California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
Santee is a suburban city in San Diego County, with a population of 53,413 at the 2010 census. Although it is a part of the East County region, Santee is located just 18 miles from the Pacific Ocean; the city is connected to the coastline by State Route 52, a six-lane freeway that runs from Interstate 5 in La Jolla to State Route 67 in El Cajon. The city is bisected by the San Diego River, a linear greenbelt that includes parks and more than 1,100 acres of natural riparian habitat; the region was the homeland of the Kumeyaay people. These original residents established the village of Sinyeweche on the banks of the San Diego River in the present day Santee area; the city is named after Milton Santee, the second husband of Jennie Blodgett, whose first husband was George A. Cowles, a pioneer rancher and businessperson in the San Diego County area. In 2010, the city was populated by 19,272 households, of which 64 percent had incomes greater than $45,000 annually. In 2009, the median household income was $78,872 per year, according to the San Diego Association of Governments.
In 2010, Santee had one of the lowest crime rates among cities in San Diego County. Unlike most of the county's coastal cities, Santee still has sizable portions of vacant land suitable for development, it is a growing suburban community that in recent years has added upscale housing, a major corporate business park and expansive shopping centers, along with a destination recreational complex called Sportsplex USA Santee. Sports: Sportsplex USA Santee, a 15-acre sports field complex, opened on June 1, 2010. Located within Town Center Community Park, it features three lighted softball fields, four batting cages, two lighted arena soccer fields, spectator seating, parking and a sports-themed restaurant offering food and wine. Santee has hosted the 2012 and 2016 US Olympic Trials for the 50K racewalk on a course along Mast Blvd. Below Santana High School. Outdoors: In addition to being a popular spot for mountain bikers, the city hosts a popular Southern California rock climbing venue called Santee Boulders.
Santee Lakes Regional Park and Campground offers 190 acres for fishing, bird watching and picnicking. Golf: A local landmark since 1958, the Carlton Oaks Golf Course and resort offers a premier golfing destination; the course was designed by the legendary Pete Dye. Music: A 10-week series of free concerts is organized each summer by the city's Community Services Department; the Santee Wine & Bluegrass Festival, a fund-raiser for local park and youth recreation programs, is held each fall at Town Center Community Park. Santee is home to Off Broadway Live, a 100-seat, cabaret-style theatre. Off Broadway Live features year-round live theatre. Pickwick Players performs at Off Broadway Live. Pickwick Players brings high quality community theatre productions and educational opportunities to adults and children. State Route 52 was extended eastward through the city from its former terminus at State Route 125 to State Route 67 on the city's east side; the city is bisected by four main thoroughfares: Mast Boulevard and Mission Gorge Road traverse east and west, while Magnolia Avenue and Cuyamaca Street cross north and south.
Santee is the eastern terminus of the San Diego Metropolitan Transit System Green Line trolley route, which connects East County to Old Town and downtown San Diego. MTS provides bus service. Gillespie Field, the oldest and largest of eight commercial aviation airports operated by San Diego County, is located on Santee's southern border with the city of El Cajon; the airport serves as a hub for local businesses. The 55 acres Town Center Community Park is located east of Cuyamaca Street along the San Diego River; the center of the park features a 15 acres sports field complex operated by Sportsplex USA Santee, an aquatics center operated by the East County YMCA. The park's first two phases were completed in the fall of 2010; the $23.5 million facility was funded through a combination of redevelopment bonds, developer impact fees and grants. As of 2011, the city had completed about half of a 4-mile -long riverfront trail system that will connect with trails in Lakeside and Mission Trails Regional Park.
Located on 15 acres in Santee is the Las Colinas Detention Facility, which serves as the primary point of intake for women prisoners in San Diego County. It began as a juvenile facility in 1967 and was converted to an adult women’s institution in 1979. Santee, 345 feet above sea level, shares the northern part of a valley with the city of El Cajon; the city is bisected by the San Diego River, which flows east to west for 4.2 miles within the city limits. Hills form a natural barrier on western sides. Prominently overlooking the western side of Santee is Cowles Mountain; this natural landmark, the highest point in the city of San Diego, offers sweeping views of the county and is a popular hiking destination. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Santee has a semi-arid climate, abbreviated "BSk" on climate maps; the 2010 United States Census reported that Santee had a population of 53,413. The population density was 3,231.6 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Santee was 44,083 White, 1,057 African American, 409 Native American, 2,044 Asian, 253 Pacific Islander, 2,677 from other races, 2,890 from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 8,699 persons. The Census reported that 52,447 people lived in households, 77 lived i
Escondido is a city located in San Diego County's North County region, 30 miles northeast of downtown San Diego. The city occupies a shallow valley ringed by rocky hills. Incorporated in 1888, it is one of the oldest cities in San Diego County; the city had a population of 143,911 in the 2010 census. "Escondido" is a Spanish word meaning "hidden". One source says the name referred to agua escondida or hidden water; the city is known as Eskondiid in Diegueño. The Escondido area was first settled by the Luiseño, who established campsites and villages along the creek running through the area, they named the place "Mehel-om-pom-pavo." The Kumeyaay migrated from areas near the Colorado River, settling both in the San Pasqual Valley and near the San Dieguito River in the southwestern and western portions of what is now Escondido. Most of the villages and campsites today have been destroyed by agriculture. Spain controlled the land from the late 18th century to the early 19th century, established many missions in California to convert the indigenous people.
When Mexico gained its independence from Spain, the local land was divided into large ranchos. Most of what is now Escondido occupies the former Rancho Rincon del Diablo, a Mexican land grant given to Juan Bautista Alvarado in 1843 by Governor Manuel Micheltorena. Alvarado was a Regidor of Los Angeles at the time, the first Regidor of the pueblo of San Diego; the southern part of Escondido occupies the former Rancho San Bernardo, granted in 1842 and 1845. In 1846, during the Mexican–American War, the Battle of San Pasqual was fought southeast of Escondido; this battle pitted Mexican forces under Andrés Pico against Americans under Stephen W. Kearny, Archibald Gillespie, Kit Carson. A park in Escondido is named for Carson; the city was home to a Spanish-speaking population in the first census, taken in 1850 when California became a state. After statehood, non-Hispanic settlers came to Southern California in increasing numbers; the decade of the 1880s is known as the "Southern California Land Boom" because so many people moved to the state.
In 1853, pro-Southern Copperheads proposed dividing the state of California to create a new Territory of Colorado. San Diego Judge Oliver S. Witherby suggested placing the capitol of the new territory in Rancho Rincon del Diablo, he envisioned a railroad connecting San Diego to Fort Yuma through an area about two miles south of the current Escondido site, heading east through San Pasqual. With a series of deeds in 1855 and 1856, the rancho was transferred from the heirs of Juan Bautista Alvarado to Witherby, he planned to profit from the town that he believed would be established from the dividing point on the railroad below the eastern hills. The proposal for splitting the state and creating the new territory passed in the California legislature, but died in Congress in the run-up to the Civil War, it was killed in 1861 when Congress organized the Territory of Colorado in the area occupied by the Jefferson Territory. With Witherby's vision of owning a bustling state capitol unrealized, he set up a mining operation on the rancho instead.
In 1868, Witherby sold the rancho for $8000 to Edward McGeary and John and Matthew Wolfskill. McGeary owned half the rancho, while the three Wolfskill brothers each owned an equal share of the other half. John Wolfskill farmed sheep and cattle on the rancho for a number of years. Wolfskill had frequent conflicts with the Couts family, owners of the neighboring Guajome, Buena Vista, San Marcos ranchos, over grazing lands and watering holes. In October 1883, a group of Los Angeles investors purchased Rancho Rincon del Diablo; this group sold the land to the newly formed Escondido Company in 1884. On December 18, 1885, investors incorporated the Escondido Land and Town Company, in 1886 this company purchased the 12,814-acre area for $100,000. Two years in 1888, Escondido was incorporated as a city. Railroads such as the Santa Fe and Southern Pacific were laid in the 1880s; the opening of U. S. Route 395 in 1930 boosted economic growth in Escondido. Escondido was an agricultural community, growing muscat grapes initially.
After a dam was built in 1894-5 to form what is known today as Lake Wohlford and lemon trees were planted in large numbers, as were olive and walnut trees. By the 1960s, avocados became the largest local crop. Since the 1970s, Escondido has lost most of its agricultural land to housing developments. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 37.0 square miles. 36.8 square miles of it is land and 0.2 square miles of it is water. The total area is 0.48% water. The city is growing at a rapid rate with new communities like Hidden Trails appearing at the east end of East Valley Parkway; the city proper is surrounded by several sparsely populated unincorporated communities. These include Jesmond Hidden Meadows to the north. Residents of these communities have Escondido mailing addresses and zip codes, their children are sometimes assigned to Escondido schools, but residents of these communities cannot participate in city elections; the city contains several neighborhoods including: Downtown Escondido centers on Grand Avenue between Centre City Parkway and Palomar Hospital.
The city's general plan defines the Downtown Specific Plan Area as 460 acres (1
Harbison Canyon, California
Harbison Canyon is a census-designated place in San Diego County, California. Harbison Canyon had a population of 3,841 as of the 2010 census, up from 3,645 as of the 2000 census. According to the United States Geological Survey Harbison Canyon is located at 32°49′13″N 116°49′48″W, near the intersection of Harbison Canyon Road and Frances Drive; this is. It is located in a canyon between Alpine. Mail sent to Harbison Canyon is addressed to El Cajon. According to the United States Census Bureau Harbison Canyon is located at 32°49′16″N 116°50′24″W; this is 3,100 feet west of the USGS location in undeveloped hills west of the community. According to the United States Census Bureau, the Harbison Canyon census-designated place has a total area of 10.1 square miles, all land. The 2010 United States Census reported that Harbison Canyon had a population of 3,841; the population density was 381.9 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Harbison Canyon was 3,404 White, 12 African American, 74 Native American, 71 Asian, 6 Pacific Islander, 145 from other races, 129 from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 623 persons. The Census reported that 3,838 people lived in households, 3 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 0 were institutionalized. There were 1,343 households, out of which 462 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 804 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 154 had a female householder with no husband present, 76 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 73 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 14 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 221 households were made up of individuals and 70 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.86. There were 1,034 families; the population was spread out with 857 people under the age of 18, 354 people aged 18 to 24, 851 people aged 25 to 44, 1,363 people aged 45 to 64, 416 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42.4 years. For every 100 females, there were 103.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 101.5 males.
There were 1,413 housing units at an average density of 140.5 per square mile, of which 1,160 were owner-occupied, 183 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 2.3%. 3,277 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 561 people lived in rental housing units. As of the census of 2000, there were 3,645 people, 1,274 households, 983 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 362.7 inhabitants per square mile. There were 1,311 housing units at an average density of 130.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 90.67% White, 0.47% African American, 1.78% Native American, 1.15% Asian, 0.11% Pacific Islander, 2.22% from other races, 3.59% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 10.70% of the population. There were 1,274 households out of which 37.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 63.9% were married couples living together, 8.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 22.8% were non-families. 16.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.86 and the average family size was 3.22. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 27.4% under the age of 18, 7.1% from 18 to 24, 29.8% from 25 to 44, 27.6% from 45 to 64, 8.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 104.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 100.2 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $56,975, the median income for a family was $60,913. Males had a median income of $41,058 versus $31,371 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $23,914. About 5.1% of families and 4.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.6% of those under age 18 and 3.6% of those age 65 or over. John Stewart Harbison was born the third child of William and Margaret Harbison, on a farm near Freedom, Beaver County, Pennsylvania, on September 29, 1826, he became a bee keeper in the tradition of his father, migrated to the west coast of the United States.
After spending some years in other California locations, he arrived in San Diego aboard the ship "Orizaba" with one hundred and ten colonies of bees on November 28, 1869. In the spring of 1874 he moved with his wife and daughter to a homestead near the Sweetwater River twenty-three miles east of San Diego in a little valley now known as Harbison Canyon. Within seven years time, he was the largest producer of honey in the world, operating 2000 to 3000 hives. At that time, having several hundred hives was considered a large operation, his success in capitalizing on the vast honey potential of San Diego County, along with his extensive campaign of selling bees to the residents of the county was the major force in making San Diego County the greatest honey producing county in the State of California by 1874, which in turn made California the leading honey producing state of the Union. John Harbison was a major contributor to the theory of bee culture with his development of new tools and methods that characterized the remarkable advances made in nineteenth century apicultural science.
Harbison and his
El Centro, California
El Centro is a city in and county seat of Imperial County, the largest city in the Imperial Valley, east anchor of the Southern California Border Region, the core urban area and principal city of the El Centro metropolitan area which encompasses all of Imperial County. El Centro is the largest American city to lie below sea level; the city, located in southeastern California, is 113 miles from the major Southern California city of San Diego and near the Mexican city of Mexicali. The city was founded in 1906 by W. F. Holt and C. A. Barker, who purchased the land on which El Centro was built for about $40 per acre and invested $100,000 in improvements; the modern city is home to retail, transportation and agricultural industries. There are two international border crossings nearby for commercial and noncommercial vehicles. El Centro's population was 42,598 at the 2010 census, up from 37,835 in 2000. Spanish explorer Melchor Díaz was one of the first Europeans to visit the area around El Centro and Imperial Valley in 1540.
The explorer Juan Bautista de Anza explored the area in 1776. Years after the Mexican–American War, the northern half of the valley was annexed by the U. S. while the southern half remained under Mexican rule. Small scale settlement in natural aquifer areas occurred in the early 19th century, but most permanent settlement was after 1900. Part of San Diego County, the Imperial Valley was settled by farmers once water from the Colorado River was diverted via canals to irrigate the desert valley floor. In 1906, the land on which El Centro was built was purchased by W. F. Holt and C. A. Barker. In 1907 Imperial County was split off from San Diego County. Before the town began, the railroad had named the place Cabarker; the name honored C. A. Barker, a friend of the landowner; the first post office in El Centro opened in 1905. Early growth was rapid with the city’s population reaching 1,610 by 1910 and more than tripling by 1920 to 5,646 people. One reason for this rapid early growth was El Centro’s successful battle with the City of Imperial to become the county seat.
In these early days, relationships among the cities of the Imperial Valley were intensely competitive, reflecting the particular frontier character of the area and the fact that six cities within a twenty-mile radius were all established within one generation. These cities were in a horse race to win the prize of being the Valley’s leading city and the intense competition is measured by the fact that it took twenty years to get a county fair started because of strong local loyalties on the County Board of Supervisors The City of El Centro was incorporated on April 16, 1908. One reason for this rapid growth was El Centro. Population growth was slow, but accelerated in the 1930s, again in the 1940s, despite the city being hard hit by a 7.1 earthquake in May 1940. By the mid-1940s, El Centro had become the second largest city in the Imperial Valley, with a population of about 11,000 people. El Centro had become the location of the Imperial Irrigation District administrative offices. Agriculture has been an important industry within El Centro since the 1940s, because of its strategic location near rail lines and U.
S. Highways 80 and 99 – more than 35 growers and shippers still operate in El Centro. However, by the early 1980s the two largest employment sectors in El Centro were government and wholesale/retail trade, reflecting El Centro's emerging role as a regional administrative and commercial center. Imperial Valley Mall opened on the southeast side of the city in 2005; the nearby Algodones Dunes, the largest dune field in the US, draws thousands of visitors each year for off-road driving. The Salton Sea lies 30 miles north of El Centro, but water sport enthusiasts head to the Colorado River, 50 miles to the east near Yuma, Arizona; the El Centro Naval Air Facility 10 miles to the west is home to the annual Blue Angels flight maneuvering event. Stark Field is home of a minor league baseball team El Centro Imperials of the Arizona Summer League. Mexico is 10 miles away, which offers big city amenities like museums, a zoo and a sports/convention center. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 11.1 square miles, of which over 99% is land.
El Centro is located in the Imperial Valley. The city is 50 feet below the largest city in the United States below sea level; the Imperial Valley is in an extension of the larger Sonoran Desert. The agriculture industry's demand for water is supplied by canals diverting water from the nearby Colorado River; the Salton Sea was created after a 1905 flood from the Colorado River. In this region, the geology is dominated by the transition of the tectonic plate boundary from rift to transverse fault; the southernmost strands of the San Andreas Fault connect the northern-most extensions of the East Pacific Rise. The region is subject to earthquakes, the crust is being stretched, resulting in a sinking of the terrain over time. El Centro has a desert climate and is the southernmost desert city below sea level in the continental United States, it features long hot summers, mild winters. El Centro under 3 inches of rain annually. Winter tempe
California Public Utilities Commission
The California Public Utilities Commission is a regulatory agency that regulates owned public utilities in the state of California, including electric power, telecommunications, natural gas and water companies. In addition, the CPUC regulates common carriers, including household goods movers, passenger transportation companies such as limousine services, rail crossing safety; the CPUC has headquarters in the Civic Center district of San Francisco, field offices in Los Angeles and Sacramento. On April 1, 1878, the California Office of the Commissioner of Transportation was created. During the 19th century, public concerns over the unbridled power of the Southern Pacific Railroad grew to the point that a three-member Railroad Commission was established to approve transportation prices. However, the Southern Pacific dominated this commission to its advantage, public outrage re-ignited; as experience with public regulation grew, other common utilities were brought under the oversight of the Railroad Commission.
On March 3, 1879 the California Constitution was adopted by constitutional convention and was ratified by the electorate on May 7, 1879, included provisions relating to Railroad Commissioners in article XII. On April 15, 1880 the Board of Railroad Commissioners was created. On March 20, 1909 the Railroad Commission of the State of California replaced these other entities. On February 9, 1911 the California Legislature passed the Railroad Commission Act reorganizing the Railroad Commission. On March 24, 1911 the California Legislature proposed a constitutional amendment giving it constitutional status, ratified by the electorate on October 10, 1911. On June 16, 1945 a constitutional amendment was proposed by the legislature to rename the Railroad Commission as the California Public Utilities Commission, ratified by the electorate on November 5, 1946; as a result of the amendment, the Constitution of California declares that the Public Utilities Code is the highest law in the state, that the legislature has unlimited authority to regulate public utilities under the Public Utilities Code, that its provisions override any conflicting provision of the State Constitution which deals with the subject of regulation of public utilities.
In October 2014, Commission President Michael Peevey decided to step down at the upcoming end of his second six-year term in December. Controversy was swirling around the agency at the time, for apparent cozy relationships with Pacific Gas & Electric, a utility whose gas line exploded in San Bruno killing eight people in 2010, his home in the Los Angeles suburb of La Cañada Flintridge was searched by criminal investigators in January 2015. Five commissioners each serve staggered six-year terms as the governing body of the agency. Commissioners must be confirmed by the California State Senate; the CPUC meets publicly to carry out the business of the agency, which may include the adoption of utility rate changes, rules on safety and service standards, implementation of conservation programs, investigation into unlawful or anticompetitive practices by regulated utilities and intervention into federal proceedings which affect California ratepayers. As of January 2015, the current commissioners are: President Michael Picker, Carla J. Peterman Liane M. Randolph Clifford Rechtschaffen Martha Guzman Aceves Some regulatory laws are implemented by the California State Legislature through the passage of laws.
These laws reside in the California Public Utilities Code. The CPUC Headquarters are in San Francisco with offices in Los Angeles and Sacramento and the CPUC employs 1000 including judges, analysts, lawyers and support; the CPUC does not regulate the rates of utilities and common carriers operated by government agencies. Thus, such organizations as the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power, San Francisco's Bay Area Rapid Transit, other municipally operated utilities or common carriers are not subject to rate regulation or tariff schedule filing with the CPUC. However, all municipal utilities and carriers in California must follow Public Utilities provisions on holding hearings and obtaining public input before raising rates or changing terms of service, municipal utility customers have means of appeal of potential disconnections. Additionally, the CPUC has jurisdiction over components of the safety operations of government run utilities and common carriers; the CPUC regulates investor-owned electric and gas utilities within the state of California, including Pacific Gas & Electric, Southern California Edison, San Diego Gas & Electric.
Among its stated goals for energy regulation are to establish service standards and safety rules, authorize utility rate changes, oversee markets to inhibit anti-competitive activity, prosecute unlawful utility marketing and billing activities, govern business relationships between utilities and their affiliates, resolve complaints by customers against utilities, implement energy efficiency and conservation programs and programs for the low-income and disabled, oversee the merger and restructure of utility corporations, enforce the California Environmental Quality Act for utility construction. The California Solar Initiative is overseen by the California Public Utilities Commission and provides incentives for solar system installations to customers of the state’s three investor-owned utilities: Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Southern California Edison and San Diego Gas and Electric; the CSI program provides upfront incentives for solar systems installed on existing residential homes, as well as existing and ne
Encinitas is a beach city in the North County area of San Diego County, California. Located within Southern California, it is 25 miles north of San Diego and about 95 miles south of Los Angeles; as of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 59,518, up from 58,014 at the 2000 census. Encinitas is a Spanish name meaning "little oaks"; the city was incorporated by 69.3% of the voters in 1986 from the communities of historic Encinitas, new Encinitas, Cardiff-by-the-Sea, Olivenhain. The communities retain distinctive flavors. Encinitas can be divided into five areas: Old Encinitas: a small beachside area featuring a mix of businesses and housing styles. Sitting along Coast Highway 101, the Encinitas welcome arch, the famous surf break Swamis, the early 20th century La Paloma Theater are located here. Old Encinitas is divided from New Encinitas by a low coastal ridge. New Encinitas: a newer region which features a golf course, many shopping centers, is composed of larger tract homes. Olivenhain: a semi-rural region in eastern Encinitas, composed of single family homes, an active 4-H Club, several private equestrian facilities.
Olivenhain connects to Rancho Santa Fe via Encinitas Boulevard. Leucadia: a coastal community of the city. Leucadia features tree-lined boulevards; the community features art galleries, unusual stores, restaurants, along with single family homes. This contains beaches such as Beacons and Grandview. Cardiff-by-the-Sea: Encinitas' southernmost oceanfront community, which features streets named after British cities and classical composers, the Lux Art Institute, the San Elijo Campus of Mira Costa College. Encinitas is located at 33°2′40″N 117°16′18″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 20.0 square miles. 18.8 square miles of it is land and 1.2 square miles of it is water. The city's elevation ranges between 180 feet above sea level. Encinitas lies on rugged coastal terrain; the city is bisected by a low-lying coastal ridge that separates Old Encinitas. In the north of the city, the coast rises in elevation and the land is raised up in the form of many coastal bluffs.
The city is surrounded by Batiquitos Lagoon and San Elijo Lagoon to the north and south, respectively. Encinitas has a mild, Mediterranean climate. Average daily high temperature is 72 °F. Temperatures below 40 °F and above 85 °F are rare. Average rainfall is about 10 inches per year; the wet season lasts during the winter and spring, when temperatures are cool. Average daytime temperatures hit 65F in spring, when rain and marine layer are common. Nighttime lows range from 45-55F; the dry season lasts from summer through fall, with average daytime temperatures ranging from 75-85F, nighttime lows being from the upper 50s–60sF. Ocean water temperatures average 60F in winter, 64F in spring, 70F in summer, 66F in fall. In winter, strong Pacific storms can bring heavy rain. During the winter of 2015-2016, the area saw rounds of severe thunderstorms. Tornados touched down nearby; the 2010 United States Census reported that Encinitas had a population of 59,518. The population density was 2,977.5 people per square mile.
The racial makeup of Encinitas was 51,067 White, 361 African American, 301 Native American, 2,323 Asian, 91 Pacific Islander, 3,339 from other races, 2,036 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 8,138 persons; the Census reported that 58,990 people lived in households, 123 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 405 were institutionalized. There were 24,082 households, out of which 6,997 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 12,113 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 1,950 had a female householder with no husband present, 981 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 1,359 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 169 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 6,303 households were made up of individuals and 2,118 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.45. There were 15,044 families; the population was spread out with 12,285 people under the age of 18, 3,767 people aged 18 to 24, 16,584 people aged 25 to 44, 19,239 people aged 45 to 64, 7,643 people who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 41.5 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.3 males. Females comprise the majority of Encinitas' population at 50.5% as of April 2010. There were 25,740 housing units at an average density of 1,287.7 per square mile, of which 15,187 were owner-occupied, 8,895 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 1.0%. 39,101 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 19,889 people lived in rental housing units. As of the census of 2000, there were 58,014 people, 22,830 households, 14,291 families residing in the city; the population density was 3,035.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 23,843 housing units at an average density of 1,247.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 86.60% White, 0.59% Black or African American, 0.46% Native American, 3.10% Asian, 0.12% Pacific Islander, 6.28% from other races, 2.85% from two or more races. 14