athabaskan languages can be divided into two groups according to the classification of Harry Hoijer: Plains and Southwestern. Plains Apache is the only member of the Plains Apache group; the Southwestern group can be further divided into two subgroups Eastern.

The Western subgroup consists of Western Apache, Navajo and Chiricahua. The Eastern subgroup consists of Lipan. I. Plains Apache II. Southwestern A. Western 1. Chiricahua-Mescalero or Ndee Bizaa a. Chiricahua i. Chiricahua proper ii. Warm Springs b. Mescalero 2. Navajo 3. Western Apache a. Tonto i. Northern Tonto ii. Southern Tonto b. White Mountain c. San Carlos d. Cibecue B. Eastern 1. Jicarilla 2. LipanHoijer's classification is based on the differences of the pronunciation of the initial consonant of noun and verb stems, his earlier 1938 classification had only two branches with Plains Apache grouped together with the other Eastern languages. Mescalero and Chiricahua are considered different languages though they are mutually intelligible. Western Apache and Navajo are closer to each other than either is to Mescalero/Chiricahua. Lipan Apache and Plains Apache are nearly extinct. Chiricahua is endangered. Mescalero and Western Apache are considered endangered as well, but children are still learning the languages although the number of child speakers continues to decline.

Navajo is one of the most vigorous North American languages, but use among first-graders has declined from 90% to 30% in recent years. All Southern Athabaskan languages are somewhat similar in their phonology; the following description will concentrate on Western Apache. One can expect minor variations for other related languages. Southern Athabaskan languages have a consonant inventory similar to the set of 33 consonants below: Only Navajo and Western Apache have glottalized nasals; the practical orthography corresponds to the pronunciation of the Southern Athabaskan languages well. Below is a table pairing up the phonetic notation with the orthographic symbol: Some spelling conventions: Fricatives and are both written as h; the fricative is written as h, but after o it may be written as hw in Western Apache. The fricative is written gh the majority of the time, but before i and e it is written as y, before o it is written as w. All words that begin with a vowel are pronounced with a glottal stop ’.

This glottal stop is never written at the beginning of a word. Some words are pronounced either depending on the dialect of the speaker; this is represented in the consonant table above as. The same is true with m in a few words. In many words n can occur in a syllable by itself; this is not indicated in the spelling. Southern Athabaskan languages have four vowels of contrasting tongue dimensions: These vowels may be short or long and oral or nasal. Nasal vowels are indicated by an ogonek diacritic ˛ in Western Apache, Navajo and Chiricahua. In Western Apache, there is a practice where orthographic vowels o and oo are written as u in certain contexts; these contexts do not include nasalized vowels, so nasal u never occurs in the orthography. This practice continues into the present. However, in Harry Hoijer and other American linguists' work all o-vowels are written as o. Navajo does not use orthographic u writing this vowel as o. In Chiricahua and Mescalero, this vowel is written as u in all contexts.

Other practices may be used in other Apachean languages. Southern Athabaskan languages are tonal languages. Hoijer and other linguists analyze Southern Athabaskan languages as having four tones: high low (marked with grave accent `, Example

Caroline de Crespigny

Caroline Champion de Crespigny was an early 19th-century English poet and translator. In the tradition of Romanticism, she published My Souvenir, or, Poems in 1844, her translations from German into English, were made in collaboration with Thomas Medwin, the cousin and biographer of Percy Bysshe Shelley. Caroline Champion de Crespigny was born Caroline Bathurst at Durham in 1797 into a political and literary family. At the time of her birth her father Rt Rev Dr Henry Bathurst was prebendary canon at Durham Cathedral becoming Bishop of Norwich, her uncle, Allen Bathurst, 1st Earl Bathurst was a Government minister and literary patron and friend of, amongst others, Laurence Sterne and William Congreve Her mother was Grace Coote, a sister of Sir Eyre Coote, a military governor of Jamaica. One of her siblings Benjamin Bathurst gained notoriety during the Napoleonic War by his sudden, unexplained disappearance. In her late teens or early twenties she may have been a mistress of Lord Byron as opined in letters by Julie Gmelin.

Whilst this is a possibility it may be dubious speculation from Gmelin, who records her as an accomplished harpist and harpsichord player. A number of watercolours survive her. In July 1820 Caroline Bathurst married Heaton Champion de Crespigny vicar of Neatishead in Norfolk, settling in Vevey in Switzerland where their first child Eyre was born in May 1821, her husband was profligate, family letters written by Bishop Bathurst detail that by 1828 Heaton was in serious debt and unable to adequately support his wife and five children. The marriage had ended by 1837 when her father died and she came into her own money. A decision was made around 1840 to relocate the family to Heidelberg in Grand Duchy of Baden, where there was a small English literary community, it was in Heidelberg in 1841 that de Crespigny met the "friend", mentioned in the preface to her collection of poems, My Souvenir published in 1844. Thomas Medwin was the biographer of Percy Bysshe Shelly and Lord Byron, their shared knowledge of Byron may have been a catalyst to their lasting intimacy.

In 1842 Medwin published a novel Lady Singleton where de Crespigny's verse appears at the head of some chapters and she is "the high-born and gifted lady" that Medwin thanks in his preface for the novel. Neither was financially secure enough to divorce their spouse, the relationship was intellectual, they spent the next twenty years until de Crespigny's death in 1861 participating in the literary life of this university city. Their mixed German and English friends included, amongst others, Fanny Brawne Lindon, a lover and muse of John Keats and Mary and William Howitt. In 1848 Revolution swept through Germany including Heidelberg and de Crespigny and Medwin thought it judicious to exit to more peaceable Weinsberg in Wurttemberg where their host was poet, Justinus Kerner, her most significant publication, still in print, appeared in 1844. My Souvenir includes original poems, together with a number of translations, from Latin, Portuguese and German poets, it is probable that Medwin, a skilled polyglot is responsible for some of these translations but he is not credited.

Some of the original poems refer to subject matter related to her own family, such as Lines Written on Hearing of the Death My Niece Rosa Bathurst, Drowned in The Tiber, Aged Seventeen or For My Mother's Tomb at Malvern. The style is late romantic. An anonymous reviewer of My Souvenir referred to the original verses as distinguished by "elegance and tenderness rather than power or passion", adding that the translations "are selected with taste and feeling. Two further volumes of translations and original poems appeared in quick succession: The Enchanted Rose: A Romant In Three Cantos, a translation from Ernst Schulze and A Vision of Great Men which concentrated on translating the poems of German poetessesWhilst De Crespigny's own work remained hidden, her translations of poets such as Maciej Kazimierz Sarbiewski, Annette von Droste-Hülshoff and Justinus Kerner introduced these literary figures to a wider English-speaking audience. Source material for de Crespigny's final years until her death in Heidelberg on 26 December 1861 is sparse, knowledge is from the correspondence of her admirer Thomas Medwin.

In 1858 he published, in The New Monthly Magazine, Renderings in Latin that contained the last contemporaneous translations by Caroline de Crespigny. In 2016 The Bodleian Library, University of Oxford acquired an album of her verses and drawings providing scholars with access to her work

Christy Ren

Christy Ren is a former short track speed skater Olympian representing Hong Kong at the 2002 Olympics. Ren is an investment banker with HSBC. On 05 Aug 1983, Ren was born in Hong Kong. At age 8, Ren started figure skating. In 2002, as a freshman at Tufts University in Medford, Ren competed in the 2002 Olympics. In 2005, Ren graduated from Tufts University, she competed at the 2002 Winter Olympics for Hong Kong. Along with teammate Cordia Tsoi Pop-Yee, they became the first athletes to represent Hong Kong at the Winter Olympics, she was a member of the Hong Kong Speedskating Union. After the 2002 Games, Ren completed her studies at Tufts. Ren is working in investment banking with HSBC. Ren is fluent in English and Mandarin. Evans, Hilary. "Christy Ren". Olympics at Sports-Reference.com. Sports Reference LLC

Rhizome (philosophy)

Rhizome is a philosophical concept developed by Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari in their Capitalism and Schizophrenia project. It is what Deleuze calls an "image of thought", based on the botanical rhizome, that apprehends multiplicities. Deleuze and Guattari use the terms "rhizome" and "rhizomatic" to describe theory and research that allows for multiple, non-hierarchical entry and exit points in data representation and interpretation. In A Thousand Plateaus, they oppose it to an arborescent conception of knowledge, which works with dualist categories and binary choices. A rhizome works with planar and trans-species connections, while an arborescent model works with vertical and linear connections, their use of the "orchid and the wasp" is taken from the biological concept of mutualism, in which two different species interact together to form a multiplicity. Hybridization or horizontal gene transfer would be good illustrations. "As a model for culture, the rhizome resists the organizational structure of the root-tree system which charts causality along chronological lines and looks for the original source of'things' and looks towards the pinnacle or conclusion of those'things.'

A rhizome, on the other hand, is characterized by'ceaselessly established connections between semiotic chains, organizations of power, circumstances relative to the arts and social struggles.' Rather than narrativize history and culture, the rhizome presents history and culture as a map or wide array of attractions and influences with no specific origin or genesis, for a'rhizome has no beginning or end. The planar movement of the rhizome resists chronology and organization, instead favoring a nomadic system of growth and propagation. "In this model, culture spreads like the surface of a body of water, spreading towards available spaces or trickling downwards towards new spaces through fissures and gaps, eroding what is in its way. The surface can be interrupted and moved, but these disturbances leave no trace, as the water is charged with pressure and potential to always seek its equilibrium, thereby establish smooth space." Deleuze and Guattari introduce A Thousand Plateaus by outlining the concept of the rhizome: 1 and 2.

Principles of connection and heterogeneity: "...any point of a rhizome can be connected to any other, must be". Principle of multiplicity: it is only when the multiple is treated as a substantive, "multiplicity", that it ceases to have any relation to the One. Principle of asignifying rupture: a rhizome may be broken, but it will start up again on one of its old lines, or on new lines. Principle of cartography and decalcomania: a rhizome is not amenable to any structural or generative model. Deleuze, Gilles and Félix Guattari. 1980. A Thousand Plateaus. Trans. Brian Massumi. London and New York: Continuum, 2004. Vol. 2 of Capitalism and Schizophrenia. 2 vols. 1972-1980. Trans. of Mille Plateaux. Paris: Les Editions de Minuit. ISBN 0-8264-7694-5. Guattari, Félix. 1995. Chaosophy. Ed. Sylvère Lotringer. Semiotext Foreign Agents Ser. New York: Semiotext. ISBN 1-57027-019-8. ---. 1996. Soft Subversions. Ed. Sylvère Lotringer. Trans. David L. Sweet and Chet Wiener. Semiotext Foreign Agents Ser. New York: Semiotext. ISBN 1-57027-030-9.

Rhizomes – Cultural Studies Online Journal. Power of Networks – RSA Animate video on the "Power of Networks" by Manuel Lima

Rego Center

Rego Center is a shopping mall bordered by Long Island Expressway, Junction Boulevard, Queens Boulevard, 63rd Drive, 99th Street in the Rego Park neighborhood of Queens, New York. The mall was built on the grounds of the former "Fairyland" amusement park; the property was Alexander's, a New York City department store. Caldor had bought up the location and was in the processes of opening their store in the fall of 1995 but those plans were stalled when the chain filed for bankruptcy that year. Phase II of the mall, an annex to the open Phase I, opened on March 3, 2010 with 950,000 square feet of retail space. Costco with 145,000 square feet, Century 21 with 135,000 square feet, T. J. Maxx have opened. Retailers include Bed Bath and Beyond, IKEA, Old Navy and Burlington Coat Factory in Phase I. An Aldi supermarket opened on level 1 in February 2011; the nearest competitor malls are Queens Place Mall. As of February 2015, Vornado Realty Trust, the mall's owner, is developing a 24-story, 314-unit residential tower named The Alexander on top of the mall's phase II, due to a surge in young professionals moving into the area.

About 20% of the units are studio apartments, with the rest being one- and two-bedroom apartments. On January 4, 2017, it was announced that Sears would be closing as part of a plan to close 150 stores nationwide; the store closed in April 2017. A year in March 2018, Toys "R" Us announced that it would close all of its US stores, including the location at Rego Center; the site was occupied by a toy store called Toy City, operated by Party City. In January 2019, Kohl's announced that its store at Rego Center would be closing along with 3 other stores nationwide; the store closed on April 13, 2019. In September 2019, IKEA announced plans to convert the former Sears into its third New York City location; the Home Depot withdrew from the rental deal with Vornado in late 2008 due to drop in profit. The space vacated by Home Depot was replaced by Costco; this is Costco's fifth location in second in Queens. In 2005, Walmart had been dropped as a potential tenant, as an early part of its bid to open a store within New York City.

Opposition by various groups killed the plan. The following layout of retail space is taken from Vornado's Property website. Level 3: Century 21, Lenora Furniture, T. J. Maxx, Bed Bath and Beyond, Old Navy, Burlington Coat Factory Level 2: Marshalls, Toy City Street Level: Dallas BBQ, Mandee, The Vitamin Shoppe, Subway, Panera Bread, Marshalls Lower Level: Costco Official website Rego Park Center Department of City Planning Resolution 27 July 2005 PlanNYC-Rego Park II PlanNYC-Archival Search for Rego Park Mall II Rego Center details at Vornado Realty Trust website Ehrenkrantz Eckstut & Kuhn Architects project profile page

Tre'Shawn Thurman

Tre'Shawn Thurman is an American professional basketball player for the Grand Rapids Drive of the NBA G League. He played college basketball for the Omaha Mavericks. Thurman grew up in Omaha, Nebraska, he attended Omaha Central High School, nationally ranked. He led the team to a state title and earned all-state honors as a senior, averaging 16.6 points and 7.9 rebounds per game. As a freshman at Omaha, Thurman averaged 5.6 rebounds per game. Thurman averaged 6.7 rebounds per game as a sophomore. He posted 13.8 points and 7.8 rebounds per game as a junior and was named to the Summit League Honorable Mention Team. Omaha finished 18-14 in his junior season, Thurman had 21 points and eight rebounds in the Summit League Tournament final, where the Mavericks lost to South Dakota State, 79-77. After the season, Thurman decided to transfer for his final season of eligibility, considering offers from Drake and Wright State before settling on Nevada; as a senior at Nevada, Thurman averaged 8.2 points, 5.8 rebounds, 1.7 assists and 1.1 steals per game.

He shot 49.8 percent from the floor and 26.4 percent from behind the arc. After going undrafted in the 2019 NBA draft, Thurman participated in the G League Player Invitational. On October 18, 2019, Thurman signed with the Detroit Pistons, he was named to the roster of the Grand Rapids Drive. Nevada Wolf Pack bio