NIT Season Tip-Off
The NIT Season Tip-Off is an annual college basketball tournament that takes place in November of each year, towards the beginning of the season. The first two rounds are held at campus sites, while the semifinals and the finals are held during the week of Thanksgiving in New York City; the tournament, a part of the regular season for all participating colleges, began in 1985 as the Preseason NIT, so-called in order to distinguish it from the post-season NIT. In 2005, the NCAA purchased the Men's Preseason and Postseason NIT and renamed the November tournament the NIT Season Tip-Off; the tournament remains one of the most well-known preseason tournaments in NCAA Division I men's basketball, along with the Maui Invitational. The tournament had a new format in 2006; the first two rounds were held at regional "common sites" instead of campus sites, making the format more like the postseason NCAA Tournament. Through 2014, the semifinals and finals had always been held at Madison Square Garden. In 2006, the common sites were Charlotte, North Carolina, Tennessee and Spokane, Washington.
The tournament returned to its previous format in 2007 returned to the 2006 format in 2009. On September 3, 2014 a new format was announced for the NIT Season Tip-Off; the NIT Season Tip-Off will no longer be a bracketed event, instead becoming a classic with set semifinal matchups in New York, after the NCAA could only get eight teams in the field instead of 16. The NCAA-run event will add a new wrinkle due to the reduced field and feature a showcase of games on Thanksgiving Day with the other four teams that are not in the championship. Teams in the NIT Season Tip-Off will play four games at campus sites prior to the eight teams' arrival in New York. Madison Square Garden hosted the semifinal and final rounds for the first three decades, since the tournament's inception. Beginning in 2015, Barclays Center in Brooklyn will hold the two semifinal games on Thanksgiving Day, as well as the championship game the following day. Barclays Center will have the 2016 and 2018 semis and finals. In 2017, the tournament is scheduled to move over to the nearby Nassau Veterans Memorial Coliseum, in the process of getting a major renovation to its facilities.
1985 - Duke 92, Kansas 86 1986 - UNLV 96, Western Kentucky 95 1987 - Florida 70, Seton Hall 68 1988 - Syracuse 86, Missouri 84 1989 - Kansas 66, St. John's 57 1990 - Arizona 89, Arkansas 77 1991 - Oklahoma State 78, Georgia Tech 71 1992 - Indiana 78, Seton Hall 74 1993 - Kansas 86, Massachusetts 75 1994 - Ohio 84, New Mexico State 80 1995 - Arizona 81, Georgetown 71 1996 - Indiana 85, Duke 69 1997 - Kansas 73, Florida State 58 1998 - North Carolina 57, Stanford 49 1999 - Arizona 63, Kentucky 51 2000 - Duke 63, Temple 60 2001 - Syracuse 74, Wake Forest 67 2002 - North Carolina 74, Stanford 57 2003 - Georgia Tech 85, Texas Tech 65 2004 - Wake Forest 63, Arizona 60 2005 - Duke 70, Memphis 67 2006 - Butler 79, Gonzaga 71 2007 - Texas A&M 70, Ohio State 47 2008 - Oklahoma 87, Purdue 82 2009 - Duke 68, Connecticut 59 2010 - Tennessee 78, Villanova 68 2011 - Syracuse 69, Stanford 63 2012 - Michigan 71, Kansas State 57 2013 - Arizona 72, Duke 66 2014 - Gonzaga 73, St. John's 66 2015 - Villanova 69, Georgia Tech 52 2016 - Temple 81, West Virginia 77 2017 - Virginia 70, Rhode Island 55 2018 - Kansas 87, Tennessee 81 Oklahoma State Ole Miss Penn State Syracuse WKU 62 vs. Saint Joseph's 59 LIU Brooklyn 54 vs. Stony Brook 73 *All Times Eastern *All Times Eastern National Invitation Tournament Official Site of the NIT Season Tip-Off Bloomberg.com article discussing purchase of NIT Preseason & Postseason tournaments
Cayman Islands Classic
The Cayman Islands Classic, operated by Caymax Sports Ltd. is a preseason college basketball tournament that takes place in late November of each year, at John Gray Gymnasium in the Cayman Islands. The Cayman Basketball Classic is expected to mirror other popular NCAA preseason basketball tournaments like Hawaii’s Maui Invitational Tournament or the Bahamas’ Battle 4 Atlantis; the First Tournament started November 20, 2017 and concluded on November 22, 2017. The Mountain West sponsors the tournament, as a result a Mountain West team will be in the preseason tournament every year; the Inaugural field featured Buffalo, Iowa, Richmond, South Dakota State, UAB and Wyoming. Chattanooga Wyoming Alabama State Iowa UAB Louisiana South Dakota State Richmond Buffalo Cincinnati Akron Boise State Clemson Creighton Georgia Georgia State Illinois State St. BonaventureSource: Source: Cayman Islands Classic
Sewanee: The University of the South
Sewanee: The University of the South known as Sewanee, is a private, liberal arts college in Sewanee, Tennessee. It is owned by 28 southern dioceses of the Episcopal Church, its School of Theology is an official seminary of the church; the university's School of Letters offers graduate degrees in American Literature and Creative Writing. The campus consists of 13,000 acres of scenic mountain property atop the Cumberland Plateau, with the developed portion occupying about 1,000 acres; the school was ranked 41st in the 2017 U. S. News & World Report list of liberal arts colleges. In 2016, Forbes ranked it 94th on its list of Top Colleges in the United States. Sewanee is a member of the Associated Colleges of the South. On July 4, 1857, delegates from ten dioceses of the Episcopal Church in the United States — Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, North Carolina, South Carolina and Texas—were led up Monteagle Mountain by Bishop Leonidas Polk — an ardent defender of slavery — for the founding of their denominational college for the region.
The goal was to create a Southern university free of Northern influences. As one of its founders, Bishop James Otey of Tennessee, put it: the new university will "materially aid the South to resist and repel a fanatical domination which seeks to rule over us." John Armfield, at one time co-owner of Franklin and Armfield, "the largest and most prosperous slave trading enterprise in the entire country," was by far the most influential in bankrolling the new university. His purchase of the site where the university continues to exist today and his promise of $25,000 per year far exceeded any other donations and was considered a "princely offer" by a Nashville newspaper. Today, Sewanee admits students from all backgrounds and downplays the role of this slave trader in the University's founding; the six-ton marble cornerstone, laid on October 10, 1860, consecrated by Bishop Polk, was blown up in 1863 by Union soldiers. A few were donated back to the university, a large fragment was installed in a wall of All Saints' Chapel.
Several figures prominent in the Confederacy, notably Bishop-General Leonidas Polk, Bishop Stephen Elliott, Jr. and Bishop James Hervey Otey, were significant founders of the university. Generals Edmund Kirby Smith, Josiah Gorgas and Francis A. Shoup were prominent in the university's postbellum revival and continuance; because of the damage and disruptions during the Civil War, construction came to a temporary halt. Polk died in action during the Atlanta campaign, he is remembered always through his portrait Sword Over the Gown, painted by Eliphalet F. Andrews in 1900. After the original was vandalized in 1998, a copy by Connie Erickson was unveiled on June 1, 2003. In 1866 building was resumed, this date is sometimes used as the re-founding of the university and the year from which it has maintained continuous operations; the university's first convocation was held on September 18, 1868, with nine students and four faculty members present. Presiding was the Rt. Rev. Charles Todd Quintard, Vice Chancellor of the University, Second Bishop of Tennessee and "Chaplain of the Confederacy".
He attended the first Lambeth Conference in England and received financial support from clergy and laity of the Church of England for rebuilding the school. Quintard is known as the "Re-Founder" of the University of the South. During World War II, the University of the South was one of 131 tertiary institutions nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program, which offered students a path to a Navy commission. Schools of dentistry, law and nursing once existed, a secondary school was part of the institution into the second half of the 20th century. However, for financial reasons it was decided to focus on the College and the School of Theology. In June 2006, Sewanee opened its School of a second graduate school; the School of Letters offers a Master of Arts in American Literature and a Master of Fine Arts in Creative Writing. The institution has combined its two historical names in all university publications that are not official documents and bills itself as "Sewanee: The University of the South".
Version three of the university's style guide, a document reflecting the official policies of the university with respect to its public image following the name change, stated in part: First, it must be understood that the official and legal name of this institution is "The University of the South". In the past, unorganized use of this official name and the university's familiar name, has been confusing to those unfamiliar with the institution. In addition, college guides and Web sites that have become so crucial in young people's college searches may list the institution under as many as four different entries—beginning with "The", "University", "South", or "Sewanee". To avoid confusion and to honor the history and character of the institution, a consistent reference to the name of the institution is critical. So, for extended audiences unfamiliar with the institution, the naming convention "Sewanee: The University of the South" should be used on a first reference. Subsequent references may be to "Sewanee" or "the University".
When this naming system was proposed in 2004, it was misinterpreted by some alumni to reflect a change in the official name of the university. A minor scandal ensued, with more conservative commentators insinuating that the change was
Rhodes College is a private liberal arts college in Memphis, Tennessee. Accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools, Rhodes enrolls 2,000 students; the campus sits on a wooded site in the heart of historic Midtown Memphis. Due to the campus' natural beauty and distinctive Collegiate Gothic architecture, The Princeton Review named Rhodes the #1 Most Beautiful College Campus in America in its 2017 edition of The Best 381 Colleges. Rhodes has been named America's #1 Service-Oriented College by Newsweek, has been recognized by The Princeton Review, U. S. News, Fiske Guide to Colleges and Forbes. Rhodes is included in Colleges That Change Lives and The Princeton Review's Colleges That Create Futures: 50 Schools That Launch Careers By Going Beyond the Classroom. In the 2017 edition of The Princeton Review's Colleges That Pay You Back, Rhodes ranked #16 for Best Schools for Internships. Rhodes College was founded in 1848 in Clarksville, Tennessee as the Masonic University of Tennessee and was renamed Stewart College in 1850 in honor of its president, William M. Stewart.
Under Stewart's leadership in 1855, control of the college passed to the Presbyterian Church. The college's early growth paused during the American Civil War, during which its buildings served as a headquarters for the Union Army throughout the federal occupation of Clarksville; the war was costly for the young institution, as the campus suffered extensive damage and looting. The sad condition of campus and the slow recovery of the Southern economy made getting the college back on its feet a slow and difficult process. However, renewed support from the Presbyterian Church gave the college new life, leading Stewart College to be renamed Southwestern Presbyterian University in 1879. In 1885, the college added an undergraduate School of Theology under the leadership of Dr. Joseph R. Wilson, father of President Woodrow Wilson, which operated until 1917. However, by the early 20th century, the college had still not recovered from the Civil War and faced dwindling financial support and inconsistent enrollment.
Hoping to reverse the institution's fortunes, the board of directors hired Charles E. Diehl, the pastor of Clarksville's First Presbyterian Church, to take over as president. In order to revive the college, Diehl implemented a number of reforms: the admission of women in 1917, an honor code for students in 1918, the recruitment of Oxford-trained scholars to lead the implementation of an Oxford-Cambridge style of education. Diehl's application of an Oxbridge-style tutorial system, in which students study subjects in individual sessions with their professors, allowed the college to join Harvard as the only two colleges in the United States employing such a system. During Diehl's tenure as president, he would add more than a dozen Oxford-educated scholars to the faculty, their style of teaching would form the foundation of the modern Rhodes curriculum. However, President Diehl's most significant change to the college came in 1925, when he orchestrated the movement of Rhodes' campus from Clarksville to its present location in Memphis, Tennessee.
The move provided an increase in financial contributions and student enrollment, despite the Great Depression and World War II, the college began to grow. In 1945, the college adopted the name Southwestern at Memphis in order to distinguish itself from other colleges and universities containing the name "Southwestern."Charles Diehl retired in 1948, the Board of Trustees unanimously chose physics professor Dr. Payton N. Rhodes as his successor. During Rhodes' sixteen-year presidency the college admitted its first black students. In 1984, the Board of Trustees decided the name "Southwestern" needed to be retired, the college's name was changed to Rhodes College to honor the man who had served the institution for more than fifty years. Since 1984, Rhodes has grown into a nationally ranked liberal sciences college. Under the leadership of Dr. James Daughdrill and Dr. William E. Troutt, the college's physical expansion continued, Rhodes now offers more than 50 majors, interdisciplinary majors and academic programs.
Additionally, the school has built partnerships with numerous Memphis institutions to provide students with a network of research and internships opportunities. Today, Rhodes has the largest, most academically talented, diverse student body in its history. In July 2017, Dr. Marjorie Hass began her tenure as the 20th president of Rhodes College and is the college's first female president; the academic environment at Rhodes centers around small classes, faculty mentorship, an emphasis on student research and writing. The average class size is 14, the college has a 10:1 student-to-faculty ratio. In 2017, The Princeton Review ranked Rhodes #9 for Most Accessible Professors. Rhodes is featured perennially on the US News and Forbes lists of the Top 50 Liberal Arts Universities and has been hailed by Forbes as one of the Top 20 Colleges in the South. Through 18 academic departments and 13 interdisciplinary programs, Rhodes offers more than 50 majors, interdisciplinary majors and academic programs. If students are unable to find a major that meets their specific interests, the college may allow them to design their own major, better tailored to their goals.
Although the college is focused on undergraduate education, Rhodes offers graduate degrees
National Collegiate Athletic Association
The National Collegiate Athletic Association is a non-profit organization which regulates athletes of 1,268 North American institutions and conferences. It organizes the athletic programs of many colleges and universities in the United States and Canada, helps more than 480,000 college student-athletes who compete annually in college sports; the organization is headquartered in Indiana. In its 2016–17 fiscal year the NCAA took in $1.06 billion in revenue, over 82% of, generated by the Division I Men's Basketball Tournament. In August 1973, the current three-division system of Division I, Division II, Division III was adopted by the NCAA membership in a special convention. Under NCAA rules, Division I and Division II schools can offer scholarships to athletes for playing a sport. Division III schools may not offer any athletic scholarships. Larger schools compete in Division I and smaller schools in II and III. Division I football was further divided into I-A and I-AA in 1978. Subsequently, the term "Division I-AAA" was added to delineate Division I schools which do not field a football program at all, but that term is no longer used by the NCAA.
In 2006, Divisions I-A and I-AA were renamed the Football Bowl Subdivision and Football Championship Subdivision. Controversially, the NCAA caps the benefits that collegiate athletes can receive from their schools. There is a consensus among economists that these caps for men's basketball and football players benefit the athletes' schools at the expense of athletes. Intercollegiate sports began in the US in 1852 when crews from Harvard and Yale universities met in a challenge race in the sport of rowing; as rowing remained the preeminent sport in the country into the late-1800s, many of the initial debates about collegiate athletic eligibility and purpose were settled through organizations like the Rowing Association of American Colleges and the Intercollegiate Rowing Association. As other sports emerged, notably football and basketball, many of these same concepts and standards were adopted. Football, in particular, began to emerge as a marquee sport, but the rules of the game itself were in constant flux and had to be adapted for each contest.
The NCAA dates its formation to two White House conferences convened by President Theodore Roosevelt in the early 20th century in response to repeated injuries and deaths in college football which had "prompted many college and universities to discontinue the sport." Following those White House meetings and the reforms which had resulted, Chancellor Henry MacCracken of New York University organized a meeting of 13 colleges and universities to initiate changes in football playing rules. The IAAUS was established on March 31, 1906, took its present name, the NCAA, in 1910. For several years, the NCAA was a discussion group and rules-making body, but in 1921, the first NCAA national championship was conducted: the National Collegiate Track and Field Championships. More rules committees were formed and more championships were created, including a basketball championship in 1939. A series of crises brought the NCAA to a crossroads after World War II; the "Sanity Code" – adopted to establish guidelines for recruiting and financial aid – failed to curb abuses.
Postseason football games were multiplying with little control, member schools were concerned about how the new medium of television would affect football attendance. The complexity of those problems and the growth in membership and championships demonstrated the need for full-time professional leadership. Walter Byers a part-time executive assistant, was named executive director in 1951, a national headquarters was established in Kansas City, Missouri in 1952. Byers wasted no time placing his stamp on the Association. A program to control live television of football games was approved, the annual Convention delegated enforcement powers to the Association's Council, legislation was adopted governing postseason bowl games; as college athletics grew, the scope of the nation's athletics programs diverged, forcing the NCAA to create a structure that recognized varying levels of emphasis. In 1973, the Association's membership was divided into three legislative and competitive divisions – I, II, III.
Five years in 1978, Division I members voted to create subdivisions I-A and I-AA in football. Until the 1980s, the association did not offer women's athletics. Instead, the Association for Intercollegiate Athletics for Women, with nearly 1000 member schools, governed women's collegiate sports in the United States; the AIAW was in a vulnerable position. Following a one-year overlap in which both organizations staged women's championships, the AIAW discontinued operation, most member schools continued their women's athletics programs under the governance of the NCAA. By 1982 all divisions of the NCAA offered national championship events for women's athletics. A year in 1983, the 75th Convention approved an expansion to plan women's athletic program services and pushed for a women's championship program. By the 1980s, televised college football had become a larger source of income for the NCAA. In September 1981, the Board of Regents of the University of Oklahoma and the University of Georgia Athletic Association filed suit against the NCAA in district court in Oklahoma.
The plaintiffs stated that the NCAA's football tel
Centre College is a private liberal arts college located in Danville, Kentucky, a community of 16,000 in Boyle County, about 35 miles south of Lexington, Kentucky. Centre is an undergraduate four-year institution with an enrollment of 1,400 students. Centre was founded by Presbyterian leaders, it maintains a loose affiliation with the Presbyterian Church, it was chartered by the Kentucky General Assembly in 1819. The college is a member of the Associated Colleges of the South and the Association of Presbyterian Colleges and Universities; the Kentucky General Assembly established Centre College on January 21, 1819. The college was named for its proximate location in the geographic "centre" of the Commonwealth, using early nineteenth century America's contemporaneous spelling of the word. Auspiciously, the legislature placed many of Kentucky's most prominent citizens in charge of Centre College's Board of Trustees, with Isaac Shelby, the Commonwealth's first governor, serving as chair. Classes began in the fall of 1820 in Old Centre, the first building on campus and the oldest college administration building west of the Allegheny Mountains.
In its early years, Centre navigated financial hardships, disputes within and outside the Presbyterian Church, six wars, including the occupation of Old Centre by both Confederate and Union troops during the Civil War. A Centre alumnus, John Todd Stuart, played a formative role in American history by encouraging Abraham Lincoln to study for the bar, providing his first set of law books, serving as Lincoln's professional and political mentor. From 1830 to 1857, President John C. Young oversaw a vast enlargement of the faculty and a five-fold increase in the student body. Following the Civil War, Centre affiliated itself with several other educational institutions. From 1894 until 1912, J. Proctor Knott, a former Kentucky Governor and U. S. Congressman, operated a law school at Centre as its dean; the Centre College Board of Trustees controlled the Kentucky School for the Deaf in Danville, during its early years. In 1921, Centre upset Harvard University's undefeated football team 6–0, a feat which led The New York Times to call it "Football's Upset of the Century".
ESPN described Centre's victory as one of the biggest upsets in all sports during the twentieth century. "C6H0" remains a point of pride among students and alumni and is the answer to "What is the formula for a winning football team?" To this day, "C6HO" is inscribed in large white figures on the brick exterior of Centre's old post office. During the 1960s the college's financial resources doubled. Eleven new buildings were added to the campus and enrollment increased from 450 to 800. In 1988, Centre set a national record when it achieved a 75.4% participation rate for alumni giving, a mark that remains unbroken to this day. From the latter twentieth century to the present, strong levels of alumni giving and participation—often the highest in the nation—fueled the college's growth. Today, enrollment is around 1,300 with nearly 150 faculty members. Dr. John A. Roush, who took office in 1998, is the college's 20th president. In 2000, Centre became the smallest college to host a national election debate.
Dick Cheney and Senator Joe Lieberman debated on October 5 at Centre's Norton Center for the Arts with CNN's Bernard Shaw acting as moderator. In 2012, Centre again hosted a vice presidential debate in the Norton Center for the Arts, which featured Vice President Joe Biden and Rep. Paul Ryan; the physical campus has changed during the past decade. In 2005, the college completed The College Centre, a $22-million project to expand and renovate Suttcliffe Hall, the Crounse Academic Center and Grace Doherty Library, the largest construction project on campus since the Norton Center was built in 1973. Additionally, a new student residence, Pearl Hall, was completed in 2008. In August 2011, Centre announced the construction of Brockman Residential Commons, a 125-bed facility offering apartment and townhouse living for upperclassmen; the residence facility was completed at the beginning of the 2012–13 school year. Classes at Centre are held in spite of several federal holidays—including Martin Luther King, Jr. Presidents, Labor and Veterans Days—and cancelled, which are points of pride among students and alumni.
During the Confederate occupation of Old Centre in 1862, classes were held at Old Sayre library. However, the Battle of Perryville forced the faculty to suspend classes for 13 days, the college's only cancellation during the Civil War. Classes were cancelled one day due to the Great Blizzard of 1978. In 1994 and 1998, when severe snow and ice storms shut down much of the Commonwealth, classes were delayed by half a day. In 2000, classes were cancelled prior to the Vice Presidential Debate and in the spring due to a hazardous chemical spill on the train tracks found at the end of Greek Row. On March 7, 2006, classes were cut short to allow students and staff to attend a symposium honoring retiring Dean John Ward. Following a large snow storm in 1997, Dean John Ward told the college community, "Centre didn't cancel classes during parts of the Civil War, yet classes were cancelled at Centre on March 2014, due to weather conditions. On Thursday, October 5, 2000, Centre College hosted the Vice Presidential Debate, becoming the
Basketball is a team sport in which two teams, most of five players each, opposing one another on a rectangular court, compete with the primary objective of shooting a basketball through the defender's hoop while preventing the opposing team from shooting through their own hoop. A field goal is worth two points, unless made from behind the three-point line, when it is worth three. After a foul, timed play stops and the player fouled or designated to shoot a technical foul is given one or more one-point free throws; the team with the most points at the end of the game wins, but if regulation play expires with the score tied, an additional period of play is mandated. Players advance the ball by bouncing it while walking or running or by passing it to a teammate, both of which require considerable skill. On offense, players may use a variety of shots -- a dunk, it is a violation to lift or drag one's pivot foot without dribbling the ball, to carry it, or to hold the ball with both hands resume dribbling.
The five players on each side at a time fall into five playing positions: the tallest player is the center, the tallest and strongest is the power forward, a shorter but more agile big man is the small forward, the shortest players or the best ball handlers are the shooting guard and the point guard, who implements the coach's game plan by managing the execution of offensive and defensive plays. Informally, players may play three-on-three, two-on-two, one-on-one. Invented in 1891 by Canadian-American gym teacher James Naismith in Springfield, United States, basketball has evolved to become one of the world's most popular and viewed sports; the National Basketball Association is the most significant professional basketball league in the world in terms of popularity, salaries and level of competition. Outside North America, the top clubs from national leagues qualify to continental championships such as the Euroleague and FIBA Americas League; the FIBA Basketball World Cup and Men's Olympic Basketball Tournament are the major international events of the sport and attract top national teams from around the world.
Each continent hosts regional competitions for national teams, like FIBA AmeriCup. The FIBA Women's Basketball World Cup and Women's Olympic Basketball Tournament feature top national teams from continental championships; the main North American league is the WNBA, whereas strongest European clubs participate in the EuroLeague Women. In early December 1891, Canadian James Naismith, a physical education professor and instructor at the International Young Men's Christian Association Training School in Springfield, was trying to keep his gym class active on a rainy day, he sought a vigorous indoor game to keep his students occupied and at proper levels of fitness during the long New England winters. After rejecting other ideas as either too rough or poorly suited to walled-in gymnasiums, he wrote the basic rules and nailed a peach basket onto a 10-foot elevated track. In contrast with modern basketball nets, this peach basket retained its bottom, balls had to be retrieved manually after each "basket" or point scored.
Basketball was played with a soccer ball. These round balls from "association football" were made, at the time, with a set of laces to close off the hole needed for inserting the inflatable bladder after the other sewn-together segments of the ball's cover had been flipped outside-in; these laces could dribbling to be unpredictable. A lace-free ball construction method was invented, this change to the game was endorsed by Naismith; the first balls made for basketball were brown, it was only in the late 1950s that Tony Hinkle, searching for a ball that would be more visible to players and spectators alike, introduced the orange ball, now in common use. Dribbling was not part of the original game except for the "bounce pass" to teammates. Passing the ball was the primary means of ball movement. Dribbling was introduced but limited by the asymmetric shape of early balls. Dribbling was common by 1896, with a rule against the double dribble by 1898; the peach baskets were used until 1906 when they were replaced by metal hoops with backboards.
A further change was soon made, so the ball passed through. Whenever a person got the ball in the basket, his team would gain a point. Whichever team got; the baskets were nailed to the mezzanine balcony of the playing court, but this proved impractical when spectators in the balcony began to interfere with shots. The backboard was introduced to prevent this interference. Naismith's handwritten diaries, discovered by his granddaughter in early 2006, indicate that he was nervous about the new game he had invented, which incorporated rules from a children's game called duck on a rock, as many had failed before it. Frank Mahan, one of the players from the original