Princeton University Press
Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University. Its mission is to disseminate scholarship within society at large; the press was founded by Whitney Darrow, with the financial support of Charles Scribner, as a printing press to serve the Princeton community in 1905. Its distinctive building was constructed in 1911 on William Street in Princeton, its first book was a new 1912 edition of John Witherspoon's Lectures on Moral Philosophy. Princeton University Press was founded in 1905 by a recent Princeton graduate, Whitney Darrow, with financial support from another Princetonian, Charles Scribner II. Darrow and Scribner purchased the equipment and assumed the operations of two existing local publishers, that of the Princeton Alumni Weekly and the Princeton Press; the new press printed both local newspapers, university documents, The Daily Princetonian, added book publishing to its activities. Beginning as a small, for-profit printer, Princeton University Press was reincorporated as a nonprofit in 1910.
Since 1911, the press has been headquartered in a purpose-built gothic-style building designed by Ernest Flagg. The design of press’s building, named the Scribner Building in 1965, was inspired by the Plantin-Moretus Museum, a printing museum in Antwerp, Belgium. Princeton University Press established a European office, in Woodstock, north of Oxford, in 1999, opened an additional office, in Beijing, in early 2017. Six books from Princeton University Press have won Pulitzer Prizes: Russia Leaves the War by George F. Kennan Banks and Politics in America from the Revolution to the Civil War by Bray Hammond Between War and Peace by Herbert Feis Washington: Village and Capital by Constance McLaughlin Green The Greenback Era by Irwin Unger Machiavelli in Hell by Sebastian de Grazia Books from Princeton University Press have been awarded the Bancroft Prize, the Nautilus Book Award, the National Book Award. Multi-volume historical documents projects undertaken by the Press include: The Collected Papers of Albert Einstein The Writings of Henry D. Thoreau The Papers of Woodrow Wilson The Papers of Thomas Jefferson Kierkegaard's WritingsThe Papers of Woodrow Wilson has been called "one of the great editorial achievements in all history."
Princeton University Press's Bollingen Series had its beginnings in the Bollingen Foundation, a 1943 project of Paul Mellon's Old Dominion Foundation. From 1945, the foundation had independent status and providing fellowships and grants in several areas of study, including archaeology and psychology; the Bollingen Series was given to the university in 1969. Annals of Mathematics Studies Princeton Series in Astrophysics Princeton Series in Complexity Princeton Series in Evolutionary Biology Princeton Series in International Economics Princeton Modern Greek Studies The Whites of Their Eyes: The Tea Party's Revolution and the Battle over American History, by Jill Lepore The Meaning of Relativity by Albert Einstein Atomic Energy for Military Purposes by Henry DeWolf Smyth How to Solve It by George Polya The Open Society and Its Enemies by Karl Popper The Hero With a Thousand Faces by Joseph Campbell The Wilhelm/Baynes translation of the I Ching, Bollingen Series XIX. First copyright 1950, 27th printing 1997.
Anatomy of Criticism by Northrop Frye Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature by Richard Rorty QED: The Strange Theory of Light and Matter by Richard Feynman The Great Contraction 1929–1933 by Milton Friedman and Anna Jacobson Schwartz with a new Introduction by Peter L. Bernstein Military Power: Explaining Victory and Defeat in Modern Battle by Stephen Biddle Banks, Eric. "Book of Lists: Princeton University Press at 100". Artforum International. Staff of Princeton University Press. A Century in Books: Princeton University Press, 1905–2005. ISBN 9780691122922. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter Official website Princeton University Press: Albert Einstein Web Page Princeton University Press: Bollingen Series Princeton University Press: Annals of Mathematics Studies Princeton University Press Centenary Princeton University Press: New in Print
Haplogroup C is a major Y-chromosome haplogroup, defined by UEPs M130/RPS4Y711, P184, P255, P260, which are all SNP mutations. It is one of two primary branches of Haplogroup CF alongside Haplogroup F. Haplogroup C is found in ancient populations on every continent except Africa and is the predominant Y-DNA haplogroup among males belonging to many peoples indigenous to East Asia, Central Asia, North America and Oceania; the haplogroup is found at moderate frequencies among certain indigenous populations of Southeast Asia. In addition to the basal paragroup C*, this haplogroup now has two major branches: C1 and C2. Haplogroup C-M130 seems to have come into existence shortly after SNP mutation M168 occurred for the first time, bringing the modern Haplogroup CT into existence, from which Haplogroup CF, in turn Haplogroup C, derived; this was at least 60,000 years ago. Although Haplogroup C-M130 attains its highest frequencies among the indigenous populations of Kazakhstan, the Russian Far East, Australia, at moderate frequency in Korea and Manchu people, it displays its highest diversity among modern populations of India.
It is therefore hypothesized that Haplogroup C-M130 either originated or underwent its longest period of evolution within India or the greater South Asian coastal region. The highest diversity is observed in Southeast Asia, its northward expansion in East Asia started 40,000 years ago. Males carrying C-M130 are believed to have migrated to the Americas some 6,000-8,000 years ago, was carried by Na-Dené-speaking peoples into the northwest Pacific coast of North America. Asia is the area in which Haplogroup D-M174 is concentrated. However, D-M174 is more related to haplogroup E than to C-M130 and the geographical distributions of Haplogroups C-M130 and D-M174 are and utterly different, with various subtypes of Haplogroup C-M130 being found at high frequency amongst indigenous Australians, Vietnamese, Mongolians, Manchurians and indigenous inhabitants of the Russian Far East. Whereas Haplogroup D is found at high frequencies only amongst Tibetans, Japanese peoples, Andaman Islanders, has been found neither in India nor among the aboriginal inhabitants of the Americas or Oceania.
C* C1 C1a C1a1 M8 C1a1a P121 C1a1a1 CTS9336 C1a1a1a CTS6678 Japan, South Korea C1a1a1b Z1356 Japan C1a1a2 Z45460 China C1a2 V20 C1a2a V182 C1a2a1 V222 C1a2a2 Z29329 C1a2b Z38888 C1b F1370 C1b1 K281 C1b1a B66/Z16458 C1b1a1 M356 C1b1a2 B65 C1b2 B477/Z31885 C1b2a M38 C1b2a1 M208 C1b2a1a P33 C1b2a1b P54 C1b2b M347 C1b2b1 M210 C2 M217 C2a M93 C2b L1373, F1396 C2b1 C2b1a C2b1a1 C2b1a1a P39 C2b1a2 M48 C2c C-F1067 C2c1 F2613/Z1338 C2c1a1a1 M407 Other, untaxonimised subclades: C-P343: outside C1a1, C1b2a, C1b1a1, C1b2b, C2, but its relation to other branches is not yet tested. C-P55: outside C1b2a, but its relation to other branches has not yet been verified, and. Due to the tremendous age of Haplogroup C, numerous secondary mutations have had time to accumulate, many regionally important subbranches of Haplogroup C-M130 have been identified. Up to 46% of Aboriginal Australian males carried either basal C*, C1b2b* or C1b2b1, before contact with and significant immigration by Europeans, according to a 2015 study by Nagle et al.
That is, 20.0% of the Y-chromosomes of 657 modern individuals, before 56% of those samples were excluded as "non-indigenous". C-M130* was carried by up to 2.7% of Aboriginal males before colonisation. Low levels of C-M130* are carried by males: from the Indian subcontinent, Sri Lanka and South East Asia, and. C* was identified in prehistoric remains, dating from 34,000 years BP, found in Russia and known as "Kostenki 14". Haplogroup C2 – the most numerous and dispersed C lineage –, believed to have originated in South East/Central Asia, spread from there into Northern Asia and the Americas. C-M217 stretches longitudinally from Central Europe and Turkey, to the Wayuu people of Colombia and Venezuela, latitudinally from the Athabaskan peoples of Alaska to Vietnam to the Malay Archipelago. Found at low concentrations in Eastern Europe, where it may be a legacy of the invasions/migrations of the Huns, Turks and/or Mongols during the Middle Ages. Found at high frequencies in Buryats, Hazaras, Kalmyks, Manchus, Mongolians and Sibes, with a moderate distribution among other Tungusic peoples, Ainus, Altaians, Uzbeks, Han Chinese, Tujia and Hui.
The highest frequencies of Haplogroup C-M217 are found among the populations of Mongolia and Far East Russia, where it is the modal haplogroup. Haplogroup C-M217 is the onl
New Guinea is a large island separated by a shallow sea from the rest of the Australian continent. It is the world's third-largest island, after Australia and Greenland, covering a land area of 785,753 km2, arguably the largest wholly or within the Southern Hemisphere and Oceania; the eastern half of the island is the major land mass of the independent state of Papua New Guinea. The western half, referred to as either Western New Guinea or West Papua, has been administered by Indonesia since 1963 and comprises the provinces of Papua and West Papua; the island has been known by various names: The name Papua was used to refer to parts of the island before contact with the West. Its etymology is unclear; the name came from papo and ua, which means "not united" or, "territory that geographically is far away". Ploeg reports that the word papua is said to derive from the Malay word papua or pua-pua, meaning "frizzly-haired", referring to the curly hair of the inhabitants of these areas. Another possibility, put forward by Sollewijn Gelpke in 1993, is that it comes from the Biak phrase sup i papwa which means'the land below' and refers to the islands west of the Bird's Head, as far as Halmahera.
Whatever its origin, the name Papua came to be associated with this area, more with Halmahera, known to the Portuguese by this name during the era of their colonization in this part of the world. When the Portuguese and Spanish explorers arrived in the island via the Spice Islands, they referred to the island as Papua. However, the name New Guinea was used by Westerners starting with the Spanish explorer Yñigo Ortiz de Retez in 1545, referring to the similarities of the indigenous people's appearance with the natives of the Guinea region of Africa; the name is one of several toponyms sharing similar etymologies meaning "land of the blacks" or similar meanings, in reference to the dark skin of the inhabitants. The Dutch, who arrived under Jacob Le Maire and Willem Schouten, called it Schouten island, but this name was used only to refer to islands off the north coast of Papua proper, the Schouten Islands or Biak Island; when the Dutch colonized it as part of Netherlands East Indies, they called it Nieuw Guinea.
The name Irian was used in the Indonesian language to refer to the island and Indonesian province, as "Irian Jaya Province". The name was promoted in 1945 by brother of the future governor Frans Kaisiepo, it is taken from the Biak language of Biak Island, means "to rise", or "rising spirit". Irian is the name used in the Biak language and other languages such as Serui and Waropen; the name was used until 2001, when the name Papua was again used for the province. The name Irian, favored by natives, is now considered to be a name imposed by the authority of Jakarta. New Guinea is an island to the north of the Australian mainland, but south of the equator, it is isolated by the Arafura Sea to the west, the Torres Strait and Coral Sea to the east. Sometimes considered to be the easternmost island of the Indonesian archipelago, it lies north of Australia's Top End, the Gulf of Carpentaria and Cape York peninsula, west of the Bismarck Archipelago and the Solomon Islands Archipelago. Politically, the western half of the island comprises two provinces of Indonesia: Papua and West Papua.
The eastern half forms the mainland of the country of Papua New Guinea. The shape of New Guinea is compared to that of a bird-of-paradise, this results in the usual names for the two extremes of the island: the Bird's Head Peninsula in the northwest, the Bird's Tail Peninsula in the southeast. A spine of east–west mountains, the New Guinea Highlands, dominates the geography of New Guinea, stretching over 1,600 km from the'head' to the'tail' of the island, with many high mountains over 4,000 m; the western-half of the island of New Guinea contains the highest mountains in Oceania, rising up to 4,884 m high, higher than Mont Blanc in Europe, ensuring a steady supply of rain from the equatorial atmosphere. The tree line is around 4,000 m elevation and the tallest peaks contain permanent equatorial glaciers—which have been retreating since at least 1936. Various other smaller mountain ranges occur both west of the central ranges. Except in high elevations, most areas possess a warm humid climate throughout the year, with some seasonal variation associated with the northeast monsoon season.
The highest peaks on the island of New Guinea are: Puncak Jaya, sometimes known by its former Dutch name Carstensz Pyramid, is a mist-covered limestone mountain peak on the Indonesian side of the border. At 4,884 metres, Puncak Jaya makes New Guinea the world's fourth-highest landmass after Afro-Eurasia and Antarctica. Puncak Mandala located in Papua, is the second-highest peak on the island at 4,760 metres. Puncak Trikora in Papua, is 4,750 metres. Mount Wilhelm is the highest peak on the PNG side of the border at 4,509 metres, its granite peak is the highest point of the Bismarck Range. Mount Giluwe 4,368 metres is the second-highest summit in PNG, it is the highest volcanic peak in Oceania. Another major habitat featur
During the Last Glacial Maximum, the mammoth steppe was the Earth’s most extensive biome. It spanned from Spain eastwards across Eurasia to Canada and from the arctic islands southwards to China, it had a dry climate. This ecosystem covered wide areas of the northern part of the globe, thrived for 100,000 years without major changes, suddenly became all but extinct about 12,000 years ago. At the end of the 19th century, Alfred Nehring and Jan Czerski proposed that during the last glacial period a major part of northern Europe had been populated by large herbivores and that a steppe climate had prevailed there. In 1982, the scientist R. Dale Guthrie coined the term "mammoth steppe" for this paleoregion; the last glacial period referred to as the'Ice Age', spanned from 126,000 YBP–11,700 YBP and was the most recent glacial period within the current ice age which occurred during the last years of the Pleistocene epoch. This arctic environment was cold and dry and dusty, resembling mountaintop environments, was different from today's swampy tundra.
It reached its peak during the last glacial maximum, when ice sheets commenced advancing from 33,000 years BP and reached their maximum positions 26,500 years BP. Deglaciation commenced in the Northern Hemisphere 19,000 years BP, in Antarctica 14,500 years BP, consistent with evidence that it was the primary source for an abrupt rise in the sea level at that time. During the peak of the last glacial maximum, a vast mammoth steppe stretched from the Iberian Peninsula across Eurasia and over the Bering land bridge into Alaska and the Yukon where it was stopped by the Wisconsin glaciation; this land bridge existed because more of the planet's water was locked up in ice than now and therefore the sea levels were lower. When the sea levels began to rise this bridge was inundated around 11,000 years BP. During glacial periods, there is clear evidence for intense aridity due to water being held in glaciers and their associated effects on climate; the mammoth steppe was like a huge'inner court', surrounded on all sides by moisture-blocking features: massive continental glaciers, high mountains, frozen seas.
These kept rainfall low and created more days with clear skies than are seen today, which increased evaporation in the summer leading to aridity, radiation of warmth from the ground into the black night sky in the winter leading to cold. This is thought to have been caused by seven factors: The driving force for the core Asian steppe was an enormous and stable high-pressure system north of the Tibetan Plateau. Deflection of the larger portion of the Gulf Stream southward, past southern Spain onto the coast of Africa, reduced temperatures that the North Atlantic Current brings to Western Europe. Growth of the Scandinavian ice sheet created a barrier to North Atlantic moisture. Icing over of the North Atlantic sea surface with reduced flow of moisture from the east; the winter storm track seems to have swept across Eurasia on this axis. Lowered sea levels exposed a large continental shelf to the north and east producing a vast northern plain which increased the size of the continent to the north.
North American glaciers shielded the Yukon Territory from moisture flow. These physical barriers to moisture flow created a vast arid basin or protected'inner court' spanning parts of three continents. Animal biomass and plant productivity of the mammoth steppe were similar to today's African savannah. There is no comparison to it today; the paleo-environment changed across time, a proposal, supported from mammoth dung samples found in northern Yakutia. During Pleniglacial interstadials, alder and pine trees survived in northern Siberia, however during the Last Glacial Maximum only a treeless steppe vegetation existed. At the onset of the Late Glacial Interstadial, global warming resulted in shrub and dwarf birch in northeastern Siberia, colonized by open woodland with birch and spruce during the Younger Dryas. By the Holocene, patches of closed larch and pine forests developed. Past researchers had once assumed that the mammoth steppe was unproductive because they had assumed that its soils had a low carbon content.
It was a productive environment. The vegetation was dominated by palatable high-productivity grasses and willow shrubs. Herbs were far more widespread than they are today, were the main food source of the large plant eating mammals. See further:Gallery of mammoth steppe plants The mammoth steppe was dominated in biomass by bison and the woolly mammoth, was the center for the evolution of the Pleistocene woolly fauna. On Wrangel Island, the remains of woolly mammoth, woolly rhinoceros, horse and musk ox have been found. Reindeer and small animal remains do not preserve, but reindeer excrement has been found in sediment. In the most arid regions of the mammoth steppe that were to the south of Central Siberia and Mongolia, woolly rhinoceros were common but woolly mammoths were rare. Reindeer live in the far north of Mongolia today and their southern boundary passed through Germany and along the steppes of eastern Europe, indicating they once covered much of the mammoth steppe. Mammoths survived on the Taimyr Peninsula until the Holocene.
A small population of mammoth survived on St
Paleoanthropology or paleo-anthropology is a branch of archaeology with a human focus, which seeks to understand the early development of anatomically modern humans, a process known as hominization, through the reconstruction of evolutionary kinship lines within the family Hominidae, working from biological evidence and cultural evidence. The field draws from and combines paleontology, biological anthropology, cultural anthropology; as technologies and methods advance, genetics plays an ever-increasing role, in particular to examine and compare DNA structure as a vital tool of research of the evolutionary kinship lines of related species and genera. The term paleoanthropology derives from Greek palaiós "old, ancient", ánthrōpos "man, human" and the suffix -logía "study of". Hominoids are a primate superfamily, the hominid family is considered to comprise both the great ape lineages and human lineages within the hominoid superfamily; the "Homininae" comprise the African ape lineages. The term "African apes" refers only to gorillas.
The terminology of the immediate biological family is in flux. The term "hominin" refers to any genus in the human tribe, of which Homo sapiens is the only living specimen. In 1758 Carl Linnaeus introduced the name Homo sapiens as a species name in the 10th edition of his work Systema Naturae although without a scientific description of the species-specific characteristics. Since the great apes were considered the closest relatives of human beings, based on morphological similarity, in the 19th century, it was speculated that the closest living relatives to humans were chimpanzees and gorilla, based on the natural range of these creatures, it was surmised that humans shared a common ancestor with African apes and that fossils of these ancestors would be found in Africa; the science arguably began in the late 19th century when important discoveries occurred that led to the study of human evolution. The discovery of the Neanderthal in Germany, Thomas Huxley's Evidence as to Man's Place in Nature, Charles Darwin's The Descent of Man were all important to early paleoanthropological research.
The modern field of paleoanthropology began in the 19th century with the discovery of "Neanderthal man", with evidence of so-called cave men. The idea that humans are similar to certain great apes had been obvious to people for some time, but the idea of the biological evolution of species in general was not legitimized until after Charles Darwin published On the Origin of Species in 1859. Though Darwin's first book on evolution did not address the specific question of human evolution—"light will be thrown on the origin of man and his history," was all Darwin wrote on the subject—the implications of evolutionary theory were clear to contemporary readers. Debates between Thomas Huxley and Richard Owen focused on the idea of human evolution. Huxley convincingly illustrated many of the similarities and differences between humans and apes in his 1863 book Evidence as to Man's Place in Nature. By the time Darwin published his own book on the subject, Descent of Man, it was a well-known interpretation of his theory—and the interpretation which made the theory controversial.
Many of Darwin's original supporters balked at the idea that human beings could have evolved their boundless mental capacities and moral sensibilities through natural selection. Prior to the general acceptance of Africa as the root of genus Homo, 19th-century naturalists sought the origin of humans in Asia. So-called "dragon bones" from Chinese apothecary shops were known, but it was not until the early 20th century that German paleontologist, Max Schlosser, first described a single human tooth from Beijing. Although Schlosser was cautious, identifying the tooth only as "? Anthropoide g. et sp. indet?," he was hopeful that future work would discover a new anthropoid in China. Eleven years the Swedish geologist Johan Gunnar Andersson was sent to China as a mining advisor and soon developed an interest in "dragon bones", it was he who, in 1918, discovered the sites around Zhoukoudian, a village about 50 kilometers southwest of Beijing. However, because of the sparse nature of the initial finds, the site was abandoned.
Work did not resume until 1921, when the Austrian paleontologist, Otto Zdansky, fresh with his doctoral degree from Vienna, came to Beijing to work for Andersson. Zdansky conducted short-term excavations at Locality 1 in 1921 and 1923, recovered only two teeth of significance that he subsequently described, cautiously, as "? Homo sp.". With that done, Zdansky suspended all fieldwork. News of the fossil hominin teeth delighted the scientific community in Beijing, plans for developing a larger, more systematic project at Zhoukoudian were soon formulated. At the epicenter of excitement was Davidson Black, a Canadian-born anatomist working at Peking Union Medical College. Black shared Andersson’s interest, as well as his view that central Asia was a promising home for early humankind. In late 1926, Black submitted a proposal to the Rockefeller Foundation seeking financial support for systematic excavation at Zhoukoudian and the establishment of an institute for the study of human biology in China.
The Zhoukoudian Project came into existence in the spring of 1927, two years the Cenozoic Research Laboratory of the Ge
European early modern humans
European early modern humans in the context of the Upper Paleolithic in Europe refers to the early presence of anatomically modern humans in Europe. The term "early modern" is taken to include fossils of the Bohunician, Aurignacian, Gravettian and Magdalenian, extending throughout the Last Glacial Maximum, covering the period of 48,000 to 15,000 years ago referred to as the Cro-Magnon; the earliest sites in Europe dated 48,000 years ago are Riparo Mochi, Geissenklösterle, Isturitz The upper limit of 15,000 marks the transition to the European Mesolithic, depending on the region given in the range of 12,000 to 10,000 years ago. Use of "Cro-Magnon" is to times after the beginning of the Aurignacian proper, c. 37 to 35 ka. Genetically, EEMH form an isolated population between 37 and 14 ka, with significant Mesolithic admixture from the Near East and Caucasus beginning around 14 ka; the description as "modern" is used as contrasting with the "archaic" Neanderthals who lived within Europe from 400,000 to 37,000 years ago.
The term EEMH is equivalent to Cro-Magnon Man, or Cro-Magnons, a term derived from the Cro-Magnon rock shelter in southwestern France, where the first EEMH were found in 1868. Louis Lartet proposed Homo sapiens fossilis as the systematic name for "Cro-Magnon Man". W. K. Gregory proposed the subspecies name Homo sapiens cro-magnonensis. In literature published since the late 1990s, the term EEMH is preferred over the common name Cro-Magnon, which has no formal taxonomic status, as it refers neither to a species or subspecies nor to an archaeological phase or culture. Another known remains of EEMH can be dated to before 40,000 years ago with some certainty: those from Grotta del Cavallo in Italy, from Kents Cavern in England, have been radiocarbon dated to 45–41 ka. A number of other early fossils are dated close to or just after 40ka, including fossils found in Romania and Russia; the Siberian Ust'-Ishim man, dated to 45 ka, was not geographically found in Europe, indeed is not part of the "Western Eurasian" genetic lineage, but intermediate between the Western Eurasian and East Asian lineages.
The EEMH lineage in the European Mesolithic is known as "West European Hunter-Gatherer". These mesolithic hunter-gatherers emerge after the end of the LGM ca. 15 ka and are described as more gracile than the Upper Paleolithic Cro-Magnons. The WHG lineage survives in contemporary Europeans, albeit only as a minor contribution overwhelmed by the Neolithic and Bronze Age migrations. While anatomically modern humans may have been present in West Asia since before 250 ka, modern non-Africans descend from the main successful out of Africa expansion at around 65 ka; this movement was an offshoot of the rapid expansion within East Africa associated with mtDNA haplogroup L3. EEMH are associated with mtDNA haplogroup N widespread in Central Asia, with Y-chromosomal haplogroup IJK. AMH are estimated to have interbred with Neanderthals during about 65 to 47 ka, most in West Asia, it is this basal West Eurasian lineage. Neanderthals became extinct shortly after this time being outcompeted or killed by the advancing EEMH.
Admixture with Neanderthals appears to cease entirely after 45 ka, in spite of several millennia of continued co-existence of AMH and Neanderthals in Europe. There are two main hypotheses as to the route taken by the earliest AMH entering Europe, following the Danubian corridor or the Mediterranean coast along the Balkans. Support for either hypothesis relies on accurate dating of the earliest known fossils in the region. High-precision dating of the earliest Proto-Aurignacian sites in Europe, Riparo Mochi, Geissenklösterle, Isturitz, have yielded dates of close to 42 ka, indicating that EEMH spread throughout Western Europe rapidly. EEMH sites in Europe earlier than 37 ka are termed Proto-Aurignacian; the Aurignacian proper, the stage associated with the original Cro-Magnon find, appears to have developed within Europe. It lasts from 37 ka until about 28 ka; the Gravettian is the European culture preceding the LGM, about 28 to 22 ka, but the early Gravettian overlaps with the Aurignacian, from as early as 33 ka.
During the LGM proper, beginning about 22 ka, there are two main refugia, the Solutrean in Southwestern Europe, the Epi-Gravettian in Italy and Southeastern Europe. With advancing deglaciation, after about 17 ka, finds associated with the Magdalenian, are transitional to the mesolithic hunter-gatherer populations; the European Mesolithic is taken to begin after about 14 ka. Cro-Magnons were anatomically modern, straight limbed and tall compared to the contemporaneous Neanderthals, they are thought to have stood on average 1.66 to 1.71 m tall. They differ from modern-day humans in having a more robust physique and a larger cranial capacity; the Cro-Magnons had low skulls, with wide faces, robust mandibles, blunted chins, narrow noses, moderate to no prognathism. A distinctive trait was the rectangular eye orbits, similar to those of modern Ainu people, their vocal apparatus was like that of present-day humans and they could speak. Their brain capacity was about 1,600 cc, larger than the average for modern Europeans.
Mitochondrial DNA analysis places the early European population as sister group to the East Asian groups of the Upper Paleolithic, dating the divergence to some 50,000 years ago. Analysis of ancient DNA of EEMH and Mesolithic fossils suggests that alleles related to the light skin characteristic of mode
The Upper Paleolithic is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age. Broadly, it dates to between 50,000 and 10,000 years ago, according to some theories coinciding with the appearance of behavioral modernity and before the advent of agriculture. Anatomically modern humans are believed to have emerged out of Africa around 200,000 years ago, although these lifestyles changed little from that of archaic humans of the Middle Paleolithic, until about 50,000 years ago, when there was a marked increase in the diversity of artefacts; this period coincides with the expansion of modern humans from Africa throughout Asia and Eurasia, which contributed to the extinction of the Neanderthals. The Upper Paleolithic has the earliest known evidence of organized settlements, in the form of campsites, some with storage pits. Artistic work blossomed, with cave painting, petroglyphs and engravings on bone or ivory; the first evidence of human fishing is found, from artefacts in places such as Blombos cave in South Africa.
More complex social groupings emerged, supported by more varied and reliable food sources and specialized tool types. This contributed to increasing group identification or ethnicity; the peopling of Australia most took place before c. 60 ka. Europe was peopled after c. 45 ka. Anatomically modern humans are known to have expanded northward into Siberia as far as the 58th parallel by about 45 ka; the Upper Paleolithic is divided during about 25 to 15 ka. The peopling of the Americas occurred during this time, with East and Central Asia populations reaching the Bering land bridge after about 35 ka, expanding into the Americas by about 15 ka. In Western Eurasia, the Paleolithic eases into the so-called Epipaleolithic or Mesolithic from the end of the LGM, beginning 15 ka; the Holocene glacial retreat begins 11.7 ka, falling well into the Old World Epipaleolithic, marking the beginning of the earliest forms of farming in the Fertile Crescent. Both Homo erectus and Neanderthals used the same crude stone tools.
Archaeologist Richard G. Klein, who has worked extensively on ancient stone tools, describes the stone tool kit of archaic hominids as impossible to categorize, it was as if the Neanderthals made stone tools, were not much concerned about their final forms. He argues that everywhere, whether Asia, Africa or Europe, before 50,000 years ago all the stone tools are much alike and unsophisticated. Firstly among the artefacts of Africa, archeologists found they could differentiate and classify those of less than 50,000 years into many different categories, such as projectile points, engraving tools, knife blades, drilling and piercing tools; these new stone-tool types have been described as being distinctly differentiated from each other. The invaders referred to as the Cro-Magnons, left many sophisticated stone tools and engraved pieces on bone and antler, cave paintings and Venus figurines; the Neanderthals continued to use Mousterian stone tool technology and Chatelperronian technology. These tools disappeared from the archeological record at around the same time the Neanderthals themselves disappeared from the fossil record, about 40,000 cal BP.
Settlements were located in narrow valley bottoms associated with hunting of passing herds of animals. Some of them may have been occupied year round, though more they appear to have been used seasonally. Hunting was important, caribou/wild reindeer "may well be the species of single greatest importance in the entire anthropological literature on hunting."Technological advances included significant developments in flint tool manufacturing, with industries based on fine blades rather than simpler and shorter flakes. Burins and racloirs were used to work bone and hides. Advanced darts and harpoons appear in this period, along with the fish hook, the oil lamp and the eyed needle; the changes in human behavior have been attributed to changes in climate, encompassing a number of global temperature drops. These led to a worsening of the bitter cold of the last glacial period; such changes may have reduced the supply of usable timber and forced people to look at other materials. In addition, flint may not have functioned as a tool.
Some scholars argue that the appearance of complex or abstract language made these behavior changes possible. The complexity of the new human capabilities hints that humans were less capable of planning or foresight before 40,000 years, while the emergence of cooperative and coherent communication marked a new era of cultural development; the climate of the period in Europe saw dramatic changes, included the Last Glacial Maximum, the coldest phase of the last glacial period, which lasted from about 26.5 to 19 kya, being coldest at the end, before a rapid warming. During the Maximum, most of Northern Europe was covered by an ice-sheet, forcing human populations into the areas known as Last Glacial Maximum refugia, including modern Italy and the Balkans, parts of the Iberian Peninsula and areas around the Black Sea; this period saw cultures such as the Solutrean in Spain. Human life may have continued on top of the ice sheet, but we know next to nothing about it, little about the human life that preceded the European glaciers.
In the early part of the period, up to a