Hannu Olavi Mikkola is a Finnish retired world champion rally driver. He was a seven-time winner of the 1000 Lakes Rally in Finland and won the RAC Rally in Great Britain four times. Mikkola's rally career spanned 31 years, starting with a Volvo PV544 in 1963, but his most successful period was during the 1970s and 1980s; the 1970s saw Mikkola a frontrunner in many international events in a Ford Escort. He became the first overseas driver to win the East African Safari Rally in 1972, partnered by Gunnar Palm and again in a Ford Escort. In 1979 he made a serious challenge at the World Rally Championship title finishing runner-up, only one point behind champion Björn Waldegård. Mikkola was joined by Swedish co-driver Arne Hertz in 1977 and the pair were quickly a force to be reckoned with, winning the British Rally Championship in 1978 in an Escort; the Mikkola/Hertz partnership lasted through to the end of the 1990 season. He was partnered by Johnny Johansson for the 1991 season. Mikkola was runner-up again in the 1980 season with Ford, but switched to the new Audi factory team for the 1981 season, to drive the revolutionary four wheel drive Audi Quattro.
The partnership was successful from the outset: Mikkola led the 1981 Monte Carlo Rally, the Audi's first event, until an accident put him out of the event. He convincingly won the next WRC event, the Swedish Rally, but the Quattro had problems with reliability, despite another win on the RAC Rally, Mikkola only managed third in the driver's championship, he won the 1000 Lakes and RAC rallies the following year, but did not improve on third position in the championship finishing behind Opel's Walter Röhrl and teammate Michèle Mouton. 1983 was to be Mikkola's year. Four wins and three second places saw him and co-driver Arne Hertz take the World Championship title. A second place in the championship followed in 1984, behind his teammate Stig Blomqvist, but 1985 saw him compete in only four world rallies, with three retirements and a fourth place, slip to 22nd in the final standings after the Audi team was overwhelmed by new Group B competition from Peugeot and Lancia. Mikkola remained with Audi until the 1987 season, winning the Safari Rally in a Group A Audi 200 that year, before switching to Mazda.
He remained with Mazda until entering semi-retirement in 1991, although he continued to make sporadic appearances on international rallies until retiring from motorsport in 1993. Mikkola has made brief appearances since including re-uniting with his co-driver Gunnar Palm for the 25th anniversary run of the 1970 London to Mexico World Cup Rally and competing in the London-Sydney Marathon 2000 Rally, re-united with his 1968 1000 Lakes Rally winning Ford Escort RS1600 and co-driven by his oldest son, Juha Mikkola, founder of Canada Cup. In September 2008, Mikkola took part in the Colin McRae Forest Stages Rally, a round of the Scottish Rally Championship, he was one of a number of former world champions to take part in the event in memory of McRae, who died in 2007. In 2011, Mikkola was inducted into the Rally Hall of Fame along with Röhrl. Hannu Mikkola was involved in the only international rally to end in a dead heat. On the 1978 Burmah International and Russell Brookes finished equal on total stage times, but Mikkola won the event by virtue of having been faster than Brookes on the opening stage.
RallyBase profile WRC Archive stats page
Ford Escort (Europe)
The Ford Escort is a small family car, manufactured by Ford Europe from 1968 to 2004. The Ford Escort name was applied to several different small cars produced in North America by Ford between 1981 and 2004. In 2014, Ford revived the Escort name for a car based on the second-generation Ford Focus sold on the Chinese market; the first use of the Ford Escort name was for a reduced specification version of the Ford Squire, a 1950s estate car version of the British Ford Anglia 100E. The Mark I Ford Escort was introduced in Ireland and the United Kingdom at the end of 1967, making its show debut at the Brussels Motor Show in January 1968, it replaced the long-running Anglia. The car was presented in continental Europe as a product of Ford's European operation. Escort production commenced at the Halewood plant in England during the closing months of 1967, for left hand drive markets during September 1968 at the Ford plant in Genk; the continental Escorts differed under the skin from the UK built ones.
The front suspension and steering gear were differently configured and the brakes were fitted with dual hydraulic circuits. At the beginning of 1970, continental European production transferred to a new plant on the edge of Saarlouis, West Germany; the Escort was a commercial success in several parts of western Europe, but nowhere more than in the UK, where the national best seller of the 1960s, BMC's Austin/Morris 1100 was beginning to show its age while Ford's own Cortina had grown, both in dimensions and in price, beyond the market niche at which it had been pitched. It competed with the Vauxhall Viva, from early 1970 the Rootes Group's Hillman Avenger. In June 1974, six years into the car's UK introduction, Ford announced the completion of the two millionth Ford Escort, a milestone hitherto unmatched by any Ford model outside the US, it was stated that 60% of the two million Escorts had been built in Britain. In West Germany cars were built at a slower rate of around 150,000 cars per year, slumping to 78,604 in 1974, the last year for the Escort Mark I.
Many of the German built Escorts were exported, notably to Italy. Subsequent generations of the Escort made up some of the ground foregone by the original model, but in Europe's largest auto-market the Escort sales volumes always came in well behind those of the General Motors Kadett and its Astra successor; the Escort had conventional rear-wheel drive and a four-speed manual gearbox, or three-speed automatic transmission. The suspension consisted of MacPherson strut front suspension and a simple live axle mounted on leaf springs; the Escort was the first small Ford. The Mark I featured contemporary styling cues in tune with its time: a subtle Detroit-inspired "Coke bottle" waistline and the "dogbone" shaped front grille – arguably the car's main stylistic feature. Similar Coke bottle styling featured in the larger Cortina Mark III launched in 1970; the Escort was sold as a two-door saloon. The "Super" model featured rectangular headlights, carpets, a cigar lighter and a water temperature gauge.
A two-door estate was introduced at the end of March 1968 which, with the back seat folded down, provided a 40% increase in maximum load space over the old Anglia 105E estate, according to the manufacturer. The estate featured the same engine options as the saloon, but it included a larger, 7 1⁄2-inch-diameter clutch, stiffer rear springs and in most configurations larger brake drums or discs than the saloon. A panel van appeared in April 1968 and the 4-door saloon in 1969. Underneath the bonnet was the Kent Crossflow engine used in the smallest capacity North American Ford Pinto. Diesel engines on small family cars were rare, the Escort was no exception featuring only petrol engines – in 1.1 L, 1.3 L versions. A 940 cc engine was available in some export markets such as Italy and France; this tiny engine remained popular in Italy, where it was carried over for the Escort Mark II, but in France it was discontinued during 1972. There was a 1300GT performance version, with a tuned 1.3 L Crossflow engine with a Weber carburetor and uprated suspension.
This version featured additional instrumentation with a tachometer, battery charge indicator, oil pressure gauge. The same tuned 1.3 L engine was used in a variation sold as the Escort Sport, that used the flared front wings from the AVO range of cars, but featured trim from the more basic models. An "executive" version of the Escort was produced known as the "1300E"; this featured the same 13" road wheels and flared wings of the Sport, but was trimmed in an upmarket, for that time, fashion with wood trim on the dashboard and door cappings. A higher performance version for rallies and racing was available, the Escort Twin Cam, built for Group 2 international rallying, it had an engine with a Lotus-made eight-valve twin camshaft head fitted to the 1.5 L non-crossflow block, which had a bigger bore than usual to give a capacity of 1,558 cc. This engine had been developed for the Lotus Elan. Production of the Twin Cam, produced at Halewood, was phased out as the Cosworth-engined RS1600 production began.
The most famous editio
The Ford Cortina is a car, built by Ford of Britain in various guises from 1962 to 1982, was the United Kingdom's best-selling car of the 1970s. The Cortina was produced in five generations from 1962 until 1982. From 1970 onward, it was identical to the German-market Ford Taunus, a different car model; this was part of a Ford attempt to unify its European operations. By 1976, when the revised Taunus was launched, the Cortina was identical; the new Taunus/Cortina used some panels from the 1970 Taunus. It was replaced in 1982 by the Ford Sierra. In Asia and Australasia, it was replaced by the Mazda 626–based Ford Telstar, though Ford New Zealand did import British-made CKD kits of the Ford Sierra estate for local assembly from 1984; the name was inspired by the name of the Italian ski resort Cortina d'Ampezzo, site of the 1956 Winter Olympics. As a publicity stunt, several Cortinas were driven down the Cortina olympic bobsled run at the resort, called Cortina Auto-Bobbing. Using the project name of "Archbishop", management at Ford of Britain in Dagenham created a family-sized car which they could sell in large numbers.
The chief designer was Roy Brown Jr. the designer of the Edsel, banished to Dagenham following the failure of that car. The Cortina, aimed at buyers of the Morris Oxford Farina and Vauxhall Victor, was launched on 20 September 1962; the car was designed to be inexpensive to produce in Britain. The front-wheel drive configuration used by Ford of Germany for the new Ford Taunus P4, a sized model, was rejected in favour of traditional rear-wheel drive layout. To be called Ford Consul 225, the car was launched as the Consul Cortina until a modest facelift in 1964, after which it was sold as the Cortina; the Cortina was available with 1200 and 1500 four-cylinder engines with all synchromesh gearbox, in two-door and four-door saloon, as well as in five-door estate forms. Standard, Super, GT trims were offered but not across all body styles. Early Standard models featured a simple body coloured front grille, earning it the nickname'Ironbar', large, round, ‘Ban the Bomb’ tail-light clusters. Since this version cost the same as the better equipped Deluxe it sold poorly and is rare today.
Options included bench seat with column gearchange. Super versions of the estates tailgate trim. In an early example of product placement, many examples of the new Cortina featured as "Glamcabs" in the comedy film Carry On Cabby. There were two main variations of the Mark 1; the Mark 1a possessed elliptical front side-lights, whereas the Mark 1b had a re-designed front grille incorporating the more rectangular side-light and indicator units. A notable variant was the Ford Cortina Lotus; the Cortina was launched a few weeks before the London Motor Show of October 1962 with a 1198 cc three-bearing engine, an enlarged version of the 997 cc engine fitted in the Ford Anglia. A few months in January 1963, the Cortina Super was announced with a five-bearing 1498 cc engine. Versions of the larger engine found their way into subsequent variations, including the Cortina GT which appeared in spring 1963 with lowered suspension and engine tuned to give a claimed output of 78 bhp ahead of the 60 bhp claimed for the Cortina 1500 Super.
The engines used across the Mark I range were of identical design, differing only in capacity and setup. The formula used was a four-cylinder pushrod design that came to be known as the "pre-crossflow" version as both inlet and exhaust ports were located on the same side of the head; the most powerful version of this engine was produced 78 bhp. This engine contained a different camshaft profile, a different cast of head featuring larger ports, tubular exhaust headers and a Weber double barrel carburettor. Advertising of the revised version, which appeared at the London Motor Show in October 1964, made much of the newly introduced "Aeroflow" through-flow ventilation, evidenced by the extractor vents on the rear pillars. A subsequent test on a warm day involving the four different Cortina models manufactured between 1964 and 1979 determined that the air delivery from the simple eyeball outlets on the 1964 Mark I Cortina was greater than that on the Mark II, the Mark III or the Mark IV; the dashboard and controls were revised, for the second time, having been reworked in October 1963 when round instruments replaced the oblong speedometer with which the car had been launched: twelve years however, the painted steel dashboard, its "knobs scattered all over the place and its heater controls stuck underneath as a obvious afterthought" on the 1964 Mark I Cortina was felt to have aged much less well than the car's ventilation system.
It was in 1964 that front disc brakes became standard across the range. Ford Cortina Lotus was offered only as a two-door saloon all in white with a contrasting green side flash down each flank, it based on the Cortina's Kent OHV engine. Aluminium was used for some body panels. For a certain time, it had a unique A-frame rear suspension, but this proved fragile and the model soon reverted to the standard Cortina semi-elliptic rear end; the second incarnation of the Cortina was designed by Roy Haynes, launched on 18 October 1966, four years after the original Cortina. It had some styling elements in common with the third generation US For
Rauno August Aaltonen known as "The Rally Professor", is a Finnish former professional rally driver who competed in the World Rally Championship throughout the 1970s. Before WRC was established Aaltonen competed in the European Rally Championship, he won the championship with Tony Ambrose as his co-driver. He won the Finnish Rally Championship in 1961 and 1965. In 1966, he partnered Bob Holden in Australia to win the premier touring car race, the Gallaher 500, in a Mini Cooper S at Mount Panorama in New South Wales. Aaltonen finished second on six occasions in the Safari Rally, considered one of the most difficult courses in rallying. In 1985, he was leading the rally by two hours when his engine broke down before the last few special stages, his other merits include winning the 1000 Lakes Rally in 1961, the RAC Rally in 1965, the Monte Carlo Rally in 1967, the Southern Cross Rally in 1977, a Coupe des Alpes at the Alpine Rally in 1963 and 1964. Despite now being remembered as one of the Flying Finns of rallying, Aaltonen started his career on speed boats and moved on to motorcycles competing in road racing and motocross.
Before he became the first Finnish European Rally Champion, he was the first Finn to win a Grand Prix motorcycle racing competition. Aaltonen was a proponent of left-foot braking. In 2010, he was among the first four inductees into the Rally Hall of Fame, along with Erik Carlsson, Paddy Hopkirk and Timo Mäkinen. Aaltonen at RallyBase
Mitsubishi Lancer (A70)
The Mitsubishi Lancer is the first generation version of Mitsubishi's long-running Lancer nameplate. When introduced in 1973, it filled the gap between the Minica kei car and the larger Galant, it was a replacement for the Colt 1100, last sold in 1971. Although sedan production ended in 1979, vans continued on until 1985; this Lancer formed the basis for the Lancer Celeste sports coupé of 1975 through to 1981. These Lancers were sold under a multitude of names in different markets; the Lancer A70 was launched in February 1973 in two- and four-door sedan form. It proved to be successful in rallies, a claim that it retains to this day; the Lancer served to fill a gap in Mitsubishi's lineup in the small to lower-medium segment of the growing Japanese market. Twelve models were launched, ranging from a basic 1.2-litre sedan to a more powerful 1600 GSR model, successful in rallying. There were three body styles, two- and four-door sedans and a seen five-door station wagon introduced in September 1973.
In October 1975 the smallest engine was replaced by another 1.2-litre four, the 80 hp 4G36. In November, the entire engine lineup lost around eight–nine percent of its power, as a result of the stricter emissions standards for 1976. Reflecting a popular appearance during the 1970s, the Lancer adopted "coke bottle styling" on the sedan and wagon for this entire generation; the Lancer received an OHV 1.2-litre Neptune 4G42, an OHC 1.4-litre Saturn 4G33 or the larger 1.6-litre 4G32. Power outputs were 70 PS, 92 PS, 100 PS for what was called A71, A72 and A73 models; the 1600 GSR, introduced in September, used two Mikuni-made twin-barrel Solex carburetors for 110 PS at 6,700 rpm. This vehicle was sold as the "Colt Lancer" in the United Kingdom and other European countries. In some Latin American countries, as for example, in El Salvador, the car was known as the "Dodge Lancer"; this reluctance to use the "Mitsubishi" brand in many export markets stemmed from a fear of buyer resistance amongst those who could still remember fighting Japanese pilots in Mitsubishi A6M Zeros.
In the Australian market, the first generation models were sold under the "Chrysler Valiant Lancer" name, with 11,800 units sold between late 1974 and 1979. The original LA series was released in September 1974 in two levels of specification, a basic two-door EL and the four-door GL sedan which offered a higher level of equipment. Only one engine was offered, the 1,439 cc single cam, alloy-head four-cylinder engine rated at 92 hp at 6,300 rpm; this could be paired with a three-speed automatic. European market Lancers received the 1.2, 1.4 and 1.6-litre "Saturn 80" engines, with claimed output of 55 PS, 68 PS, 82 PS DIN. The 1.6-liter engine was reserved for the two-door version, while four-door sedans only received the 1.4. Top speeds were 150, 155, 165 km/h. In November 1976 the Japanese market models received a facelift, losing the previous L-shaped/upright rear lamps in favor of wide rectangular units. Front indicators were enlarged and moved, new bigger rubber bumpers were added, new grilles were introduced.
This generation became the A140-series in Japan, reflecting the introduction of new engines. Since it kept the 4G32 engine, the GSR was referred to as an A73 until the end in spite of having received all of the bodywork modifications; as a response to the new emissions standards taking effect in 1978, the 1.2-litre Saturn engine was replaced by the new 70 PS Orion G11B in April 1977. This was the new lean-burning MCA-Jet engine, added to the existing Saturn 4G33 and 4G32 engines in June. Power for these was reduced to 82 PS and 86 PS, it was this series that emerged in the United States as the Dodge Colt for the 1977 model year, taking over from a badge-engineered Mitsubishi Galant from the previous year. It was offered for one more model year before the Dodge Colt name was transferred to the front wheel drive Mitsubishi Mirage; the large safety bumpers used in the American market were added to certain models in the domestic range in March 1978 as part of one last minor facelift. This facelift introduced the larger 1.4-litre Orion engine, of 80 PS.
April 1977 saw the introduction of the facelift model in Australia, designated locally as the LB series. This was discontinued in May 1979, having lost most of its market share to the bigger, locally built Chrysler Sigma; the high-performance "Mitsubishi Lancer 1600 GSR" sold as the "Colt Lancer 1600 GSR" in Europe, was developed by Mitsubishi Motors to further their aspirations in off-road racing the Safari Rally of Kenya. Thanks to repeated triumphs in what was the most gruelling rally in the world, it earned the nickname "King of Cars" in Africa. In rally spec, the GSR produced 126 kW at 162 N ⋅ m at 5,500 rpm. Street versions developed 110 PS, but this dropped to 100 PS when tighter emissions standards were introduced for 1976. After sporadic successes with the Colt and Galant rally cars in previous years, Mitsubishi decided to develop a Lancer model to tackle the notorious Safari Rally. Run over 6,000 km of arduous terrain under searing equatorial temperatures, the race was regarded as the toughest in the world, only one car in five which set off from the start would manage to reach the finish line in Nairobi.
Mitsubishi sanctioned official factory teams for the 1974–77 events, building for itself an enviable reputation f
Talmalmo, New South Wales
Talmalmo is a community in the south east part of the Riverina close to the border of Victoria, Australia. It is situated by 23 kilometres south west of Wymah. Talmalmo Post Office opened on 18 January 1904 and closed in 1971. Talmalmo's most famous resident is multiple Australian Rally Champion and pole winner at the 1984 Bathurst 1000, George Fury. Nicknamed the "Talmalmo Farmer" or "Farmer George", Fury was the town's school bus driver and was runner up in the 1983 and 1986 Australian Touring Car Championships for Nissan
The Mitsubishi Galant is an automobile, produced by Japanese manufacturer Mitsubishi from 1969 to 2012. The model name was derived from the French word galant, meaning "chivalrous". There have been nine distinct generations with total cumulative sales exceeding five million units, it began over the course of its life evolved into a mid-size car. Initial production was based in Japan, but from 1994 the American market was served by vehicles assembled at the former Diamond-Star Motors facility in Normal, Illinois; the first generation of the car known as the Colt Galant, was released in December 1969 at a new Mitsubishi Japanese dealership called Galant Shop. The design was dubbed "Dynawedge" by Mitsubishi, referring to the influence of aerodynamics on the silhouette. Three models were available. 1.4- and 1.6-liter versions replaced these in September 1971. A larger 115 PS 1.7-liter arrived for the top GS model in January 1973. Only available as a four-door sedan, a five-door estate and two-door hardtop variant were added in 1970, the hardtop being Mitsubishi's first production passenger car with full side windows and no side pillars.
In March 1973, with only two months of production left, the cleaner "MCA-II" version of the 1.6 arrived. With 97 PS it was three horsepower down on the regular version; the Galant was offered as a competitor to the Toyota Corona, Nissan Bluebird, Honda Accord, Mazda Capella. It became Mitsubishi's first car to be sold in the United States in 1971 when the Chrysler Corporation, the company's new partner and stakeholder, began importing the car as the Dodge Colt, it was produced by Chrysler Australia and sold alongside the larger Chrysler Valiant models as the Chrysler Valiant Galant. In South Africa, the A53 Colt Galant arrived in late 1972 as the Dodge Colt 1600 GS; the car had been rallied there, in 1300 and 1600 forms, only the Hardtop GS version was sold to capitalize on the car's sporty image. Gross power claimed was 97 PS at 6700 rpm and the car was fitted with Rostyle wheels as used on locally assembled Hillman Vogues. From 1970, a fastback coupé model was developed, the Galant GTO. Fashioned after contemporary American muscle cars, the hardtop GTO was available with a choice of two "Saturn" engines and the 2-litre Astron 80, was available until 1975.
The nameplate was sufficiently regarded in Japan for it to be resurrected for the 1990 Mitsubishi GTO coupé. A second, more compact coupé was introduced on a chassis shortened by 12 cm in 1971, the Galant FTO. Powered by the 4G41 1.4 L engine, it too would leave a legacy for the company to return to in the 1990s with the Mitsubishi FTO. Although the earlier Colt had been imported in limited numbers, this generation, in 1.6-litre coupé form only, was the first model to establish the Mitsubishi brand in New Zealand from 1971 when newly appointed distributor Todd Motors, which imported and assembled Chrysler and Hillman, started selling a small number of Japanese-assembled cars to supplement its mainstream Hillman Avenger and Hunter models. The coupe was assembled in New Zealand from 1972, firstly at Todd's Petone factory, on the Avenger/Hunter line and, from 1974, at the brand-new purpose-built factory in Porirua; the second generation Mitsubishi Colt Galant A11* series was built from 1973 until 1976.
Introduced on 24 May 1973 in the Japanese domestic market, the second generation Galant was more exported as Mitsubishi's ambitions grew. It was again sold by Chrysler in many different guises. Transmissions were now all floor mounted and include a four-speed manual and a five-speed unit for sportier models. A three-speed automatic transmission was available; the smaller 1600 engine was available in the cleaner "MCA-II" version right from 1973, a model which met Japan's 1975 emissions standards. This version was marginally less powerful, with 97 PS rather than 100 PS engine seen in the previous model; this new Galant model was more curvaceous, influenced by contemporary "coke bottle styling", featured a range of larger'Astron' engines developing up to 125 PS in 2000 cc form to complement the'Saturn' units. During the second generation, the first Astron 80 engines were introduced in some markets using Mitsubishi's newly developed "Silent Shaft" balance shaft technology for reduced vibration and noise.
Body styles remained the same as the first gen Colt Galants offered in sedan, pillar-less two-door hardtop and new in some markets was a fixed post coupe. New models were added to the line up, including GL-II, SL-5, GT and GS-II; the Estate was only available with the 100 PS 1600 engine, in Custom, GL, or SL-5. It had vestigial wood panelling, only a narrow strip on the tailgate. In New Zealand the hardtop, now with an 1855 cc engine was again assembled by Todd Motors at Porirua; the sedan was not offered as Todd was planning to assemble the larger Galant Sigma sedan and wagon range from late 1977 and they were still importing the British Avenger and Hunter models. In South Africa, the Dodge Colt 1600 GS arrived in late 1975 to replace the earlier AY. Aside from the new body, with wider wheels and improved handling, it benefitted from a new five-speed gearbox. In August 1976, the name was changed to Chrysler Colt, the new GS II received a 2.0-liter engine with 85 kW (116 PS